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1.1 Introduction

Management of Occupational Safety and Health has become a very vital issue because of the technological advancements and deployment of newer technology, complex and hazardous processes. The threat of occupational hazards, particularly in the chemical and petrochemical industries is of great concern, specially for the people who are responsible for policy planning and designing of instruments and other interventions for protecting the large workforce in the country. The major problem faced by the policy planners is the non-availability of timely information on vital areas such as occupational injuries and diseases, infrastructure available at the unit and the state level for taking up awareness, promotional and developmental programs. Directorate General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes is relied upon by Central and State Governments for a variety of information pertaining to occupational safety and health. At present the facilities available in our country do not allow as quick a response as is often needed. Further, substantial increase in the number of registered factories, introduction of sophisticated modern technology and complexities in plant and equipment design have brought many constraints in the area of Occupational Safety and Health policy making at national level. For planning of effective strategy on control of accidents and ill-health, timely and reliable information is vital.

The Ministry of Labour has been deeply concerned over the non-availability of occupational safety and health information for policy planning. To overcome this deficiency the scheme “Setting up of a Data Bank-cum-Information Centre” at Central Labour Institute was proposed during the 7th Five Year Plan. The scheme was approved by the Planning Commission in the 7th Plan.

The scheme was continued in the modified form during the 8th Plan period with the title “Development of Safety Health Information System and Data Bank”. During this period information systems were installed at the Central Labour Institute and the 3 Regional Labour Institutes. Data bases in the area of Major Accident Hazard Installations, hazardous chemicals, national specialist, ship inspection, Parliament question, FAS proforma, Factories Act Amendment, Awards, etc. were developed. Information on Material Safety Data Sheets were disseminated to the industries and agencies related to occupational safety and health.

During the 9th Plan period DGFASLI website was launched. Abstracts of safety and health technical reports of DGFASLI were prepared, a national directory of organization profile was compiled, the statutes related to safety and health were computerized and ported on the website. Publication of INDOSHNEWS a quarterly news bulletin of this organization was started and till date 14 issues have been published, work related to translation of International Chemical Safety Cards in three Indian languages—Hindi, Tamil and Bangla was initiated with a view to make the cards available on the website.

1.2 The Project

The present Plan Scheme “Development of Safety Health Information System and Data Bank” being operated during the 10th Plan envisages creation of the National Inventory on Occupational Safety and Health Information to widen the information base and making available the information at one source to help in the activities specially those related to policy planning directed at improving the occupational safety and health of the workers.

The national inventory besides having OSH information state-wise collected through respective State Inspectorate will also include the following:

  • Abstracts of OSH national literature
  • OS H literature acquired from abroad
  • Factory Advice Service databases
  • Dock Safety related databases
  • Details of MAH installations, hazardous chemicals, national specialists, etc.
  • Scanner based data base on accident events, etc.
1.3 The Objectives of the Project

To develop all the five Labour Institutes under the DGFASLI Organisation as the action resource centers for collection, processing and dissemination of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Information with a view to create an Inventory on OSH Information for the prevention of Occupational Injuries and health problems in the country

1.4 The Scope of the Project

The proposed scheme will have the following components:

  • Development of Occupational Safety and Health national inventory and connectivity between State Factory Inspectorate and DGFASLI. The inventory will cover information pertaining to manufacturing activities covered under the Factories Act 1948, Occupational injuries and diseases in the sector, management of OSH at unit and state level.
  • Creation of occupational safety and health information action resource centers at five labour Institutes by providing them with computer hardware and software facilities and also by involving other organizations specialized in the field of safety, health and environment to participate in the project.
  • Human Resource Development of personnel attached to action resource centers.
  • Dissemination of information through electronic media using the latest information technology for creating public awareness about safety, health and environment.
  • Dissemination of information through conventional media to reach the large workforce including decision makers not having access to the information technology. This will include publication of newsletter, technical reports, safety cards etc.
  • Creation of databases containing information on handling of containers and dangerous goods, hazardous installations, inland container depots, minor and intermediate ports, competent persons, panel of doctors in ports, etc. Dock Safety division will participate by way of providing raw data collected from the field.
  • Developing infrastructure for occupational safety and health e-self learning centers at all action resource centre in the labour institutes.
  • Effective implementation of the 12 point Minimum Agenda for E-Governance. This includes providing computers upto the level of Section Officers, setting up of LAN, training of all staff on computers, procure and use office automation software, website updation and maintenance, developing software packages for delivery of services and information, etc.
  • As information technology is developing very fast, the latest hardware and software available during the plan period will be acquired.
1.5 The Methodology

In order to create a national inventory of OSH information, the following activities are envisaged to be carried out in each State:

  • Identification of support information
  • Location of sources of information
  • Creation of suitable mechanism for information collection
  • Selection and use of appropriate technology for processing and storage of information.
  • Development of procedures for user friendly dissemination of information.
  • Development of suitable infrastructure for achieving the above.
1.6 The Project Team

The various activities under the Project are being carried out by the five Labour Institutes as nodal agencies. The Regional Labour Institute, Chennai, is the nodal agency for the four Southern States of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Pondicherry.

The State of Tamilnadu was taken up for the collection of data during the first year of the 10th Plan period 2002-2003. The States of Pondicherry, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh will be taken up for detailed study in the subsequent years.

A Task Force comprising of the following officers and staff of Regional Labour Institute, Chennai and the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories, Chennai, was constituted for carrying out the above mentioned activities:

I. Regional LabourInstitute, Chennai

  • Shri G.M.E.K. Raj, Director-in-charge
  • Shri P. Nagarajan, Deputy Director (Safety) - Coordinator
  • Shri B.S. Chavan, Addl.Asst.Director (Safety)
  • Shri B. Chenchal Rao, Technical Asst.
  • Smt. Kanthimathi Natarajan, Steno.

II. Inpsectorate of Factories, Govt.of Tamilnadu, Chennai

  • Shri R. Thiruvengadam, C.I.F.
  • Shri V. Selvaraj, Deputy C.I.F.
  • Shri G. Mahalingam, Joint C.I.F.
  • Smt. R. Premakumari, Admn.Officer
  • Smt. P.N. Bharathi, Statistical Inspector
1.7 Activities under the Project

The present project aims at studying the existing system of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases at unit, district and state level in the State of Tamil Nadu, identifying the areas for improving and establishing the system, which is in line with the systems existing in other countries.

The activities of the project have been divided in the following categories:

  • Background information about the state of Tamilnadu - Deals with the demographic and geographic characteristics of the state of Tamilnadu, population in different districts and major occupations of the people.
  • Economic activities - Deals with the various aspects of economic sectors in the state, their value of production, employment generated and contribution to the GDP.
  • Activities in manufacturing sector -Deals with the different activities carried out in the manufacturing sector as per the National Industrial Code, value of production, employment generation, etc.
  • Occupational injuries and diseases - Deals with the analysis of the occupational injuries – fatal and non-fatal and cases of occupational diseases in the manufacturing sector.
  • Management of occupational safety and health - Deals with the infrastructure and resources available at the unit level and at the state level for managing the crucial issue of occupational safety and health.
  • Resources available and needed for the management of occupational safety and health -
    Based on the analysis of occupational injuries and diseases and the capabilities available, an attempt is made to assess the resources required for the better management of occupational safety and health in the State of Tamil Nadu.

Background information


2.1. General Information:

Modern Tamil Nadu has emerged from Madras Presidency of British administration. At the time of Independence on 15 August, 1947, Madras state comprised of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and some territorial areas of present Kerala. In 1953, the Madras state bifurcated into two states, viz. Andhra Pradesh comprising of Telugu speaking areas and Madras state comprising of Tamil speaking areas. Under the States reorganization Act, 1956, the Madras state was further divided into the states of Kerala, Mysore and Madras. In August, 1968, Madras state was renamed as Tamilnadu. The territory of Tamilnadu stretches from 8°-5’ to 13°-35’ North latitude and from 76°-15’ to 80°- 20’ East latitude.

2.2 Land Area

The land area of the state of Tamil Nadu is 1,30,058 Sq. km. and the population is 6,21,10,839 as per 2001 Census. The land use pattern of the state is given in Table – 2.1.

TABLE – 2.1


Sr. No.ClassificationArea in Hectares
1Geographical Area
 A. By Professional Survey12991322
 B. By Village Papers12991322
3Barren and unculturable475850
4Non-agricultural uses1978320
5Culturable waste348640
6Permanent and other grazing land122585
7Land under miscellaneous tree crops242990
8Current fallow lands1085385
9Other fallow lands1139522
10Net area sown5464376

Source: Statistical Hand Book of Tamil Nadu –2001.

2.2 Coastal area

The coastal line of Tamilnadu State is about 1076 km long and a continental shelf of 41,412 Sq.Km. The extent of inland water sources is 3.71 lakh ha. which include 52,000 ha. of reservoirs, 56,000 ha. of brackish water area and 2,62,760 ha. of other sources. As a result, fishing is one of the important economic activities in the State.

2.3 Administration

The State has a unicameral legislation having a legislative assembly of 234 members. The State is divided into 30 administrative districts. In addition, there are 206 talukas, 73 Revenue Divisions, 385 development blocks, 102 municipalities, 6 municipal corporations, 611 Town Panchayats, 12619 Village Panchayats.

2.4 Demographic Context

The various demographic data in respect of the state of Tamil Nadu are given below:

2.4.1 Population

The total population of Tamilnadu is 6,21,10,839 with 3,12,68,654 males and 3,08,42,185 females as per 2001 Census. It has unique distinction of having an almost equal sex ratio of 986 female per thousand males. The number of literates in the state is of the order of 40624398 (73.47%). The density of population is 478 persons per Sq. km. Almost 60% (34869286) of the population is living in the rural area and 40% (27241553) in cities.

2.4.2 Language

The official language of the State is Tamil, although large number of people are conversant with English.

2.4.3 Birth rate

The State has combined birth rate of 19.3 with urban birth rate of 18.2 and rural birth rate of 19.8.

2.4.4 Death rate

The State has combined death rate of 8 with urban death rate of 6.6 and rural death rate of 8.7. The life expectancy amongst male is 64.85 years and that among female population is 65.20 years.

2.4.5 Infant Mortality Rate

The State has a combined infant mortality rate of 52 with urban infant mortality rate of 39 and rural mortality rate of 58.

2.4.6 Literacy rate

Tamil Nadu is the good literate amongst all the States of India. The total literacy rate of the State is 73.47% with male literacy rate of 82.33% and female literacy rate of 64.55%. Total literates in the state as per 2001 Census is 40624398.

