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Introduction

In the present era of globalization and opening up of the Indian economy there is a flow of new technology, products and resources to India. This influx with the modern technology is also bringing with it associated problems. The problems are more complex when the issue of management of safety, health and environment is concerned. This necessitates designing of newer policies and programmes. For the management of occupational safety and health through various instruments such as policies and programs it becomes essential to base these instruments on sound footing. This requires an assessment of the present status of occupational safety and health in the country. Presently information in this area is not up-to-date and readily available for the policy makers. A national inventory on capabilities and management of occupational safety and health will be of great help for designing and implementing various instruments to protect the safety and health of the large work force working in various sectors of the economy. India is a large country and building up such an inventory would be a monumental task and therefore needs to be done in a phased manner keeping in mind the various constraints. As such a pilot project has been taken up for the state of Kerala with the objective to collect and compile various information on occupational safety and health and dissemination of information regarding extent of compliance with the important provisions under the Factories Act 1948 and the rules framed thereunder including system of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases as per the ILO Code of Practice at the unit and the state level.

India is a member of International Labour Organization and has ratified a number of ILO conventions. As a result, major part of the ILO code of practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational accidents and diseases is being followed alongwith the Indian Standard IS3786 which is on the similar lines of the ILO Code of Practice. However, there is a delay at the unit level as well as at the district level on the part of the industrial organizations and enforcing agencies in collection, processing and dissemination of the information. This project, in technical collaboration with ILO aims at studying the existing system of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases at unit, district and state level, identifying the areas for improving and establishing the system, which is in line with the systems existing in other countries.

The project was taken up in the state of Kerala because of smaller size of the state, high literary rate and its willingness to be associated with the project. The activities of the project have been divided in the following categories:

1. Background information about the state of Kerala -

Deals with the demographic and geographic characteristic of the state of Kerala, population in different districts and major occupations of the people.

2. Economic activities

Deals with the various aspects of economic sectors in the state, their value of production, employment generated and contribution to the GDP.

3. Activities in manufacturing sector

Deals with the different activities carried out in the manufacturing sector as per the National Industrial Code, value of production, employment generation, etc.

4. Occupational injuries and diseases

Deals with the analysis of the occupational injuries - fatal and non fatal and cases of occupational diseases in the manufacturing sector.

5. Management of occupational safety and health

 

Deals with the infrastructure and resources available at the unit level and the state level for managing the crucial issue of occupational safety and health.

6. Resources available and needed for the management of occupational safety and health

Based on the analysis of occupational injuries and diseases and the capabilities available in the state of Kerala for the management of occupational safety and health, an attempt is made to assess the resources required for the better management of occupational safety and health.

For the data collection, the task force made field visits of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram and the industrial city Cochin. The information pertaining to various economic sectors was collected by visiting each of the departments, having detailed discussions with the respective heads and referring to the annual returns of these departments. The information related with the manufacturing sectors were collected from the annual returns submitted by the factories covered under the Factories Act 1948. The data related to the occupational injuries and diseases were analyzed by studying the accident forms and recording them on to the data sheets specifically designed for this purpose. The industry-wise, cause-wise details of accidents were obtained by developing suitable software for the purpose. The annual returns from the factories were also analyzed using suitable software.

For the assessment of infrastructure available and capabilities of the organizations, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health, the profile program on the similar lines as that developed by ILO was used

Data collection and analysis could be efficiently completed in specific time frame because of active co-operation from various people involved with the project.

Background information

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Kerala is a small State tucked away in the South West corner of India. It represents only 1.18% of the total area of India, but 3.43% of total population of the country is in Kerala. When India became free, two princely States Travancore and Cochin were integrated to form Travancore-Cochin States on 1st July 1949. Under the States Re-organisation Act 1956, Travancore-Cochin States and Malabar state were integrated to form the State of Kerala on 1st November 1956.

2.1. PHYSICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL STRUCTURE

Territory of Kerala stretches from 6°-18’ to 12°-48’ North latitude and from 74°-52’ to 77°-22’ East latitude. Geographically it can be divided into three regions namely, high lands, mid lands and low lands. The high land slopes down from western ghats and it is the area of major plantations like tea, coffee, rubber, cardamom and other spices. The mid lands lie between mountains and low lands, is an area of intensive cultivation such as cashew, coconut, casava(tapioca), banana, rice, ginger, pepper, sugar cane and different varieties of vegetable> The low lands or the coastal area is made up of river deltas, backwaters and shore of Arabian sea. This is essentially a land of coconuts and rice.

2.1.1 Land area

Land area of Kerala State is 38,863 sq. km which is about 1.18% of the total area of Indian Union Land use pattern in the state is given in Table - I.

TABLE - I

Land UseThousand hectares
Forests1081.51
Non-agricultural317.87
Barren and uncultivable41.03
Permanent and other grazing land0.93
Land under miscellaneous tree crops23.26
Cultivable waste67.41
Fallow other than current fallow29.34
Current fallow55.53
Net area sown2268.61

Source: Farm Guide 1999

2.1.2 Coastal area

The coastal line of Kerala State is about 590km long. The exclusive economic zone (sea spread upto 200 meters) lying adjacent to Kerala coast is spread over 36000 sq. km which is almost equivalent to the land area of the State. In addition to this, there is an extensive inland water spread of over 4 lakhs hectares. As a result fishing is one of the important economic activities in the State.