2.4.7 Working population

The working population of the State is 27.812 million comprising of workers in organised and un-organised sectors, cultivators, agricultural laborers and house hold workers as per census of India 2001.

2.4.8 Unemployment

The number of job seekers in the employment exchanges of Tamil Nadu was about 4.37 million at the end of year 2000.

2.4.9 Per-Capita Income

The Per-Capita Income of the state is Rs. 21229 at current prices and Rs. 12954 at constant prices for the year 2000-2001 (base year 1993-94). The Net State Domestic Product at current prices is Rs. 131,73,056 lakhs and Rs. 8038435 lakhs at constant prices.

2.5 Economic Scenario

The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) which is the aggregate income of the state increased from Rs. 80843 crores in 1998-1999 to 86872 crores in 1999-2000 registering an impressive growth rate of 7.46% in real terms (1993-94 prices). The first three years of the 9th five year plan had posted an average growth of 7.21% against the target of 7% approved by the National Development Council for the plan. This order of growth rate achieved by Tamil Nadu was higher than the GDP growth rate of 5.9% recorded at the national level. The sectoral distribution of state income during 1999-2000 is given in Table 2.2.


  Income(Rs. in Crores)% change over the previous year
 1. Agriculture Allied Activities13824(-) 5.80
 2. Forestry logging4899.40
 3. Fishing659(-) 0.90
 4. Mining Quarrying4151.22
 TOTAL15387(-) 5.00
 1. Manufacturing - registered1350814.28
 2. Manufacturing unregistered744413.74
 3. Electricity, Gas Water Supply26035.43
 4. Construction56193.54
 1. Trade, Hotel Restaurants121077.21
 2. Railways6499.08
 3. Transport by other means409810.37
 4. Storage715.97
 5. Communication249410.06
 6. Banking and Insurance748712.30
 Real estate, Ownership of dwelling Business Services466110.19
 8. Public Administration423414.74
 9. Other Services651010.75

Source:Tamil Nadu-An Economic Appraisal (1999-2000)

Manufacturing sector


3.1. Manufacturing Sector :

The Industrial Sector in Tamilnadu made a remarkable recovery during 1999-2000 with the index of Industrial production (IIP) registering a growth rate of 13.1% (as against the national growth rate of 6.7%) as compared to the negative growth rate recorded during the preceding two years. This recovery was possible by the growth of 14.9% by the manufacturing Sector accounting for 92.01% of the General Growth Index.

In Tamilnadu, the Manufacturing Sector employed about 18% of the total workforce as against the 13% of the total workforce employed in the Sector in the country.

The performance of the Manufacturing Sector at two digit level for the year 1997-98 to 1999-2000 is given in Table 3.1. The performance of the Manufacturing Sector during 1999-2000 is commendable compared to its performance in the earlier two years when the overall growth was negative. The sub-groups ‘Food Products” (26.9%), ‘Cotton Textiles’ (41.4%) and ‘Leather Products’ (37.6%) were mainly responsible for this growth rate.

TABLE – 3.1
NIC CodeSub-Group1997-98(%)1998-99(%)1999-2000 (%)
20-21Food Products15.68.126.9
22Beverages, Tobacco, Tobacco Products(-) 5.010.712.7
23Cotton Textiles3.4(-) 21.841.4
24Wool Silk Synthetic Fibre Textiles(-) 5.5(-) 31.723.5
26Textile Products other than Mills36.58.88.2
28Paper Paper Products, Printing Publishing and Allied Industries8.10.9(-) 0.1
29Leather Products(-) 16.321.637.6
30Chemicals Chemical Products3.514.53.1
31Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum Coal Products(-) 3.7(-) 15.11.0
32Non-metallic Mineral Products(-) 0.7(-) 3.729.1
33Basic Metal and Alloy Industries13.5(-) 21.719.4
34Metal Products Parts except Machinery(-) 21.3(-) 6.224.6
35-36Machinery and Equipment other than Transport Equipment(-) 3.6(-) 10.0(-) 5.1
37Transport Equipment and Parts1.4(-) 3.0(-) 1.2
38Other Manufacturing Industries(-) 5.511.522.2
39Manufacturing(-) 1.0(-) 4.614.9
3.2 Small Scale Industries Sector

A majority of the registered factories belongs to the small scale category and accounted for about 50 % of the total number of registered factories and employed around 27 % of the total industrial workers.

In the small scale sector, the contribution to the value of industrial production by majority of industries as on 31st March, 2001 was as given in Table-3.2.

3.3 Khadi and Village Industries Sector

Village industries based on locally available resources are promoted by the Khadi and Village Industries Board to generate employment at the doorsteps of the village artisans with the lowest possible investment of capital. The village industry has substantial employment potential making use of locally available raw materials. The contribution of some of the major industries in the Khadi and Village Industries Sector during 2000-2001 was as given in Table - 3.3.

3.4 Major Industrial Centers

The distribution of working factories in major districts during the year 2000 is given below. It may be observed that Coimbatore district is having largest number of working factories followed by Chennai, Thiruvallur, Virudungar and Madurai districts. Thoothukudi, Erode, Salem, Vellore, Kancheepuram are the other major Industrial Centres. The number of factories by Districts and the employment therein are shown in Table-3.4.

TABLE – 3.2


NIC CodeDetails of IndustryNo. of UnitsValue in LakhsEmplo-yment
20-21Food Products2150141912022012000
22Beverages and Tobacco Products70141105101400
23Cotton Textiles8001100222806000
24Wool Silk Synthetic3001282460360
25Jute, Pump, Rest Products659220054
26Hosiery and Readymade Garments105001883012488896000
27Wood and Wood Products18002468103109000
28Paper and Paper Products12002196405636000
29Leather Industries5001200421006500
30Rubber and Ruber Products9001500242005600
31Chemical and Chemicalm Products6001898451207200
32Non-Metallic Products12001915320209000
33Basic Metal Products290912349952610
34Metal Products11001900359957700
35Machinery Parts except Electrical15003100650106000
37Transport Equipment84023026348400
38Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries8250536228895050640
3.5 Industrial Disputes, Strikes, Lockouts And Mandays Lost:

Industrial disputes in the state are declining over the years. A total number of 10,173 industrial disputes were received in the year 2000, out of which 10,003 cases were settled in the same year. This resulted in 94 strikes and 41 lockouts. The total mandays lost due to strikes and lockouts 10,59,791 and 9,41,238 respectively during the year. There were no Gheraos during the year under report. The summary details are given in Table-3.5.

TABLE – 3.3


Sl.No.IndustryProduction ( Lakhs)Sales ( Lakhs)Earnings ( Lakhs)Employ-ment(in Lakh)
2Mineral Based Industries3726.742838.811901.201.36
3Forest Based Industries2909.383226.85710.760.34
4Polymer Chemical Based Industries5788.956539.851980.930.67
5Agro Based Industries27834.0330887.5615754.037.11
6Engineering Industries Non-Conventional Engineering6346.116714.661925.150.47
7Textile Industries1560.641434.63516.770.08
8Service Industries464.29-435.810.06


Sl. No.DistrictNo. of Registered FactoriesNo. of Working FactoriesAverage No. of workers including estimated workers
13The Nilgiris26123415,168
TABLE – 3.5


1.Number Of Registration Of Trade Unions600
2.Industrial Disputes 
 a. Disputes received under Industrial Disputes Act10173
 b. Disputes settled10003
 a. Number of Strikes94
 b. Number of Mandays lost1059791
 a. Mumber of lockouts41
 b. Number of workers involved12018
 c. Number of Mandays lost941238
 a. Number of GheraosNIL
 b. Number of workers involvedNIL
 c. Number of Mandays lostNIL

Manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948


4.1 General

During 1999-2000 the Manufacturing Sector is the largest economic sector in the State of Tamilnadu contributing 13.63% to 21.80% to the state income. It covers units those registered under the Factories Act, 1948 as well as those not registered (8.17%) As per the provisions of the Act, a manufacturing unit is to be registered if manufacturing process is carried on with the aid of power and 10 or more persons are employed or manufacturing process is carried on without the aid of power and 20 or more persons are employed.

The State Government is also empowered to notify any unit carrying on manufacturing process as a factory irrespective of number of persons employed therein.

4.2 Registered Factories

As on 31.12.2000 there were 29080 registered factories, including 31825 working factories in the state of Tamil Nadu. State Government. The break-up of registered and working factories under various sections of the Factories Act, 1948 is given in Table- 4.1.




Sl. No.ClassificationNo. of Factories
1.Registered Factories
a) under section 2(m)(i)26,534
b) under section 2(m)(ii)1,130
c) under section 851,416
2.Working Factories 
a) under section 2(m)(i)21,086
b) under section 2(m)(ii)996
c) under section 851,375
d) Section 2(cb)3,295
e) Section 875,073
4.3 Employment in registered factories:

The number of registered factories and the details of employment therein sector-wise is given in Table-4.2.

TABLE – 4.2


Sr.No.SectionPublic SectorPrivate Sector
No. of registered factoriesNo. of working factoriesApprox. No. of workers employedNo. of registered factoriesNo. of working factoriesApprox. No. of workers employed
1.2 m (i)114110251791262539320061935279
2.2 m (ii)53104112599363816
4.4 Man-hours and Man-days Worked

The details of man-hours worked and the man-days worked in both the government and non-government factories are given Table-4.3.




Total No. of Working FactoriesTotal No. of Working Factories Sub-mitting ReturnsTotal No. Of Manhours Worked Inclusive Of Overtime HoursTotal No. of Mandays Worked During The Year
MenWomenChildren (Adolescent)Total 
4.6 Hazardous Units

As per the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948, any unit carrying on manufacturing process which has potential to cause material impairment to the health of the workers or pollution of the general environment, is termed as a unit carrying on hazardous process. Similarly, State Government is also empowered to declare any operation or process as dangerous, if in its opinion the process or operation has a potential to cause a serious bodily injury, poisoning or diseases to persons exposed to such operation or processes. The details of hazardous units and the number of workers employed therein is given below.

1.No. of Hazardous units5073
2.No. of workers employed256018
4.7 Major Accident Hazards Units

The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 framed under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 provides for classification/ categorization of factories as hazardous installations according to level of hazards involved. There are three such categories in which a factory can be classified into, to comply with the different sets of standards/provisions as contained therein. The middle or upper tier requirements are applicable to the factories handling specified chemicals beyond certain threshold limits/quantities. These are generally referred to as MAH installation/MAH units.

There are 100 MAH units identified in the state of Tamil Nadu. Manali, Neyveli, Cuddalore, Ranipet, Mettur and Thoothukudi are the six major industrial centers where a cluster of MAH units are situated.

4.8 Hazardous Chemicals used

Under the MSIHC Rules, 1989 threshold quantities for middle tier requirements and upper tier requirements for certain chemicals have been specified. The middle tier requirements include notification of major accident, preparation of on-site emergency plan, notification of site, disclosure of information, etc.

Occupational injuries in manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948


5.1 General

The state of Tamil Nadu has 29080 registered factories covered under the Factories Act 1948. In the year 2000 there were 2077 reportable 38 were fatal and 2039 non-fatal injuries.

For The industries were The fatal and non-fatal injuries have been dealt with separately and a number of injuries have been taken for each group of industries.

5.2 Non-Fatal accidents

A total number of 2039 Non-Fatal injuries have been reported in the year 2000. These accidents have been analysed according to industry-wise, cause-wise, sex-wise, age-wise, etc.

5.2.1 Industry-wise Accidents

The industry-wise of accidents for the years 2000, 2001, and 2002 as per NIC 1998 is given in Table 5.1. It may be seen from the Table that 25.59% of the total accidents were in the manufacture of textiles followed by 12.54% in the manufacture of motor vehicles and trailers and 10.76% in the manufacture of machinery and equipment.

TABLE –5.1
111Extraction of crude petroleum Natural gas, service activities incidental to Oil gas extraction-0-010.04
213Mining of metal ores-050.2350.23
314Other mining and quarrying-090.42140.65
415Manufacture of food products beverages1517.40924.291416.60
516Manufacture of tobacco products180.8820.0910.04
617Manufacture of textiles41620.4045121.2053725.59
718Manufacture of wearing apparel, dressing dyeing of fur130.64110.5130.14
819Tanning and dressing of leather231.12241.12482.24
920Manufacture if wood wood products40.1930.1490.42
1021Manufacture of paper paper products100.49251.16200.98
1122Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media321.56150.7060.28
1223Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products371.81683.1780.37
1324Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products1125.491014.171517.06
1425Mfg. of rubber plastic products663.23261.21371.73
1526Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products1246.08753.50713.32
1627Manufacture of basic metals1798.77864.01602.80
1728Manufacture of fabricated metal products except machinery equipts1306.37874.061165.43
1829Manufacture of machinery and equipment not else were1135.541979.2023010.76
1930Manufacture of office, accounting and computer machinery110.53190.88-0
2031Manufacture of electrical machinery1447.06411.91432.01
2132Manufacture of radio, TV, communication equipts apparatus442.15110.5110.04
2233Manufacture of medical, precision and optical instruments, watches clocks.351.71221.02110.51
2334Mfg. of motor vehicles trailers1467.1629313.6926812.54
2435Manufacture of other transport equipment1014.95214101989.26
2536Manufacture of furniture not else-were291.42592.75361.68
2740Electricity, gas water supply241.1780.37261.21
2841Collection, purification and distribution of water90.44-010.04
2950Repair of motor vehicles, motor cycles, personal house hold goods572.91482.24853.97
3060Land transport, transport via pipelines-090.4210.04
3190Sewage and reuse, disposal sanitation personnel service60.29-0-0

5.2.2 Causation-wise Accidents

The analysis of non-fatal accidents for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 are shown in Table 5.2. For the latest year 2002 for which the data are available, the accident causation “handling goods or articles” accounted for 500 (23.40%) out of 2136 accidents followed by 412 (19.28%) accidents under the causation “Others”, 155 (7.48%) under the causation “struck by falling body” and 154 (7.20%) under the causation “stepping on or striking against the objects”.

TABLE –5.2
1.101Prime movers, steam, gas other engines, electric motor (not electric shock)221.07180.84291.35
2.102Transmission machinery shifting100.49170.79120.56
3.103Transmission machinery, belt, ropes, pulley gearing391.91853.97703.27
4.104Lifting machinery261.27391.82150.70
5.105Machine tool for metal working – power press452.20452.10673.13
6.106Machine tool for metal working – others1135.601255.85894.36
7.107Wood working machinery – Circular saw30.1430.1420.09
8.108Wood working machinery – Planning machine20.0910.0420.09
9.109Wood working machinery – Vertical spindal moulding m/c.40.1920.09-0
10.110Wood working machinery – Others170.8380.37-0
11.111Roller calendars, mixers etc., not for metal working – vip accidents.452.20241.12251.17
12.112Machinery moved by power – others1326.47853.97773.80
13.113Railways- power shunted20.09130.6030.14
14.114Railways-Manually shunted10.0420.0960.28
15.115Other vehicles (excluding hand trucks, bogies etc.) – Driven by power60.29180.84160.74
16.116Other vehicles – manually handled50.24190.88170.79
20.120Other vehicles- Gasing90.4460.28190.88
21.121Molten metals, other hot/corrosive subs.512.50602.80452.10
22.122Machinery not moved by power – lifting machinery170.8390.42100.46
23.123Machinery not moved by power-others361.76311.44663.08
24.124Use of hand tools1296.32954.541075.00
25.125Struck by falling body1849.021928.971557.48
26.126Falling from height412.01663.08622.90
27.127Falling on the flat653.18964.48813.79
28.128Falling into pit, excavation etc.170.8380.37271.26
29.129Stopping on or stricking against object1527.551466.821547.20
30.130Handling goods or articles38418.8348522.6650023.40

5.2.3 Age-wise Accidents

The analysis of accidents age-wise for the years 2001, and 2002 is given in Table 5.3. It may be sent that people in the age group of 26-30 are meeting with more number of accidents, followed by the age group 41-45.

TABLE –5.3
Sr. No.Age(Yrs.)Number Of Accidents
1.18 – 2010664
2.21 – 25273309
3.26 – 30486347
4.31 – 35267330
5.36 – 40305308
6.41 – 45313342
7.46 – 50188213
8.Above 50202223

5.2.4 Body part-wise Accidents

The analysis of accidents body part-wise for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 is given in Table 5.4. The table

TABLE – 5.4

5.2.5 Sex-wise Accidents

The accident analysis Sex-wise for the years 2000 is given Table 5.5.



5.2 Fatal Accidents

Fatal injuries in the state of Tamil Nadu as reported in the Annual returns submitted by the factories for the year 2000 are 38. The 38 fatal injuries were analyzed as per the Indian Standards 3786 and the ILO Code of Practice for recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases. The analysis has been done industry-wise, cause-wise, agency- wise, nature of injury-wise, location of injury-wise, sex and age-wise.

TABLE – 5.6
S. No.Body PartNumber Of Accidents
TABLE –5.7
Sr. No.Causation No.DescriptionNo. Of Fatal Accidents
1102Transmission machinery shifting12.63
2103Transmission machinery, belt, ropes, pulley gearing513.56
3104Lifting machinery25.26
4111Roller calendars, mixers etc., not for metal working – vip accidents.25.26
8120Other vehicles – Gasing25.26
9125Struck by falling body25.26
10126Falling from height25.26
11129Stopping on or stricking against object410.53
TABLE –5.8
115Manufacture of food products beverages30
216Manufacture of tobacco products00
317Manufacture of textiles11
418Manufacture of wearing apparel, dressing dyeing of fur10
519Tanning and dressing of leather20
620Manufacture if wood wood products00
724Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products62
825Mfg. of rubber plastic products11
926Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products30
1027Manufacture of basic metals60
1128Manufacture of fabricated metal products except machinery equipments20
1231Manufacture of electrical machinery10
1334Mfg. of motor vehicles trailers50
1440Electricity, gas water supply10
1550Repair of motor vehicles, motor cycles, personal house hold goods10
5.3 Computation of Frequency Rates, Severity Rates and Incidence Rates

5.3.1 Frequency Rate

The Frequency Rate (FR) is calculated for the number of reportable The FR for 2077 accidents in all type of industries taken together is 0.80.

5.3.2 Severity Rate

The Severity Rate (SR) is calculated on the basis of man-days lost due to reportable injuries and man hours worked. The SR for 2077 accidents in all type of industries taken together is 16.26.

5.3.3 Incidence Rate

The general Incidence Rate (IR) is taken as the ratio of the number of injuries to the number of persons employed during the period of review and is expressed as per thousand persons employed. The IR for all type of injuries in the state of Tamil Nadu for the year 2000 is 1.75. Industry wise Accidents both fatal and non-fatal, Man-days lost, FR, SR and IR are as given in the Table –5.9 and 5.10.

TABLE - 5.9
YearNo. of working factoriesDaily average no. of workersNo. of AccidentsNo. of accidents per 1000 workersFrequency RateSeverity Rate
Fa-talNon- FatalTotal

TABLE – 5.10


NIC CodeFatalNon-FatalTotalAccidents in which the worker returned to work during the year 2000
NumberMan-days lost

Occupational diseases and poisoning in manufacturing activities



ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases defines occupational diseases as “a disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activity.” Under Section 89 of the Factories Act, 1948 where any worker in a factory contracts any of the diseases specified in the Third Schedule (Annexure-I), the manager of the factory shall send a notice thereof to such authorities and in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.

Also any medical practitioner attending on a person who is or has been employed in a factory and is suffering from diseases specified in the Third Schedule shall without delay send a report in writing to the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories.

In the state of Tamil Nadu no incidence of occupational diseases has been reported to the Chief Inspector of Factories under the Factories Act, 1948. However, the Employees State Insurance Corporation (ESIC), which deals with compensation to the workers for any loss while working in the factory has come across 5 cases of occupational diseases reported from the States of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry during the years 2000-2003 under the Employees State Insurance (ESI) Act, 1948. List of occupational diseases under the ESI Act, 1948 is given in Annexure-II.

There were 4 cases of Byssinosis, 1 case of Silicosis. The 3 cases of Byssinoiss have been reported from the Textile Industry and the lone case of Silicosis has been reported from the Ceramic industry.

Management of occupational safety and health at state level


8.1 Introduction

Management of safety and health at the state level is more complex than at the unit level. At unit level the problems are relatively simple and unit specific depending upon the type of industry. However at the state level the management of safety and health is not unit or industry specific and the instruments such as policies, legislation, etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues in all type of occupations. Apart from the Factories Act, 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities. These legislations are enforced by various state government authorities such as the Chief Inspector of Factories, the State Labour commissioner, etc.

Education and training plays an important role in management of safety and health at state level and thus cannot be neglected. Non-government organizations (NGOs), voluntary organization’s, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health are contributing in their own way towards the objective for giving the workers a safe and healthy work environment.