2.1.3 Administration

The State has a unicameral legislation having a legislative assembly of 141 members. The State is divided into 14 administrative districts. In addition, there are 63 talukas, 152 development blocks, 55 municipalities, 3 municipal corporations, 1 contonment, 990 Panchayats and 1452 revenue villages.

2.2 DEMOGRAPHIC CONTEXT

The total population of Kerala is about 29.1 millions which is about 3.43% of the total population of the country. It has unique distinction of having a sex ratio more than one . It is one of the very few States in the country which has achieved record level of literacy with almost every person in the State able to read and write.

2.2.1 Population

The total population of the State is 29.1 millions with 14.23 millions males and 14.48 millions female. The State has sex ratio of 1036 female per thousand males which is unique in the whole of the country. The density of population is about 749 persons per sq. km. Almost 73% of the population is living in rural area and 27% in cities.

2.2.2 Language

The official language of the State is Malayalam, although large number of people are conversant with English due to high rate of literacy.

2.2.3 Birth rate

The State has combined birth rate of 19.8 with urban birth rate 20.2 and rural birth rate 19.7.

2.2.4 Death rate

The State has combined death rate of 5.9 with urban death rate of 6.0 and rural death rate of 5.9. The life expectancy amongst male is 67.2 years and that among female population is 72.4 years

2.2.5 Infant Mortality Rate

The State has a combined infant mortality rate of 22 with urban infant mortality rate of 15 and ruralmortality rate of 23.

2.2.6 Literacy rate

Kerala is the most literate amongst all the States of India. The total literacy rate of the State is 90.59% with male literacy rate of 94.45% and female literacy rate of 86.93%.

2.2.7 Working population

The working population of the State is around 8.30 millions comprising of workers in organised and unorganised sectors, cultivators, agricultural laborers and house hold workers as per census of India 1991. The total number of persons employed in organised sector is about 1.17 millions.

2.2.8 Unemployment

The number of job seekers in employment exchanges of Kerala was about 3.75 millions in the year 1998 with 2.06 millions female and 1.69 millions male.

2.2.9 Per-capita income

The per capita income of the State is Rs.11,936 at current prices and Rs.2444 at constant prices at 1980-81 base.

2.3 ECONOMIC SCENARIO

The State income in 1997-98 at constant prices was Rs.77.82 billions as against Rs.73.03 billions in1996-97 registering a growth rate of 6.6%. The sectoral distribution of State income during 1997-98 at constant prices was as given in Table - 2.

TABLE - 2

SectorBillion rupees
Agriculture22.59
Manufacturing10.63
Trade, hotel and restaurant10.27
Banking and insurance7.62
Construction7.02
Transport(other than railway) & storage0.67

Source: Economic Review, 1998

2.3.1 Agriculture

The State is 50% short of food because commercial agriculture is more than the food crops. It is shortof food grains specially rice which is a staple food of people of Kerala. The State has a uniquecropping pattern. It accounts for 92% of India's rubber production, 70% of coconut production, 60%of tapioca production and almost 100% of lemon grass oil production.

2.3.1.1 Contribution to State income:

At constant prices in the year 1997-98 agriculture sector contributed Rs.22.59 billions which amounts to 29% of the total State Income.

2.3.1.2 Population engaged in agriculture sector:

As per Census of India 1991, in the State of Kerala there are 10.12 million cultivators and 2.12 million agricultural labourers. Together they represent 19% of the total working population of the State.

2.3.1.3 The area under cultivation:

Coconut cultivation is occupying the largest cropped area in the State followed by rubber and rice. In the year 1996-97, the actual agricultural land use pattern in Kerala was as below:

Net area sown2.27 million hectares
Area sown more than once0.75 million hectares
Total cropped area3.02 million hectares

During the year 1996-97 the net area irrigated in the State was 356.99 thousand hectares whereas the gross area irrigated was 458.6 thousand hectares.

2.3.1.5 Major crops:

The major crops in the state of Kerala are rice, tapicoa, coconut, arecanut, blackpepper, sugarcane, ginger, cardamom, cashew nut, rubber, coffee, tea, banana, etc.

2.3.1.6. Fertilizer consumption and plant protection measures:

During the year 1996-97, the consumption of fertilizers in agricultural sector in the State was as below:

Nitrogen86385 tonnes
Phosphorous41438 tonnes
Potash59750 tonnes

In addition, consumption of various fungicides, insecticides etc. was as given below:

Fungicides895.98 tonnes
Insecticides218.41 tonnes
Weedicides15.74 tonnes
Rodenticides10.40 tonnes

2.3.2 Manufacturing Sector

The manufacturing sector is the second largest economic sector in the state. Itcomprises of manufacturing units both registered and unregistered but does not include mining, quarrying, generation of electricity and gas, water supply and construction. The index of industrial production at base level as 1980-81, was 284.05 in1996-97 as compared to 255.49 in 1995-96. Manufacture of machinery and equipments other than transport equipment has the largest share in industrial production followed by paper and paper products.

2.3.2.1. Contribution to State income:

At constant prices (1980-81 base year) in the year 1997-98 the manufacturing sector contributed Rs.10.63 billions to the state income.