Safety and health at work is governed by a variety of statutes in the state depending on the nature of work place, manufacturing activity and specific aspects of safety and health. Some of the important statutes are given below :

  • The Factories Act,1948
  • The Tamil Nadu Factories Rules,1950
  • Indian Boilers Act,1923
  • Dangerous machines (Regulations) Act,1983
  • Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulations) Act,1986
  • Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules,1989
  • Control of Major Accident Hazards Rules, 1993
  • Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare)Regulations,1990
  • Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Rules, 1990
  • Building and other Construction Workers Act, 1986
  • Indian Electricity Act, 1923
  • Indian Electricity Rules, 1966
  • Indian Explosives Act, 1884
  • The Petroleum Act, 1934
  • Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels Rules, 1981.

Different departments of the Central Government and the State Government are entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes. The efforts of the enforcement agencies are also supplemented by other organization’s such as training and research institutions, employers associations, employees associations, etc. in promoting occupational safety and health in the state. A brief account of these organizations is given in the following paragraphs.

8.2 Regional Labour Institute, Chennai

8.2.1 Profile

The Directorate General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) formerly known as the Office of Chief Advisor of Factories was set up in Delhi in 1945 under the Ministry of Labour, Government of India. The Directorate General, Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) comprises Central Labour Institute, Mumbai, Regional Labour Institutes at Madras, Kanpur, Kolkatta and Faridabad.

The Regional Labour Institute, Chennai, was set up in the year 1960 with its Safety, Health and Welfare Centre located in a rented premises at Royapettah. All the activities and facilities of the Institute were then consolidated in its own premises at No.1, Sardar Patel Road, Adyar, Chennai.

The Regional Labour Institute, Chennai is equipped in the following areas:

  • Industrial Safety
  • Industrial Hygiene
  • Industrial Medicine
  • Major Accident Hazards Control
8.2.2 Facilities Available

The facilities available in the Regional Labour Institute, Chennai are:

  • Industrial Safety, Health & Welfare Center
  • Mobile Safety Exhibition
  • Library
  • Auditorium and Conference Hall
  • Hostel

The Industrial Safety Division aims at Achieving improvement in the working conditions and safety standards of factories and Docks through training, consultancy, field studies, surveys and other promotional activities. It has contributed to the following achievements:

  • Evolution of a Safety movement in the Country
  • Creation of national awareness on safety
  • Better Administration of the Factories Act through training of Inspectors of Factories and technical support.
  • Inplant training programmes on Safety, Audits, Surveys and Consultancy studies are part of the safety activity of this Institute.

The Industrial Hygiene Division is basically concerned with the improvement of Industrial work environment and comprises of Industrial Hygiene Laboratory (IHL) with all equipment related, to the division. The division undertakes various studies/syrvets, national projects and training courses to protect the health of industrial workers through identification, evaluation and control of occupational health hazards and advises the management on ways to meet the requirements. The division also organizes training courses in the areas of Industrial Hygiene for a specific group of industries. These training courses are offered to safety officers, chemists, supervisors and middle level managers in the identification and assessment and control of occupational hazards in their factories.

The Industrial Medicine Division aims to prevent and contain health hazards at the workplace brought in by industrialization. The hazards may arise from chemicals or from physical factors such as noise, heat, vibration and radiation. Occupational health studies and surveys covering particular industries like asbestos, dye-stuff, cement, chemical, engineering and port are carried out to assess the incidence of occupational diseases. Suitable> It also carries out training for medical officers and workers. The laboratory attached to the division has facilities for medical investigation, including visual acuity tests, audiometric evaluation and pulmonary function tests.

The MAHC division offers the services of conducting training courses, seminars and workshops on MAHC for senior executives, trade union leaders, senior government officials, safety officers, worker members of safety committee. Organize specialized training courses/workshops on Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study, pipeline safety, safety in process control and safety audit.

Industrial Safety, Sealth and Welfare Centre demonstrates methods, arrangements and appliances for promoting safety and health of workers. The Centre has models and exhibits regarding safety, health and welfare in the form of properly guarded machines, personal protective equipment, safe methods of material handling, light and colour schemes and other arrangements, for propagating the message of safety and health at workplaces. This Centre is opened to organized groups from industries and educational institutions.

Mobile Safety Exhibition: The Mobile Safety Exhibition was set up to carry message of safety right to the doorsteps of factories and docks. The exhibition van highlights the hazards in industrial processes, and the use of safety appliances and demonstrates the safeguards, which should be followed to prevent industrial accident.

The Workshop provides engineering support to the Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare Centre and Mobile Safety Exhibition Van by way of production and maintenance of Exhibits and Models.

The Library has about 6000 books and 2000 reports on the various disciplines dealt by this Institute. The library, though primarily meant for the faculty of the Institute, is also referred by people from industry, and post graduate students of professional courses. The Diploma students were allowed for reference and issue of books.

The Regional Labour Institute has an Art Section which is evolved in paintings of safety posters, maintaining the colour of safety equipment and other matter connected with the institute programmes.

The Institute has an Auditorium with a seating capacity of 300 persons is useful for conducting seminars, inaugural functions and all other functions by this Institute and given for other departments on request.

The Regional Labour Institute Hostel well furnished with rooms for are mostly occupied by the Diploma students, training participants and senior officers from Government Departments.

8.2.3 Diploma Course in Industrial Safety

The Diploma Course in Industrial Safety, a recognized Course by Directorate of Technical Education, Government of Tamilnadu, was conducted every year with a duration of 10 months. Lectures supplemented by discussions, laboratory work, visit to industrial establishments, seminars, films. On completion of the curriculum an examination is conducted by Board of Technical Examinations and successful candidates are awarded the Certificate.

The course is currently being conducted for the 22nd batch of students. So far, 729 students have undergone this course in 21 batches.

8.2.4 Activities

The institute undertakes training, research and consultancy activities in the field of Occupational Safety and Health. The details are given in Table-8.1.

TABLE - 8.1


S. No.ActivityAchievementsNo. of OrganisationsNo. of Participants
1.Consultancy Studies / Surveys44-
2.National Studies6--
3.Diploma In Industrial Safety13235
4.Seminar / Workshop662205
5.Training Programmes4-57
6.In-plant training Programmes64139
7.Appreciation Programme85521502
8.Mobile Safety Exhibition555000
9.Papers Presented / published33-
10.Talks Delivered55308
11.Technical Advice55-

8.3 Office of the Chief Inspector of Factories

The Inspectorate of Factories is enforcing the Factories Act, 1948 and 13 other Labour enactments in the factories registered under the Factories Act. By the enforcement of the important Labour legislations, the health, safety and welfare of the workers employed in registered factories are protected.

8.3.1 Organisational Set up

The administration and enforcement of various Acts by the Inspectorate is under the over all charge of the Chief Inspector of Factories. The Chief Inspector of Factories is assisted by 1 Additional Chief Inspector of Factories, 4 Joint Chief Inspectors of Factories, 29 Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories, 50 Inspectors of Factories, 45 Assistant Inspectors of Factories, 1 Civil Surgeon, 8 Assistant Civil Surgeons, 1 Administrative Officer and 1 Accounts Officer.

There are 13 enforcement divisions which administer the Factories Act, 1948 and other allied Labour enactments in the factories registered under the Factories Act, 1948. Further there are 10 Testing and Safety Divisions. Each division is headed by a Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories. These testing and safety divisions are entrusted with the work of testing Pressure Plants. They are also conducting Safety Training Programmes, Safety Surveys and Seminars in Factories and health surveys are also conducted along with the Assistant Civil Surgeons attached to these divisions.

There is a Major Accident Hazard Control Cell functioning in the Inspectorate of Factories to prevent Major Accident Hazard in Factories involving dangerous operations. The Major Accident Hazard Control Cell is under the supervisory control of Additional Chief Inspector of Factories.

The Productivity Cell in the Inspectorate of Factories was created mainly to impart training on the various aspects of productivity to Industrial workers. The Productivity cell is headed by Joint Chief Inspector of Factories.

The State Level High Power Tripartite Safety Committee and the State Level Task Force/Expert Committee are having important tasks and functions. The State Level High Power Tripartite Safety Committee has been formed with a Member Secretary in the cadre of Chief Inspector of Factories.

The details of factory inspectors appointed in the state are given in Table 8.2.



S.No.DesignationStrengthNo. of deployed in Inspection Duties
1.Chief Inspector of Factories11-
2.Addl.Chief Inspector of Factories11-
3.Jt. Chief Inspector of Factories443
4.Dy. Chief Inspector of Factories292913
5.Regional/Sr.Inspector of Factories---
6.Inspector of Factories515137
7.Assistant Inspector of Factories453030
8.Specialist Inspector with designation (like Medical Inspector, Chemical Inspector, etc.)---
9.Total of Inspection Staff(Items 1 to 8)13111681
10.Certifying Surgeon:
a) Employed by the Inspectorate
b) Notified
11.a) Industrial Hygiene Staff (Specify) (i) Chemist (ii) Laboratory Tech. (iii) Laboratory Attendant b) Occupational Health Center Staff (Specify) c) Any other Cell or Laboratory(Specify)1
8.3.2 Activities

The various activities of the factory inspectorate are given the following paragraphs. Inspection Activities

The details of inspection activities carried out by the inspectorate for the year 2000 is given in Table-8.3.



1.No. of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Factories inspected32905
2.No. of Hazardous Factories inspected3,295
3.No. of Special inspections6189
4.No. of Prohibition notice issued under Sec.40(2) or 87-A11
5.No. of Improvement notices issued under Sec.41(1)-
6.No. of Orders calling Test Reports, etc. under Section 3910
7.No. of Instances covered under Section 41-H-

The details of prosecutions taken up and the convictions obtained by the department under Section 92 of the Factories Act, 1948 during the year 2000 are given in Table-8.4.



S. No.Nature of OffenceNo. of prosecutionsNo. of convictionsPenality imposed
Imprison-mentFine imposed
1.Employment and hours of work a) General
b) Women
c) Young persons
And Returns
5.Health and Welfare10977--293800
6.Others927534--895800 Safety Promotional Activities

Major Accident Hazard Control Cell :

The Major Accident Hazard Control Cell formed in 1988 is functioning under the Additional Chief Inspector of Factories and over all charge of the Chief Inspector of Factories. This cell gives necessary guidelines for the preparation of the Major Disaster Control measures and follow up actions are taken by the Inspectorate for the execution of the control measures in respect of Factories engaged in dangerous process. The Cell has overall control of the Testing and Safety Division.