2.3.2.2. Employment:

As per Census of India 1991 there are 1.17 million workers engaged in manufacturing sector. They represent 14% of the total working population of the state.

2.3.2.3. Contribution to export:

The details of items exported from the State of Kerala during 1997-98 along with their value in rupee millions are given in Table - 3

TABLE - 3

Marine products- 94.04*
Cashew- 73.18*
Coffee- 69.07
Coir and coir products- 2.13*
Pepper- 1.64
Ginger- 33.66

*Note: Figures pertain to the year 1996-97

2.3.3. Mining sector

The mineral resources in the states are mainly limeshell, mineral sand, limestone, silica sand and china clay. Some drilling efforts and investigations have also revealed presence of lignite seams in some areas of the state.

2.3.3.1 Contribution to state income:

During the year 1998-99 the mineral revenue in the state was Rs.116.2 million of which Rs.73.8 millions was from minor minerals and Rs.42.4 millions was from major minerals.

2.3.3.2 Population engaged:

As per the estimates provided by Department of Mining and Geology, about 20,000persons are employed in mining sector in the state.

2.3.3.3. Mining area, production:

The most of the mining activities in the state are concentrated in Pathanamthitta, Kottayam, Idukki, Thrissur, Malappuram and Wayanad districts. The government has issued 103 mining leases, 372 quarrying leases 4000 quarrying permits and 94 dealer licenses. The total area covered by mining leases in the state is given in Table - 4.

TABLE - 4

Mineral

 

Area in hectares
Limeshell1282.64
Limestone247.50
Mineral sand219.84
China clay88.84
Silica sand4.92
Quartz4.92
Magnessite0.81
Bauxite0.65
Araplute0.60

Source:

The production and sale of major minerals in the year 1997-98 are given in Table - 5.

TABLE - 5

MineralProduction(tonnes)Sales (tonnes)
Limestone336217329237
Silica sand196770184243
Mineral sand182546153945
China clay(raw)11818068700
Limeshell7382373823
Quartz230230
Bauxite95979597

2.3.3.4 Accidents:

There was only one fatal accident in mines reported in the year 1998-99.

2.3.4. Port Sector

There are total 16 ports in the State. Cochin, the only major port in the State, is controlled by Ministry of Surface Transport, Govt. India. Remaining 3 intermediate and 12 minor ports are controlled by State Government through Directorate of Ports.

2.3.4.1. Contribution to state income:

The operating income of the port of Cochin was Rs.1554.5 millions during 1997-98. The revenue collection at the intermediate and minor ports of Kerala during 1997-98 was Rs.7.19 millions.

2.3.4.2. Employment:

The employment in the port of Cochin was 771 workers during the year 1997-98. Whereas there were about 1700 persons including stevedore labour, and port departmental employees, employed in intermediate and minor ports during the year1997-98.

2.3.4.3. Cargo handled:

The volume of cargo handled at the port of Cochin during the year 1997-98 was 18.82 million tones on board and 12.54 million tones on shore. The intermediate ports at Neendakara (Alappuzha) and Beypore only have cargo traffic. The cargo handled at intermediate and minor ports during 1997-98 was 0.13 millions tonnes as against 0.11 million tonnes in 1996-97. Port-wise details of cargo handled during 1997-98 are given in Table - 6.

TABLE - 6

PortCargo handled tonne
Azhikkal908.50
Needakara81390.00
Vizhinjam/Kovalam1944.00
Kozhikode/Beypore44592.00

2.3.4.4. Hinterland areas:

The major port Cochin and other 15 intermediate and minor ports in the state cover the entire state of Kerala as well as the adjoining districts of Tamil Nadu such as Madurai, Coimbatore etc.

2.3.4.5. Accidents:

There were only two non-fatal accidents reported during 1998-99 at intermediate andminor ports. Accidents at the port of Cochin during the year 1997-98 were 40.

2.3.5. Construction sector

Construction is one of the major economic sectors in the State. Construction activities in the state include housing and other building constructions, construction of roads, dams, canals etc. The activities in the construction sector are expanding and registered the growth rate of 11% during the year 1997-98 at 1980-81 constant prices.

2.3.5.1.Contribution to State Income:

At constant prices (1980-81 base) in the year 1997-98 construction sector contributed Rs.7.020 billions crores to the state income. It was 9% of the total state income.

2.3.5.2.Employment:

As per census of India 1991, there were 0.33 million workers employed in construction activities. However, as per published report of Kerala Construction Workers Welfare Fund Board as on 31.3.1997, there were 0.43 million construction workers registered with the Board. As per rough estimates, there are about 1.5 million construction workers in the State.

2.3.5.3. Accidents:

The construction industry is in unorganised sector. Therefore there are no laws for reporting of accidents at construction site except in case of fatal accidents, police are to be informed. However under Kerala Construction Workers Welfare Fund Act, almost 987 workers (members) availed ex-gratia financial assistance during 1997-98 for treatment, of occupational injuries.

2.3.6. Power Generation

Hydro-power is the only commercial energy resource endowment in the state. Till recently hydropower was the only source of power within the state. Because of its environmentally fragile coast line and ecologically sensitive hinterland, there have not been any attractive location for major thermal power plants in the state. At present there are 17 hydro power plants, one diesel power plant and one wind power plant in the state. Apart from this, one unit of 350kw of NTPC is also commissioned.

2.3.6.1. Contribution of state income:

During the year 1997-98, total 5189.02 MU of energy was generated in 19 power plants contributing Rs.64483.94 billions to State income.

2.3.6.2 Employment:

During the year 1977-98, total 340 workers were employed in 17 hydro power, one diesel and one wind power plants in the state. There were total 149 persons employed in Thermal Power Plant of NTPC.

2.3.7 Road Transport sector

Kerala has a network of roads having a total length of 219805 kms. as on
31.3.1998.

These roads are maintained by various agencies such as PWD, Panchayats, Municipalities, Municipal Corporations. Forest Departments etc. The state has also taken up first project on BOT (Build, Operate & Transfer) basis for development of Mattancherry Bridge at Cochin under Greater Cochin Development Authority. Motor Vehicles Department, Kerala State Road Transport Corporation and Kerala Transport Development Finance Corporation are the agencies engaged in road transport sector.

2.3.7.1 Contribution to State Income :

Kerala State Road Transport Corporation earned Rs.3.93 billions as gross revenue during the year 1997-98, while it carried 1003.3 million passengers. However the contribution of Transport (other than Railway) and storage sectors was Rs.2403.60 billion during 1997-98. Separate figures for road transport sector are not available.

2.3.7.2 Road lengths:

Most traffic in the State is on National Highways which comprises of NH47, NH17 and NH49 with total road length of 1011 kms. and it is only 2% of total road length of National Highways in the country. State PWD in addition to National Highways also maintains 4169 kms. of , State Highways, 6887 kms. of major district roads, 8708 kms. of other district roads and village roads.

2.3.7.3 Employment :

Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) is the single largest employer in road transport sector. There were 24612 persons employed in KSRTC during 1997-98. Apart from this there are more than 200 Motor Transport Undertakings in the State. In Kerala, total number of vehicles increased from 1.33 millions in 1996-97 to 1.51 million in 1997-98. Buses recorded growth of 40.58%.

2.3.7.4 Road Accidents:

Number of road accidents in the year 1997-98 was 33820 compared to 34702 in 1996-97. Almost 96% of road accidents were due to the fault of drivers. Maximum number of accidents were due to two wheelers, followed by buses and autorikshaws. Almost 70% of accidents occurred during daytime.

2.3.8 Storage Sector

Agriculture produce and seafood are the major products which are stored in warehouses/godowns/cold storages in organised sector. Food Corporation of India a Government of India Undertaking is having a network of godowns at 23 locations in the State. In these godowns mainly wheat and rice are stored. Kerala State Warehousing Corporation is also having their godowns at number of places. Apart from this there are cold storage which store seafood.

2.3.8.1 Warehousing facilities:

The state of Kerala has both government owned and private warehouses. The Food Corporation of India has 23 depots with a capacity of 534736 MT. and Kerala State Warehousing Corpn. Ltd>

2.3.8.2 Employment:

The details of employment is storage sector are not available. However, number of persons employed by some of the major agencies are Food Corporation of India 2782, Kerala State Warehousing corporation 586, Civil Supplies Corporation 3500.

2.3.9 Fishing Sector

The State of Kerala has all the requisite natural endowments for building a strong fisheries economy. A long stretch of coastal belt and an extensive inland water-spread make fishing a major sector of the economy.

2.3.9.1 Contribution to State Income :

During the year 1998-99 the fishing sector contributed Rs. 932.1 millions at constant prices of 1980-81 which amounts to 1.2% of the total State income. The fish production during 1997-98 was as given below :

Marine575 thousand tonnes
Inland58 thousand tonnes
Total633 thousand tonnes

2.3.9.2 Employment :

The total fishermen population in Kerala as per 1991 census was 0.964 millions. The projected population as on 1997-98 was 0.995 millions which includes 0.77 millions under marine and 0.223 millions under inland sector. The active fishermen in the State is two lakhs which includes 0.175 millions under marine and 0.025 millions under inland

2.3.9.3 Fish Processing:

Kerala leads other marine states of India in shrimp production from the sea. The continental shelf adjoining the Kerala coast is considered to be one of the best in the world. A number of entrepreneurs have setup export oriented fish processing units in the State. At present there are 124 processing plants, 298 pre-processing plants, 3 canning units, 195 conveyances, 153 cold storages and 46 IQF plants in the State. Almost 20% of India’s exportable fish varieties are from Kerala.

Manufacturing sector

MANUFACTURING SECTOR

3.1. MAJOR INDUSTRIES

Total number of large and medium industrial units in Kerala as on 31.3.1998 was 474. The sector wise distribution is given below:

Central sector19
State sector61
Cooperative sector15
Joint sector29
Private sector350

As per index of industrial production for 1996-97, the following industries contributed to most of the value of industrial production in the state as given in Table - 1.

TABLE - 1

IndustryIndex for 1996-97
Manufacture of machinery and equipment
(other than transport equipment)
1142.71
Manufacture of paper and paper products841.67
Manufacture of metal products and parts
(except machinery and equipment)
722.96
Other manufacturing industries545.08
Manufacture of non-metallic mineral products346.73
Manufacture of transport equipment and parts237.84
Manufacture of basic chemicals and chemical products(except petroleum and coal)211.79
Manufacture of rubber, plastic, petroleum and coal products and processing of nuclear fuels209.01

In the small scale sector, the contribution to the value of industrial production by majority of industries as on 31.3.1996 was as given in Table - 2.