There are 100 Major Accident Hazards Units handling hazardous chemicals. The state has identified Manali, Neyveli, Cuddalore, Ranipet, Mettur and Thoothukudi where a cluster of MAH Units are situated. To have a proper disaster control in these areas, On-site Emergency Plans, detailing the control measures to be adopted by the units engaged in such hazardous industrial activity are received, scrutinized and recorded by the chief Inspector of Factories. Implementation of control measures are also closely monitored through Mock drills.

To contain hazards to persons living around such MAH Units, Off-site Plans detailing the effective control over emergencies are received from these units. These measures are discussed in District Emergency Committee headed by the Collector of respective District as the Chairman and the Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories as the Member. They discuss and oversee the effectiveness of such disaster control measures.

Safety Training And Survey Cell

Under the Cell, there are ten (10) Testing and Safety Divisions each headed by one Deputy chief Inspector of Factories with supporting staff. These divisions are to (1) Examine and Test Pressure Plants periodically as prescribed in the rules and issue certificates, (2) conduct safety training programmes to the workers, supervisors etc. at the Unit level. The workers are particularly given training inputs to improve their skills and increase their safety awareness. Managements are advised to improve their safety standards and reduce the accidents, (3) conduct safety surveys in accident prone factories to identify the potential hazards and suggest measures to remove those hazards. The findings of the Safety Survey are communicated to the Managements for compliance. During the year 2000, 256 Safety Training Programmes were conducted and 7,060 workers were benefited. Also 20 Safety Surveys were conducted in 20 factories.

Training Centre At Sivakasi

The workers employed in Match and Fire Works Factories are handling many hazardous and explosive chemicals daily without knowing as to how they should be handled safely. The training centre at Sivakasi headed by a Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories is a specialized training centre exclusively for the workers woking in Match and Fire Works. Hence the Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories (Training Centre), Sivakasi conducts, atleast ten Training Classes every month to educate the workers in Match and Fire Works Factories about the safe methods to be adopted in handling, processing, transporting, storing of the chemicals and safe method of working, etc., the Training Centre helps to reduce the accidents in match and fire workers.

During the year 2000, 118 training classes were conducted and 5,099 workers in Match and Fire Works Factories were benefited.

State Safety Awards

To enthuse the managements of the factories for a better safety performance, the Government of Tamil Nadu is presenting State Safety Awards to the Managements every year to enthuse safety awareness among industries.

For better comparison the factories are divided into three groups as follows :-

Group A : Factories which have worked for not less than 10 lakh man-hours.

Group B : Factories which have worked between 5 and 10 lakh man-hours.

Group C : Factories which have worked between 2 and 5 lakh man-hours.

The following three Schemes are in operation :

Scheme- I This award is given to the factory which shows highest reduction in Accident Frequency Rate when compared to the previous year.

Scheme- II This award is given to the factory which has reported the lowest weighted frequency rate for the year.

Scheme- III This award is given to the factory with the longest accident free period in man-hours during the award year.

Tamizhaga Arasin Uyarntha Uzhaipalar Virudhu

These Awards are meant to encourage the workers in safety activities. These Awards are given to workmen who make suggestions for the improvement in Safety Standards, Working Environments and Increase in Productivity. This Scheme which is applicable to workers in factories covered by Factories Act, is to recognize their ingenuity at State Level and to enthuse them towards greater effects in making their contribution in this direction.

Group Personal Accident Insurance Scheme

A group personal accident insurance scheme has been formulated for the benefit of workers of Match and Fire Works Industry in Tamil Nadu. The Scheme is designed to give relief against death, loss of limbs, loss of eye-sight, etc, of the insured persons due to accidents. Accident Insurance is given to the insured persons on 24 hour basis and will not be confined to accidents arising out of or in the course of actual occupation alone.

The Scheme covers the workers in Match and Fire Works in the age group of 10 to 65 years. In the year 2000, 83.059 Workers in Match and Fire Works Factories have been covered under this Scheme on a 24 hour basis for the coverage of Rs.50,000/-. Further, during the same year, 15 claims were settled and an amount of Rs.7,00,000/- has been paid to the claimants.

Squad Inspections of Fire Works At Sivakasi

In order to avoid explosions in fire works, two Special Squads consisting of four teams were constituted. Each team comprised of 3 Inspecting Officers. The above four teams undertook Inspections of all the 523 Fire Works Industries in the months of September and October for ensuring the Safety provisions provided under the special schedule of the Tamil Nadu Factories Rules, 1950. Due to the special efforts taken by the Inspectorate, further explosions and accidents were avoided in Fire Works at Sivakasi during the year. Health Promotion Activities

There are 8 Medical Officers and one Chief Medical Officer in the state involved in health promotional activities. These Medical officers are notified as Certifying Surgeon under the Tamil Nadu Factories Rules, 1950.

Industrial Hygiene

Industrial Hygiene Laboratory with monitoring equipments has been set up at Chennai to monitor the Occupational Safety and Health Status of workers employed in factories. This is headed by a Doctor in the Cadre of Civil Surgeon. The Laboratory attached to the Industrial Hygiene Unit has facilities to assess air borne concentration of chemicals like ammonia, Chlorine, Sulphur-di-oxide, Hydrogen Sulphide and various Mineral dusts, etc. Physical agent like noise in the work place is also measured. The health team conducts Health Surveys in Occupational-diseases-prone industries, examines and identifies the occupational diseases, takes samples if necessary and analyses the same in the laboratory, advise the management accordingly for further follow up and also keeps records relevant to its activities. 12 Occupational Health Surveys were conducted during the year 2000 to assess occupational health status of workers.

8.3.3 State Level Productvity Cell

The Cell has been formed in 1985 and is headed by Joint Chief Inspector of Factories with supporting staff. The Cell involves in the prime objective of spreading the Productivity concept and techniques to the working > They are educated and encouraged to produce more with the existing resources avoiding the spills and wastes, and human strains. The Cell helps in formulating incentive schemes for higher productivity and consequent higher income. The Cell is also conducting Productivity Training Programmes at Unit level in order to give special knowledge on productivity and connected techniques to the workers to improve their Productivity Skills. It is also involved in conducting job-safety analysis, work simplification study and time study and motion study

8.3.4 Site Appraisal Committee

A Site Appraisal Committee has been constituted as per Section 41-A of the Factories Act, 1948 for the purpose of advising the Government to consider the applications for grant of permission for approval of the Site of factory involving Major Accident Hazardous Process.

The Site Appraisal Committee received 6 applications under Section 41 of the Factories Act. The applications were scrutinized and submitted to Government for according permission to the Site.

8.3.5 State Level High Power Tripartite Safety Committee And The State Level Task Force/Expert Committee

The Government of Tamil Nadu constituted a Task Force Expert Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr.N.Santhappa, Ex-Vice Chancellor, Madras University during the year 1985 after the Bhopal disaster, to study and submit a report about the adequacy of safety measures taken by the hazardous chemical industries in Tamil Nadu to protect health and safety of the workers as well as the general public. The Committee made several valuable recommendations to Government.

Accepting the recommendations of the Committee, the Government of Tamil Nadu has constituted two Committee for updating the information of occupational health hazards and implementation of safety provisions in chemical and other industries which are using hazardous chemicals and processes involving highly toxic substances. They are the State Level High Power Tripartite Safety Committee and the State level Task Force/Expert Committee.

8.4 Office of the Regional Labour Commissioner(Central)

The organization of the Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) or the Central Industrial Relations Machinery (CIRM) as it is often referred to, performs various functions which, inter-alia, include prevention and settlement of industrial disputes in industries, in respect of which the Central Government is the ‘appropriate Government’ under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947; implementation of the settlements and tribunal awards in the Central Sphere as also the recommendations of the Central Wage Board, administration of various labour laws to the extent which their administration is a Central responsibility, verification of membership of unions affiliated to Central Trade Union Organization of Workers and those operating in the nationalized banks and the State Bank of India and its seven associated banks, Ports and Docks and under Code of Discipline for the purpose of according representations in conferences/ committees/ ILO and of unions to determine the representative character for recognition under Code of Discipline of the Union. It also undertakes investigation into breaches of Code of Discipline.

The Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) is also responsible for the enforcement of labour laws, such as the Payment of Wages Act 1936, the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946; the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, the Minimum Wages Act, 1948; the Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act, 1948; the Maternity Benefit Act 1961 in the Circus Industry; Hours of Employment Regulation framed under the Railways Act, 1890; the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965; the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970; the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972; the Equal Remuneration Act 1976 and the Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979 in their application to establishments falling in the Central Sphere. Besides, the C.L.C. © is also the implementing authority for Fair Wage Clause and MES Contract Labour Regulations.

The Regional Labour Commissioner (Central) is the head of the Regioal Industrial Relations Machinery. The regional commissioner for the southern region is located at Chennai.

8.5 Office of the Regional Labour Commissioner (State)

The Labour and Employment Department is administering matters relating to Industrial relations, Safety of workers, Labour Welfare, Employment Exchanges and Technical training. There are three Heads of Department. The Commissioner of Labour looks after Industrial Relations and Labour Welfare. The Chief Inspector of Factories deals with safety in Factories. The Commissioner of Employment and Training heads two wings. The Employment Wing deals with Employment Services through a network of Employment Exchanges. The Training Wing deals with technical training through a number of Industrial Training Institutes and similar institutions. Social Security is provided in a large measure, by two Central Organisations viz., The Employees Provident Fund Organisation and the Employees State Insurance Corporation. The State Labour Welfare Board provides welfare services to workers in the organised sector.

The Construction Workers Board, Manual Workers Board and other Boards provide Welfare services to workers in the unorganised sector. The Tamil Nadu Institute of Labour Studies conducts courses in Labour Management and also special courses for managements, workers and officials on labour laws. The Overseas Manpower Corporation helps find placements for workers willing to work overseas. Abolition of Child Labour is an important goal of the State Government. All these aspects are dealt with in the subsequent chapters.