ABLE - 2

IndustryValue in million rupees
Fishing467.66
Food products2250.14
Wood products1365.16
Rubber and plastic products1792.63
Chemical and chemical products563.31
Non-metallic mineral products1505.02
Metal products787.14

In the Khadi and village industries sector, the contribution of some of the major industries during 1996-97 was as given in Table - 3.

TABLE - 3

 

IndustryValue in million rupees
Village leather154.94
Lime136.32
Rubber based industries130.48
Carpentry and Black smithy129.60
Village paltery127.68
Village oil109.12
Cottage match108.91
Textile90.83
Fibre and screwpine72.04
Khadi47.90

3.2 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL CENTERS

Ernakulam district is having largest number of working factories. The distribution of working factories in major districts during 1997 is as given below.

Ernakulam2570
Thrissur2064
Palakkad1928
Kannur1653
Kollam1626
Wayanad1610
Kottayam1227
Alappuzha1100

Brief information on some of the industrial centers is given below:

Ernakulam

It is the largest industrial center with 145 out of total 474 medium and large units in the state. Some of the very large industrial units such as Refinery, Shipyard, Fertilizer plant, Insecticide plant, Chemical plan etc. are located n this industrial belt. A natural port Cochin is also located in this area which handles majority of export and import from the state. Ernakulam Cochin is also a major tourist attraction because of historical monuments, beaches, backwater cruises.

Palakkad

It is another industrial centre with 63 medium and large scale units in the state. Some of the major industries such as ITI Ltd> belt. Palakkad is also a land of valleys, hillocks, rivers, forests, mountain streams, dams etc. It has beautiful stretch of forests and is a tourist attraction because forts, ancient temples , wild sanctuaries, hill station, National park etc.

Thrissur

In Thrissur 46 medium and large scale unit in the state are located. Many of the textile units are ocatedin this industrial belt. Other industries include iron and steel, electronics, etc. Thrissur is famous for its rich history, cultural heritage and archaeological wealth. Pooram festival of Thrissur is world famous. The centre is also a major tourist attraction because of most sacred and important pilgrim centre of Kerala, Guruvayoor.

3.3 INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES, STRIKES, LOCKOUTS AND
MANDAYS LOST

Industrial disputes in the state are declining over the years. In the year 1997-98, total disputes handled decreased to 8266 from 8577 in 1996-97. Out of the total 8266 industrial disputes handled in 1997-98 4422 cases (53%) were settled in the same year. Only 50 disputes led to strikes and lockouts which showed a decrease from 53 in the year 1996-97. The total mandays lost due to strikes ad lockouts declined to 0.71 millions during 1997-98 from 1.43 millions in 1996-97.

Manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948

The manufacturing is the second largest economic sectors in the State of Kerala contributing 13.66% to the state income. It covers units those registered under the Factories Act, 1948 as well as those not registered. As per the provisions of the Act, a manufacturing unit is to be registered if manufacturing process is carried on with the aid of power and 10 or more persons are employed or manufacturing process is carried on without the aid of power and 20 or more persons are employed.

The State Government is also empowered to notify any unit carrying on manufacturing process as a factory irrespective of number of persons employed therein.

REGISTERED FACTORIES

As on 31.12.1998 there were 17124 registered factories, including 11932 units notified as factories by State Government.

4.1.1 Working Factories:

In the State of Kerala once a factory is registered it is considered as working factory till its name is removed from the list of registered factories. Therefore, it is estimated that there are 17124 working factories in the State.

Under the provisions of the Central Act and under Special notifications issued by the State Government some of the factories are exempted from submission of annual returns and therefore during the 1998, only 3098 factories submitted annual return. However only 2900 factories submitted complete details in their Annual Returns. Therefore, only these 2900 factories are considered for subsequent analysis. The break-up of factories submitting return for the year 1998 in some of the major industrial sectors is given in Table - 1.

TABLE - 1

IndustryNo.of factories
1. Food Products548
2. Non-metallic mineral products502
3. Wood and wood products, furniture and fixtures482
4. Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum Coal products249
5. Basic chemicals chemical products
(except products of petroleum coal)
155
6. Paper paper products printing, publishing
allied industries
147
7. Cotton Textiles128
8. Metal products parts except machinery and
equipment
125
9. Machinery and equipment other than transport
equipment
117
10. Repair of capital goods80
11. Jute and other vegetable>72

Manufacture of refractory products and structural clay products including building bricks is the single largest industry as per the annual returns received from various factories in the State. There are 442 (15%) such factories. Plywood and plywood products factories (319 nos.) constitute about 11%, whereas saw mills (106 nos.) constitute 4% of the factories submitting returns. Processing edible nuts (cashew nuts) factories (138 nos.) constituted a major part of total food product factories. There are 105 fish processing, canning and preserving factories and 84 factories processing and blending tea. There are 55 units manufacturing tyres and tubes, and 83 units manufacturing other rubber products including foam rubber mattresses.. There are 83 cotton textile handloom units and 55 coir textile products manufacturing units in the State.