Since independence, in addition to the Industrial Disputes Act, a number of other laws have been enacted by Parliament and the State Legislature to protect rights of workers and provide for their welfare. Many of the laws are being enforced by the Labour Department. They are listed below:-

Industrial Relations
  • The Tamilnadu Shops And Establishments Act, 1947
  • The Tamil Nadu Catering Establishments Act, 1958
  • The Tamil Nadu Industrial Establishments (National And Festival Holidays) Act, 1958
  • The Trade Unions Act, 1926
  • The Payment Of Wages Act, 1936
  • The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946
  • The Plantations Labour Act, 1951
  • The Working Journalists And Other Newspaper Employees (Conditions Of Service And Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1955
  • The Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961
  • Beedi And Cigar Workers (Conditions Of Employment) Act, 1966
  • Integrated Beedi Workers Housing Scheme In Tamil Nadu
  • Contract Labour (Regulation And Abolition) Act, 1970
  • The Tamil Nadu Industrial Establishment (Conferment Of Permanent Status To Workmen) Act, 1981
  • The Standards Of Weights And Measures (Enforcement) Act, 1985
Social Security

The Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923

  • The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961
  • The Payment Of Bonus Act, 1965
  • The Payment Of Gratuity Act, 1972
  • The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
  • The Tamil Nadu Payment Of Subsistence Allowance Act, 1981

8.6 The Tamil Nadu Institute Of Labour Studies

This Institute conducts Training Programmes, Seminars, Refresher Courses, Orientation Programmes, etc., periodically to suit the needs of supervisory and managerial personnel of private and public sector industries. Trade Unionists and officials of Labour and Factories Departments. This Institute also offers a Part-Time one-year course called “Post Graduate Diploma in Labour Administration” (P.G.D.L.A) and two full time academic courses viz. “B.L.M” and “M.L.M.” Both these courses are affiliated to the University of Madras. The University of Madras has also recognised this Institute as a Research Institute to conduct both part-time and full time Ph.D. programmes from the year 2001-2002 onwards. During the year 2002-2003, three Part-time and six Full-time candidates have been admitted in the Ph.D. Programme. This year, 47 students in B.L.M., 31 students in M.L.M. and 43 students in P.G.D.L.A. have been admitted, through a common entrance test conducted by this Institute.

During the year 2002, 31 seminars / training programmes were conducted for the workers, managerial persons and traders in Tamilnadu and nearly 1930 participants benefited through these training programmes. The number of candidates who have successfully completed the above academic course during the year is given below:-

B.L.M.- 47, M.L.M.- 31, P.G.D.L.A.- 36, TOTAL = 114.

8.7 Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation

The Employees Provident Fund Organisation is vested with the responsibility of administering the three Social Security Schemes under the Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act,1952 viz.

  • Employees Provident Funds Scheme, 1952
  • Employees Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme, 1976
  • Employees Pension Scheme, 1995.

The primary objective of these three schemes is to provide social security and to inculcate amongst the workers a spirit of savings while they are gainfully employed and to make provision for their benefit after they retire from service and their family members if they die in harness. Tamil Nadu Regional Office in Chennai serves the members in the State of Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry. It is headed by a Regional Provident Fund Commissioner (Grade-I).

8.8 Employees State Insurance Scheme

Employees State Insurance Scheme of India is an integrated Social Security Scheme tailored to provide protection to workers in the organised sector and their dependents in contingencies such as sickness, maternity, death and disablement due to an employment injury or occupational disease as detailed below:-

Medical Benefit

Medical facilities for self and dependents are admissible from day one of entering insurable employment. Primary, Specialist and Super Specialty services are provided through a network of ESI Dispensaries and ESI Hospitals.

Sickness Benefit

Sickness Benefit is payable to an Insured Person in cash in the event of sickness resulting in absence from work and duly certified by an authorised Insurance Medical Officer

Maternity Benefit

Maternity Benefit is payable to Insured Women in case of confinement or miscarriage or sickness related to Maternity (Maximum 85 Days).

Disablement Benefit

Disablement Benefit is payable to Insured Employees suffering from physical disablement due to employment injury or occupational disease. In addition, the Insured person is eligible for coverage under Workmen’ s Compensation Act.

Dependent’s Benefit

Dependent’ s Benefit is payable to dependent of a deceased Insured Person where death occurs due to Employment injury or occupational disease.

Extended Sickness Benefit

Extended sickness Benefit is payable to Insured Person for the period of certified sickness in case of specified 34 long term diseases that need prolonged treatment and absence from work on Medical advice.

Enhanced Sickness Benefit

Enhanced Sickness Benefit is payable to Insured Persons in the productive age group for undergoing Sterilization operation - Vasectomy/ Tubectomy.

Temporary Disablement Benefit

Temporary Disablement Benefit at 70% of wages is payable till temporary disablement lasts and is duly certified by authorized Insurance Medical Officer.

Permanent Disablement Benefit

Permanent Disablement Benefit is payable for life.

Funeral Benefit

Funeral Benefit on death of an Insured Person is payable to a maximum of Rs. 2,500/-.

Others Benefits

Free supply of physical aids such as Crutches, Wheel Chairs, Dentures, Spectacles and such physical aids are offered by this scheme.

Preventive Health Care Services such as Immunization, Family Welfare Services, HIV/AIDS Detection Treatment etc. are available.

Medical Bonus at Rs. 250/- is paid to an Insured Woman or the wife of an Insured Person, in case she does not avail hospital facilities of the scheme for child delivery.

The Scheme is implemented in this State in accordance with the provisions of the ESI Act, 1948. Towards this objective, the scheme of health insurance provides full medical facilities to insured persons and their dependents, as well as, cash benefits to compensate for any loss of wages or earning capacity in times of physical distress. The scheme is administered by a duly constituted corporate body called the Employees State Insurance Corporation as provided under the ESI Act,1948.

In Tamil Nadu, Medical facilities are provided through a network of 180 ESI Dispensaries, 9 ESI Hospitals, 5 Mobile Dispensaries and 2 Utilisation Dispensaries. In all 2,363 beds are available.

ESI Hospital, K.K. Nagar (Occupational Research Centre)

ESI Hospital, K.K. Nagar is run by ESI corporation, New Delhi. The Occupational Research Centre for South is established in this hospital. The Bed Strength of this hospital is 330. Employees covered under the scheme are entitled to medical benefits for self and their family members. They are also entitled to cash benefits in the event of specified contingencies; resulting in loss of wages or earning capacity. The insured women are entitled to maternity benefit for confinement. In the event of death of an insured employee due to employment injury or occupational disease, the dependents are entitled to family pension. During the year 2002-2003, 11 new ESI Dispensaries were opened.

The details of the dispensaries region-wise is given in Table-8.5.


S. No.Name of the Regional DispensaryStatic DispensaryMobile DispensaryUtilisation DispensaryTotal Dispensaries

8.9 Labour Bureau

The Labour Bureau is responsible for (a) Collection, Compilation and dissemination of various facets of Labour Statistics on all India basis; (b) Construction and Maintenance of Working Class Consumer Price Index Numbers for selected centers and the all-India Consumer Price Index Numbers for Industrial Workers; (c) Construction of Consumer Price Index Numbers for Agricultural Workers; (d) Construction of Consumer Price Index Numbers for Rural Labour, (e) Maintenance of up-to-date data relating to working conditions of Industrial Workers collected earlier by the Labour Investigation Committee; (f) Undertaking research into specific problems with a view to supplying data required for the formulation of labour policy (g) bringing out reports, pamphlets and brochures on various aspects of labour by conducting country-wise field studies and enquiries to ascertain the working and living conditions of various > scheduled tribes labour, women workers; contract labour, and child labour, etc. and (h) publication of the ‘Indian Labour Journal’(Monthly); the ‘Indian Labour Statistics’ (Annual); the ‘Indian Labour Year Book’ (Annual) and the ‘Pocket Book of Labour Statistics’(Annual).

It also brings out reports on the Working of the Factories Act, 1948; the Minimum Wages Act 1948 which are compiled and published (both annual), ‘The Trade Unions Act, 1926 (biennial) annual reviews on Industrial Disputes, Closures, Lay-off and Retrenchment; the working of the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923; the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961; the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act 1946; the Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961; the Shops and Commercial Establishments Act; the Payment of Wages Act, 1936 and the Plantations Labour Act, 1951 . Employment in factories under the Factories Act, 1948, industrial disputes, monthly statistics of absenteeism, etc., are also published in the Indian Labour Journal. The Bureau also issues, from time to time special publications on matters of labour interest and compiles and publishes the all-India list of Factories.

8.10 Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board:

Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB), established in 1982, enforces the following pollution control laws and rules relating to environmental protection in the state.

  • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 as amended in 1978 and 1988.
  • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 as amended in 1991.
  • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 as amended in 1987.
  • The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  • The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986
  • The Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989 as amended in 2000.
  • The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, 1989 as amended in 2000.
  • The Bio-Medical Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 as amended in 2000.
  • The Recycled Plastic Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999.
  • The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000.
  • Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000.
  • The Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001.

TNPCB functions with its head office at Chennai. There are 25 district offices at Chennai, Coimbatore, Vellore, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Ambattur, Tambaram, Hosur,Vaniyambadi, Cuddalore, Thanjavur, Karur, Salem, Namakkal, Erode, Tiruppur, Dindigul, Thirunelveli, Virudhunagar, Thoothukudi, Uthagamandalam, Nagercoil, Pudukkottai, Villupuram and Nagapattinam.

TNPCB has established 3 Advanced Environmental Laboratories at Chennai, Salem and Madurai, 10 District Environmental Laboratories at Ambattur, Vellore, Cuddalore, Tiruchirapalli, Dindigul, Thirunelveli, Coimbatore, Tiruppur, Hosur and Manali and one Mobile Environmental Laboratory at Thoothukudi.

TNPCB, interacts with other concerned departments/ institutions to take a coordinated action for the protection of environment. TNPCB extends effective assistance to local bodies in urban solid waste management, by providing training and technical assistance.

8.11 Department of Environment

The Department of Environment was created in G.O.Ms.No.335, Environment and Forests Department dated 13.10.95 as the nodal Department for dealing with Environmental Management of the State. The Department is entrusted with the implementation of major projects like pollution abatement in the river Cauvery, Vaigai and Tamiraparani; Pollution abatement in Chennai City waterways; National Lake Conservation Programme and all aspects of Environment other than those dealt with by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board. Recycling of solid and liquid wastes, bio-composting, rainwater harvesting, tree planting, etc., are important in achieving environmental conservation. Environmental conservation requires attitudinal change and generation of awareness among the people. This is best done by infusing these ideals in the young minds of school children.

8.12 Department of Industries

The Government of Tamil Nadu has set itself an ambitious target of 8% growth in the state economy for the 10 th Plan period and the secondary sector has an important role to play in this regard. It is imperative for industrial development to provide for employment for its energetic work force and its highly skilled and educated population and to provide a strong base for the services sector to develop. The flourishing of the manufacturing sector is crucial to promote direct opportunities of employment and to diversify the primary sector which is burdened by a huge dependency of 62% of the population. The Industrial Policy of Tamil Nadu is accordingly redefined to meet the challenges of globalisation and the demands of the new areas of development. Tamil Nadu has great strength in its traditional industries of pharmaceuticals, leather, machine tools, automobile manufacturing and auto component industry, power, pumps and light engineering.