4.1.2 Employment in registered factories:

Employment details in the manufacturing sector comprising of registered as well as unregistered factories are already given at item 2.3.2 under Chapter 2. Amongst 17124 registered factories only 2900 factories submitted complete annual returns for the year 1998. Therefore, the details of employment, mandays worked etc., are pertaining to these factories only. The actual figures for all registered factories would be much higher. There are total 263010 male (comprising of 22064 adolescents) and 221575 female (3219 adolescent) workers in factories submitting completed annual returns. The break-up of employment for the year 1998 in major industrial sectors is given in Table - 2.

TABLE - 2

IndustryAverage number of
persons employed
  
 MaleFemaleTotal
1. Food Products3556496143131707
2. Non-metallic mineral products5561546717102332
3. Wood Wood products449654599690961
4. Machinery equipment other than
transport equipment
27558**571833676
5. Rubber, plastic, petroleum coal
products
18420922927649
6. Basic chemicals chemical
products
9856864418500
7. Cotton textiles14693371918412
8. Jute other vegetable>
textiles
1496066315623
9. Paper paper products
printing publishing
781910708889

** including 20464 male adolescent

Manufacture of food product is employing largest number of persons 131707, including 96143 female workers. It represents 27% of the total workforce employed in factories submitting returns. Of these almost 42% (55436) are employed in fish processing factories with a large number (53435) of female workers. Processing of edible nuts (cashew nuts) is another major manufacturing activity employing 39969 female workers.

Non-metallic mineral products with 102332 persons employed contributes 21% to the total workforce, comprising of 46717 female workers. Almost 97% (99491) of the workforce in this industry is employed in manufacture of clay products mainly bricks which also employs 46478 female workers.

Manufacture of wood products represent 19% (90961) of the workforce. However almost 69% of these are employed in manufacture of wooden furniture and fixtures.

Average number of persons employed in major industrial activities in the year 1998 are given in Table -3.

TABLE - 3

Manufacturing activityMaleFemaleTotal
1. Refractory structural clay product
including bricks
530134647899491
2. Wooden furniture fixtures390202379062810
3. Processing canning of fish etc.19115343555346
4. Processing of edible nuts
(including cashewnuts)
22003996942169
5. Plywood their products41532180525958
6. Manufacture of insulated wires
cables
21010*235823368
7. Coir textiles products1420855914767
8. Manufacture of animal bird feed116942611720
9. Footwear made of rubber plastics3238824111479
10. Processing blending of tea1029135610647
11. Manufacture drugs medicines etc.2828759610424
12. Tyre tube manufacturing95871529739
13. Handlooms (cotton)711222949406
14. Cotton textile mills510311856288

* including 20183 male adolescent workers.

4.1.3 Mandays worked:

In the State of Kerala total mandays worked in the factories submitting returns during 1998 were 46.33 million. The industry-wise break-up is given in Table - 4.

TABLE - 4

IndustryMandays worked (millions)
 MaleFemaleTotal
1. Food Products5.9657.29913.264
2. Basic chemicals chemical
products
4.7760.6365.412
3. Cotton Textiles2.5420.8523.394
4. Non-metallic mineral products2.5280.8623.390
5. Rubber, plastic, petroleum
coal product
2.9440.3993.343
6. Machinery equipment
other than transport
2.3790.7163.095
7. Repair of capital goods2.6220.0272.649
8. Wood wood products1.8180.7282.546
9. Paper paper products
printing, publishing etc.
1.8610.2982.159
10. Transport equipment1.0530.0881.141

Manufacture of food products accounts for highest (29%) of the total mandays worked in the factories submitting returns. Almost 55% of these manhours have been contributed by women workers who constitute 73% of the workforce in this category of factories. Processing of edible nuts (mainly cashewnuts) is largest industry (48%) in terms of total mandays worked in food products sector followed by processing and blending of tea (27%) and fish processing (8%).

Manufacture of basic chemicals and chemical products except products of petroleum and coal accounts for about 12% of the mandays worked. Manufacture of drugs, medicine and allied products contributed almost 44% of the mandays worked followed by industrial organic and inorganic chemicals (20%).

Cotton textiles accounted for more than 7% of the total mandays worked, of which almost 25% of the mandays contributed by women workers who constituted 20% of the workforce in this industry. Weaving and finishing of cotton textiles on handlooms contributed 47% of the total mandays worked in cotton textiles and it is followed by cotton, spinning, weaving and processing in mills (36%). Almost 37% of mandays in handloom sector were contributed by female workers who constituted 24% of the total workforce, in the sector. However, in the mill sector female workers (19%) contributed comparatively less mandays (15%).

Manufacture of non-metallic mineral products accounted for more than 7% of the total mandays worked. Manufacture refractory products and structural clay products mainly building bricks was the major activity which contributed as high as 75% of the mandays in this category of industry. In clay product industry almost 31% of mandays worked were contributed by female workers (47%) employed.

Manufacture of Rubber, Plastic and petroleum products and coal products accounted for more than 7% of the total mandays worked. Almost 31% of these mandays were worked in refined petroleum products sector.

Manufacture of machinery and equipment other than transport equipment accounted for more than 6% of the mandays worked.

Repair of capital goods contributed more than 5% of the total mandays. Almost 92% of these were from repair of heavy motor vehicles.

Manufacture of wood and wood products accounted for about 5% of the total mandays worked. Almost 58% of these mandays were contributed by manufacture of veneer sheets, plywood and their product, industry. In plywood industry female workers who constituted about 84% of the workforce, contributed about 40% of the mandays worked in this industry.