8.13 Department Of Explosives

The Department of Explosive is a department attached to the Ministry of Industrial Development, Government of India. The department with its head office at Nagpur has 5 Regional offices known as Circle Offices. Apart from regional offices there are a number of factory specific offices also. The Chief Controller of Explosives is the head of the department. The Regional Office of the department is located at Chennai.

The Department of Explosive is entrusted with the administration of the Explosive Act, 1884, Petroleum Act, 1934 and Inflammable Substances Act, 1952 and the rules framed thereunder. Beside these activities it has additional responsibilities pertaining to grant of licenses in respect of the transportation of hazardous chemicals under Petroleum Rules, 1976.

8.14 Central Board of Workers Education

Regional Directorate, Central Board for Workers Education, Chennai, is a tripartite society and was established in 1958 by Ministry of Labour, Government of India to undertake workers education activities. The headquarter of the Board is located at Nagpur, Maharashtra.

The main objectives of the Board are to conduct training programmes on topics which help to improve the quality of work life and to develop a positive attitude among all sections of employees.

The Regional Directorate is carrying out its activities through professional and education officers and is equipped with Library and training room facilities. Monographs, periodicals etc. on Occupational Safety & Health are being published by the Regional Directorate.

8.15 National Safety Council of India, Tamilnadu Chapter

The National Safety Council was set up on 4 March 1966 as a non-profit making, non-political voluntary organization. The main objective of the Council is to generate, develop and sustain a voluntary movement at the national level to promote awareness of safety, health and environment, so as to supplement and strengthen the government efforts in the field. The Management of the Council is vested in a tripartriate Board of Governors which has 51 Members . The Chairman is appointed by the Govt. of India in consultation with Board. The Director General is Chief Executive and Secretary to the Board.

The activities of the Council include Conferences, Seminars, Training Programme, Risk Analysis, Safety Audit for Hazardous Industries, Technical Advice, Film Library, National Safety Calendar, National Safety Day Campaign, National Safety Publication of periodicals, Technical Literature and Liaison with Internal Safety Organisations.

8.16 Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Chennai

Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Chennai with its headquarters at Mumbai is a non-profit and Non-Government organization. The Association was established in 1978 with an aim to promote safety and loss control through education training and consultancy. The main broad objectives of the association are :

  • To publicize cause and magnitude of losses and create an awareness of the need for loss prevention.
  • To provide education, training, consultancy and advisory services.
  • To build and maintain a data bank on loss prevention.

The Association works in the areas of Chemical Safety, Fire protection, Training & education, Work place inspection & Fire investigation. The Association regularly brings out publications on various aspect of safety covering fire prevention, material handling and road safety.

8.17 Safety Engineers’ Association (India), Chennai

The Safety Engineers’ Association (India) was established in June 2001 as a registered Society under the Society’s Act 1975. The administration of the Society lies with an Executive Committee comprising 9 Members. The principle objectives of the Association include:

  • To serve as a vital link between safety engineers at national level
  • To share knowledge and experience to protect lives, property and environment
  • To interact with the other organizations for overall improvement of safety, health and environment
  • To provide advice/guidance/help to industries and safety professionals on safety health and related matters
  • To assist statutory bodies to enact safety Regulations, Standards, requirements, etc.

8.18 Confederation of Indian Industry

Confederation of Indian Industry, Southern region was set up by the Confederation of Indian Industry to advice the industries on various industry related issues. The association has State level Council with various sectoral panels.

The main aim of Confederation of Indian Industry is to advice the industry on all key relevant issues including occupational safety and health. The association is competent in the areas of technical guidance and training & education. The association has in-house faculty for conducting training programmes and workshop. The contact person is the Director.

8.19 National Productivity Council, Chennai:

The National Productivity Council of India is an autonomous, multi-partite Organisation established as a registered society in 1958. It has been catalyzing productivity movement and providing productivity improvement services in all spheres of economic activity.

The aims of the council are to increase productivity by adopting productivity technique and by preventing occupational accident and diseases by providing Industrial Engineering Services such as work study, method study, job evaluation etc., and by training programmes and workshops. The council is competent with chemical safety, machine safety, fire protection, workplace inspection and training & education. In relation to occupational safety and health activities the council provide technical guidance and training & education. These activities are carried out by the professional and technical consultants supported by the administrative staff.

The council is equipped with the library having well collection of reference publications in the field of industrial safety & health and reading room, training room and a conference hall. The council has also produced a number of materials on the above field. The organisation is headed by a Director.

8.20 Madras Management Association:

The Madras Management Association is affiliated to the All India Management Association, New Delhi. The objectives of the association are management development and training & education in the areas related to industrial relations, safety, health, environment, etc. The association address the economic sectors of manufacturing, transport, construction, electricity, gas & water, financing, insurance, real estate and business services, social and personal services. The association is competent with the training & education and information. It has library facilities and publish a quarterly journal. The contact person is the Executive Director.

Management of occupational safety and health at unit level


7.1 Introduction

The management of occupational safety and health at the unit level, i.e. manufacturing units, involves the following aspects:

  • Safety Policy
  • Appointment of Safety Officers
  • Safety Committee
  • Occupational Health Centers (FMO, Ambulance)
  • Welfare Measures (WO, Canteen, creche, lunch room, shelter etc.)
  • On-Site Emergency Plans
  • Safety Reports
  • Safety Audits
  • HAZOP studies

These aspects are discussed below in detail.

7.2 Safety Policy

The Rule 62-B of the Tamil Nadu Factories Rules, 1950 framed under the provisions of Sections 7-A(3), 41-B(2) and 112 requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by the factories meeting the following criteria :-

  • Units covered under Section 2(m)(i) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers
  • Units covered under Section 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 100 workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948
  • Units covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948

n addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories or class or description of factories to comply with the above requirements of Safety Policy if in his opinion it is expedient to do so. The details are given in Table 7.1.

TABLE – 7.1


S. No.Type of factoriesNo. of factories requiring Safety PolicyNo. of factories having Safety Policy
1.Factories employing 250 or more workers551480
2.MAH Units10099

7.3 Appointment Of Safety Officers

As per the provisions of Section 40-B of the Factories Act, 1948, Safety Officer is required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria :-

  • Units employing more than 1000 workers,
  • Units wherein any manufacturing process or operation is carried on involving any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or diseases or any hazard to health.

As per the details available, 106 Safety Officers were appointed as against 111 Safety Officers required to be appointed in various factories in the State.

TABLE – 7.2

Description of factoriesNo. of factoriesNo. of Safety Officers required to be appointedNo. of Safety Officers appointed
a) Factories employing 1000 or more workers and notified under Section 40-B(1)(i)100111106
b) Factories notified under Section 40-B (1)(ii)303024

7.4 Safety Committee

The Rule 61-M of the Tamil Nadu Factories Rules, 1950 framed under the provisions of Section 41 and 41-G of the Factories Act, 1948 require constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:-

  • Units employing 250 or more workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers
  • Units covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers

As per information available 1024 units required constitution of Safety Committees. However, only 743 units have constituted Safety Committees.

TABLE – 7.3

S.No.Type of factoriesNo. of factories requiring Safety CommitteeNo. of factories having Safety Committee
(i)Factories employing 250 or more workers924645
(ii)MAH Units10098
7.5 Occupational Health Centers

As per the Rule 62-O of the Tamil Nadu Factories Rules, 1950 prescribed under the Section 41-C of the Factories Act, 1948, ‘Occupational Health Centers’ are required to be set up in the factories carrying on ‘Hazardous Process’ as described under Section 2(cb) of the Act. The factories have been divided into 3 categories. i.e. factories employing up to 50 workers, employing 51 – 200 workers and employing more than 200 workers. The factories employing upto 50 workers are required to appoint a part-time medical officer.

The details of number of medical officers appointed, number of ambulance vans and ambulance rooms provided are given in Table-7.4.

TABLE –7.4


S. NoType of factoriesNo. of factoriesNo. of Medical Officers appointedNo. of factories where ambulance vans are availableNo. of factories where ambulance rooms are provided
Retainership or part time basisFull time basis
1.MAH Units10057433468
2.All factories wherein 500 or more workers are employed26118151110148

7.6 Welfare Facilities

This part of the Chapter deals with the Welfare facilities such as appointment of Welfare officer, provision of crèche facilities, canteen facilities, shelters, rest room and lunch rooms etc.

As per the provisions of Section 49 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 500 workers is required to employ a Welfare Officer. As per the details available 235 units were required to appoint the welfare officers. However, 223 units have actually appointed the welfare officers.

As per the provisions under Section 48 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing 30 or more women workers are required to provide creche facilities for the use of children under the age of 6 years for the women employees. There are certain requirements under the Section for these crèches which are to be met by the occupier of the factory. Out of 1585 creches required to be provided, 1180 creches have been provided.

As per the provisions under Section 47 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 150 workers is required to provide adequate and suitable> As per the details available 1586 units have provided the shelters or rest rooms and lunch rooms facilities as against the requirement of 1673.

As per the provisions under Section 46 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 250 workers is required to provide canteen facilities for the use of workers. As per the details available 700 units have provided canteen facilities as against the 748 factories required to provide the same.


S.No.ItemNo. requiredNo. available
1.Factories required to appoint Welfare Officers (Ordinarily employing 500 or more workers)235223
2.Welfare Officers required to be appointed in Employing ordinarily 500 or more workers.251242
4.Shelters, Rest Room, Lunch Room16731586

7.7 On-Site Emergency Plans

As per the provisions of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard Rules, 1993” an occupier who has control of the Industrial activity as described under the Rule shall prepare an on-site emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on the site on which industrial activity is carried on.

As per the information available 100 MAH installations were required to prepare the on-site emergency plan. 99 MAH installation have already prepared the plans and submitted to the Chief Inspector of Factories.

TABLE- 7.6


No. of Factories required to draw On-Site Emergency PlansNo. of Factories already drawn On-Site Emergency Plans

7.8 Safety Reports And Safety Audits and HAZOP Studies

As per the provisions of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard Rules, 1993” it is mandatory for an occupier to prepare and submit to the Chief Inspector before the commencement of an industrial activity the Safety Report of the Industrial activity to which these rules apply. Further it is required that all the units after the commencement of the Industrial activity shall carry out an independent Safety Audit of the respective industrial activities with the help of an expert not associated with such industrial activities.