The mandays worked (in millions) in major manufacturing activities in the state are given in Table - 5.

TABLE - 5

Major Manufacturing activitiesMandays worked
1. Processing of edible nuts including
cashewnuts
6.394
2. Processing and blending of tea3.531
3. Manufacture of clay products2.547
4. Repair of heavy motor vehicles2.428
5. Drugs, medicines and allied products2.373
6. Handlooms (cotton)1.595
7. Manufacture of plywood products1.469
8. Cotton textile mills1.226
9. Fish processing and canning etc.1.057
10. Refined petroleum products1.037
4.1.4 Manhours worked:

In number of factories there are more than one shift working. As a result total manhours worked in the factories submitting returns during 1998 were 465.558 millions. The industry-wise break-up is given in Table - 6.

TABLE - 6

IndustryManhours worked (millions)
 MaleFemaleTotal
1. Food Products89.00760.266149.343
2. Cotton Textiles28.60816.02544.633
3. Machinery and equipment
other than transport
27.2345.00832.242
4. Basic chemicals and chemical
products
26.5104.46430.974
5. Rubber, plastic, petroleum
Coal product
25.9344.49030.424
6. Non-metallic mineral products16.1886.71622.904
7. Wood wood products12.8865.28718.173
8. Paper and paper products15.5431.79017.333
9. Jute and other vegetable> products12.2421.21113.453
10.Transport equipment and parts12.6530.70213.355

Manufacture of food products accounts for the highest (about 36%) of the total manhours worked. About 40% of those manhours are contributed by female workers (73%). Processing of edible nuts (mainly cashewnuts) is the largest (about 36%) in terms of total manhours worked in good product sector, followed by processing and blending of tea (32%) and other food products such as spices, paped, etc. (about 18%). In edible nut processing 93% manhours were contributed by female workers which is highest by any industry norm in the state.

Manufacture of cotton textiles was the second largest (about 11%) industry contributing to total manhours worked in factories submitting returns. There was substantial (36%) contribution to the manhours from female workers in this industry. Handlooms accounted for 61% where textile mills accounted for 26% of the manhours worked. Contribution of female workers was 45% in handloom sector, where as it was only 26% in mills sector.

Manufacture of machinery and equipment other than transport equipment accounted for more than 7.5% of the total manhours followed by basic chemicals and chemical products (7.38%) and rubber, plastic, petroleum and coal products (7.25%)

Non-metallic mineral product contributed only 5.46% of the total manhours. However, in this sector major contribution (74%) came from refractory and clay product sector (mainly building bricks) wherein female workers contributed 35% of the manhours.

Plywood product accounted for 70% of the manhours worked in wood and wood product industry. Whereas cotton textiles contribute3d 88% of the manhours worked in non-cotton vegetable>

The manhours worked (in millions) in major manufacturing activities in the state are given in Table - 7.

TABLE - 7

IndustryMandays worked (millions)
 MaleFemaleTotal
1. Processing of edible nuts3.48849.96753.455
2. Processing and blending of tea0.57847.31647.894
3. Handlooms (cotton)15.04312.30027.343
4. Refractory and clay products11.0335.93316.966
5. Industrial organic and inorganic
chemicals
12.9380.87013.808
6. Plywood products8.2214.52212.743
7. Coir textiles10.9100.95311.863
8. Cotton textile mills8.5723.14711.719
9. Ship and boat building10.8410.53011.371
10. Electronic goods ..
(TV, audit, radio, etc.)
10.1341.06211.196

4.2 HAZARDOUS UNITS

As per the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948, any unit carrying on manufacturing process which has potential to cause material impairment to the health of the workers or pollution of the general environment, is termed as a unit carrying on hazardous process. Similarly, State Government is also empowered to declare any operation or process as dangerous, if in its opinion the process or operation has a potential to cause a serious bodily injury, poisoning or diseases to persons exposed to such operation or processes.

4.2.1 Number of units :

In the State of Kerala there are units which are only carrying on hazardous processes. Some units are carrying on operations declared as dangerous, but many units are carrying on operations or processes which are of hazardous as well as declared dangerous by the State Government. The details of factories which are carrying on only hazardous processes but not declared as dangerous by State Government are not available. Similarly the details of factories which are carrying on operations declared as dangerous by State Government but not carrying on any hazardous processes as defined under the Factories Act, 1948, are also not available. However there are 2808 units which are carrying on hazardous processes as well as the operations declared as dangerous by the State Government. Out of these 1306 factories are notified factories and 413 are cashew factories.

4.2.2. Employment:

As per the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948, there is restriction on employment of women, and young persons in the processes or operations declared as dangerous by State Government. As a result in these 2808 factories no young person is employed. However employment of women workers in cashew factories is very high i.e. 84075 out total of 99305 persons employed.

The details of employment in hazardous units are given in Table - 8.

TABLE - 8

Male Female Total
Cashew factories 2478 84075 86553
Notified factories 4598 1030 5628
General factories 62993 14200 77193
 
Total 70069 99305 169374
4.2.3 Mandays worked and manhours worked:

The details of mandays worked and manhours worked in hazardous factories were not available.

4.3 MAJOR ACCIDENT HAZARDS UNITS

The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 framed under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 provides for hazardous installations according to level of hazards involved. There are three such categories in which a factory can be > The middle or upper tier requirements are applicable to the factories handling specified chemicals beyond certain threshold limits/quantities. These are generally referred to as MAH installation/MAH units.

4.3.1. Number of units:

There are total 34 MAH units in the State. The industry-wise break-up is given in Table-9

TABLE - 9

IndustryNo.of units
1. Paper and Pulp2
2. Chemicals including petrochemicals6
3. Fertilizers and pesticides3
4. Man-made fibers2
5. Tyres1
6. Petroleum refinery1
7. LPG Bottling9
8. Glass1
9. Ceramics1
10. Zinc Smelting1
11. Electric lamps1
12. Petroleum product storage6
Total34

Out of above 34 MAH units, one unit manufacturing electric lamp is closed since October 1998. Therefore for subsequent analysis in following paragraphs, information pertaining to this unit is not considered.

4.3.2 Employment :

The details of employment in 33 MAH units for the year 1998 are given in Table - 10.

TABLE - 10

IndustryNo. of Persons employed  
 MaleFemaleTotal
1. Paper and Pulp27101682878
2. Chemicals including
petrochemicals
34701543624
3. Fertilizers and pesticides40681814249
4. Man-made fibbers2210812291
5. Tyres130931312
6. Petroleum refining1299441343
7. LPG bottling452*12464
8. Glass52022542
9. Ceramics12342165
10. Zinc smelting518-518
11. Petroleum product storage31416330
Total1699372317716

* includes 13 young persons.

4.3.3 Hazardous Chemicals used :

Under the MSIHC Rules, 1989 threshold quantities for middle tier requirements and upper tier requirements for certain chemicals have been specified. The middle tier requirements include notification of major accident, preparation of on-site emergency plan, notification of site, disclosure of information, etc. The details of MAH units storing hazardous chemicals to which middle tier requirements are applicable are given in Table - 11.

TABLE - 11

S. No.ChemicalsThreshold Quantity (MT)No.of MAH units
1.LPG1517
2.Chlorine105
3.Motor Spirit1006
4.Naphtha10005
5.Ammonia504
6.Benzene10003
7.Oleum153
8.Carbon di-sulphide203
9.Sodium Chlorate252
10.Arsenic Tri-oxide0.102
11.Toluene10001
12.Cyclohexane10001
13.Tetra-ethyl lead51
14.Hydrogen sulphide51
15.Sulphur Dioxide 201
16.Nickel metal oxide11
17.Cobalt metal oxide11

The upper tier requirements pertain to submission of Safety Report and conducting Safety Audit.

The details of MAH units storing hazardous chemicals to which upper tier requirements are applicable are given in Table - 12.

TABLE - 12

S.NoChemicalsThreshold Quantity (MT)No.of MAH units
1.LPG2008
2.Chlorine50004
3.Motor Spirit254
4.Naphtha500001
5.Ammonia5004
6.Oleum752
7.Carbon di-sulphide2001
8.Hydrogen sulphide501

Occupational injuries in manufacturing activities(covered under Factories Act 1948)

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES
(COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT 1948)

The state of Kerala has 17124 number of working industries covered under the Factories Act 1948. In the year 1998 there are 5467 reportable Out of which 33 are fatal and 5449 non-fatal injuries. The task force could not analyze all the reported accidents because of the constraints of resources such as time and funds. Therefore the taskforce selected a sample of 499 non-fatal accidents to know the trend of non-fatal injuries in various type of industries. All the 33 cases of fatal injuries were analyzed. One accident of explosion resulting in 18 fatal injuries has been excluded from the analysis, as this would alter the result and not present the right picture.

For The industries were The fatal and non-fatal injuries have been dealt with separately and a number of injuries have been taken for each group of industries. The accidents in MAH installations have been taken separately.

5.1 FATAL INJURIES

Fatal injuries in the state of Kerala as reported in the Annual returns submitted by the factories for theyear 1998 are 33. The 33 fatal injuries from 19 factories were taken and analyzed as per the IndianStandards 3786 and the ILO Code of Practice of recording and notification of occupational accidentsand diseases. The analysis has been done industry group wise, cause wise, agency wise, nature of injurywise, location of injury wise, sex and age wise.

5.1.1 Industry wise :

Of the total fatal injuries analyzed, 18 accidents were in the units manufacturing basic chemicals andproducts. The industry wise analysis of the fatal accidents shows that 55% of the accidents are in the industry manufacturing basic chemicals and chemical products, 9% fatal injuries are in wood and wood products manufacturing industry. The industry wise fatal injuries are given in Table - 1.

TABLE – 1

INDUSTRY-WISE FATAL INJURIES

IndustryNo. of accidentsPercentage
Manufacture of food products26
Manufacture of cotton textiles26
Manufacture of wood and wood products39
Manufacture of paper and paper products26
Manufacture of basic chemicals
and chemical products
18*55
Manufacture of rubber, plastic,
petroleum and coal products
26
Manufacture of non-metallic
mineral products
26
Repair of capital goods26

* One occurrence in explosive manufacturing unit caused 15 fatalities

5.1.2 Cause wise :

The analysis of the 33 fatal injuries shows that explosion has contributed to about 52% of the fatal accidents. 12% were due to electrocution, 9% due to fall of objects, 6% due to stepping, striking or