The Hazard and Operability studies (HAZOP) are carried out in advance on any plant to examine the process or at least the relevant parts of the process to discover how deviation from the intention of design can occur to decide whether such deviations can give rise to hazardous conditions.

Resources available and needed


9.1 General

The scope of the study was limited to cover the organisations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948 was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident forms. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, availability of safety reports, etc. as per the provisions of the Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was outside the scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, a more elaborate and in-depth study is required to be taken up to get a comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.

The findings and recommendations as brought out by the study are summarized below :

9.2 Recommendations
1. Submission of returns by the factories

In the State of Tamil Nadu, there are 29,080 registered factories out of which 23,457 factories are working factories. This includes 1,416 factories registered under Section 85(i). The number of factories submitting returns is 19,626. As the annual returns contain vital information such as average daily employment, man-hours worked, man-days lost, number of accidents, provision of health and welfare facilities, etc. which are essential for the compilation of State level inventory on Occupational Safety and Health, it is recommended that the submission of annual returns should be made compulsory for all the registered factories.

2. Small Scale Industrial Sector

A majority of registered factories belongs to the small scale category and accounts for about 50% of the total number of registered factories. The small scale industries employ around 27% of the total industrial workers. This Sector also contributes substantially to the total industrial production of the state. However, the Occupational Safety and Health status in the small scale industry is not satisfactory. It is recommended that more efforts by the concerned agencies may be taken to improve the Occupational Health status in the small scale sector.

3. Analysis of Accidents

The analysis of accidents according to industry reveals that 25.59% of the total accidents are in the ‘Manufacture of Textiles’. The Causation-wise analysis of accidents indicates “handling of goods or articles” accounted for 23.40% of the total accidents. The analysis is indicative of the fact that more enforcement and training efforts are required in the above mentioned >

The age-wise analysis of accidents reveals that workers in the age group of 21-30 met with more number of accidents. Out of the 2,140 accidents that took place in the year 2001, there were 759 accidents attributable> This indicates the lack of experience of the workers in this age group and calls for increased training for this group.

The analysis of accidents according to body part reveals that leg, hand and finger injuries accounted for more than 70% of the total accidents. For example, during the year 2001, out of the total injuries of 2,140 there were 1,592 injuries attributable> Similarly, in the year 2002, out of the total injuries of 2,136 injuries, 1,525 injuries were under this > The increased number of leg injuries indicates that proper housekeeping measures are not being followed in the industries. Further the increased number of hand and finger injuries are indicative of the fact that more manual handling methods are resorted to and suitable> It is, therefore, recommended that housekeeping measures and use of personal protective equipment should be insisted upon during the inspection rounds of the enforcement authorities and during the training sessions.

4. Frequency Rate, Severity Rate and Incidence Rate

The analysis of the Frequency rate, severity rate and the incidence rate for the year 1999 and 2000 indicate that there has been substantial decrease in these rates. This indicates that the overall safety performance of the industries in the State has improved. Continued and concerted measures are necessary in the coming years to further improve the safety performance.

5. Occupational Diseases

While the Chief Inspector of Factories has reported that there were no incidences of any occupational diseases, the Employees State Insurance Corporation which enforces the ESI Act, 1948, has reported 5 cases of occupational diseases which include 4 cases of Byssinosis and 1 case of Silicosis. It indicates that proper diagnostic methods are not available in the State. It is recommended that necessary diagnostic system in the state Factory Inspectorate and necessary diagnostic procedures may be evolved.

6. Organising Seminars, Workshops, etc.

In addition to what is being done by the non-governmental organization such as the National Safety Council, the Loss Prevention Association of India, the Employers’ Association in the State may also take up similar activities in the field of Occupational Safety and Health on a large scale. This should include organizing Seminars, Workshops on the issues arising out of liberalization, privatization and globalization, modern manufacturing techniques, technological developments in the field of manufacturing etc. vis-a-vis their impact on the safety, health and welfare of the workers.

7. Training for Trade Union Officials

In order to promote safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories, training programmes, seminars and workshops should be organized to increase the awareness of the Trade Union Officials in the field of occupational safety and health. The Unit level Trade Union Officials should be involved in training and education of workers in the field of Occupational Safety and Health. In such programmes, more emphasis should be given on the role of Union Leaders in the field of Safety and Health at the workplace.

8. Collection and Dissemination of Data on Occupational Safety and Health in the State

While collecting the statistics regarding the factories as well as the accidents, it was found by the study team that although the factories were submitting the annual returns in the prescribed format to the local offices as well as to the Regional Offices and Headquarters, the information was not being compiled and sent to the Headquarters in time. As a result the collected information could not be processed and the trends regarding various parameters on occupational safety and health could not be established. A closer examination of the issue reveals that the information at the field level could not be compiled or is taking time for compilation because of manpower shortage. It is, therefore, suggested that all field level offices should be equipped with suitable> This arrangement will also improve the communication among the offices under the Chief Inspector of Factories leading to effective implementation of the orders issued under the provisions of the Factories Act eliminating the delays.

9. Constitution of State Level Tripartite Committee

In order to review the status of safety, health and welfare in the factories and formulate an action plan on the basis of findings from time to time, a state level tripartite committee on occupational safety and health should be constituted under the Chairmanship of the Labour Minister. In this committee representatives of Government departments, connected with factories and labour, representatives of employers’ and employees’ may be included. This is also in line with the recommendations made by Standing Labour Committee to the Indian Labour Conference.

10 Interaction between DGFASLI and CIF Office

For better interaction between DGFASLI, RLI and CIF Office and for exchange of information relating to Occupational Safety and Health frequent interaction among the officers DGFASLI and the CIF Office is necessary.



  • The Factories Act, 1948 and the Tamil Nadu State Factories Rules, 1950
  • ILO Code of Practice for Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases
  • Indian Standards IS: 3786 – 1972 on Method for Computation of Frequency and Severity Rates for Industrial Injuries and >
  • Statistical Hand Book of Tamilnadu, 2001 published by the Department of Economics and Statistics, Chennai-600006.
  • Tamil Nadu – An Economic Appraisal 1999-2000, published by the Department of Evaluation and Applied Research (DEAR), Government of Tamilnadu, Chennai-600108.
  • Indian Labour Year Book 2000 and 2001, published by Government of India, Ministryof Labour, Labour Bureau, Shimla/Chandigarh.
  • Standard Reference Note published by the Directorate General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes, Govt. of India, Min. of Labour, Mumbai –2001.
  • Annual Administration Report under the Factories Act, 1948 for the year 1999 prepared by the Office of the Chief Inspector of Factories, Chennai.
  • Policy Note of Department of Labour and Employment, Government of Tamil Nadu
  • Policy Note of Department of Industries, Government of Tamil Nadu
  • Policy Note of Department of Environment and Forests, Government of Tamil Nadu.



THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 ( AMENDED 1987 ), 1948
(See section 89 and 90)

List of notifiable diseases

  • Lead poisoning including poisoning by any preparation or compound of lead or their sequelae.
  • Lead tetra-ethyl poisoning.
  • Phosphorous poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Mercury poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Manganese poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Arsenic poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Poisoning by nitrous fumes.
  • Carbon bisulphide poisoning.
  • Benzene poisoning, including poisoning by any of its homologues, their nitro or amido derivatives or its sequelae.
  • Chrome ulceration or its sequelae.
  • Anthrax.
  • Silicosis.
  • Poisoning by halogens or halogen derivatives of the hydrocarbons, of the aliphatic series.
  • Pathological manifestation due to : -
    • radium or other radioactive substances.
    • X-rays.
  • Primary epitheliomatous cancer of the skin.
  • Toxic anaemia.
  • Toxic jaundice due to poisonous substances.
  • Oil acne or dermatitis due to mineral oils and compounds containing mineral oil base.
  • Byssionosis.
  • Asbestosis.
  • Occupational or contact dermatitis caused by direct contract with chemical and paints. These are of types, that is, primary irritants and allergic sensitizers.
  • Noise induced hearing loss (exposure to high noise levels).
  • Beryllium poisoning.
  • Carbon monoxide.
  • Coal miners' pneumoconiosis.
  • Phosgene poisoning.
  • Occupational cancer.
  • Isocyanides poisoning.
  • Toxic nephritis.




Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Infectious and parastic diseases contracted in an occupation where there is a particular risk of contamination.
  • All work involving exposure to health or laboratory work;
  • All work involving exposure to veterinary work;
  • Work relating to handling animals, animals carcasses, part of such carcasses, or merchandise which may have been contaminated by animals or animal carcasses;
  • Other work carrying a particular risk of contamination.
2.Diseases caused by work in compressed air.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
3.Diseases caused by lead or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Poisoning by nitrous fumes.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Poisoning by organphosphorus compoundAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned


Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Diseases caused by phosphorus or toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.Diseases caused by mercury or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Diseases caused by benzene or its toxic homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Diseases caused by nitro and amino derivatives of benzene or its homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Diseases caused by chromium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
6.Diseases caused by arsenic or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
7.Diseases caused by radioactive substances and ionising radiations.All work involving exposure to the reaction of radioactive substances or ionising radiations.
8.Primary epithelomatous cancer of the skin caused by tar, pitch bitumen, mineral oil, anthracene or the compounds, products or residues of these substancesAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
9.Diseases caused toxic halogen derivatives by hydrocarbons (of the aliphatic and aromatic series).All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
10.Diseases caused by carbon disulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
11.Occupational cataract due to infra-red radiations.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
12.Diseases caused by manganese or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
13.Skin diseases caused by physical, chemical or biological agents not include in other items.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
14.Hearing impairment caused by noise.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
15.Poisoning by dinitrophenol or a homologue or by substituted dinitrophenol or by the salts of such substances.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
16.Diseases caused by beryllium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
17.Diseases caused by cadmium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
18.Occupational asthma caused by recognised sensitising agents inherent to the work process.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
19.Diseases caused by fluorine or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
20.Diseases caused by nitroglycerine or other nitroacid esters.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
21.Diseases caused by alcohols and ketones.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
22.Diseases caused by asphyxiants; carbon monoxide, and its toxic derivatives, hydrogen sulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
23.Lung cancer and mesotheliomas caused by asbestos.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
24.Primary neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder or the kidneys or the ureter.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned


Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Pneumoconiosis caused by sclerogenic mineral dust (silicosis, anthraoosilicosis asbestosis) and silico-tuberculosis provided that silicosis is an essential factor in causing the resultant incapacity or death.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.BagassosisAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by cotton, flax hemp and sisal dust (Byssinosis)All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Extrinsic allergic alvoelities caused by the inhalation of organic dusts.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by hard metals.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned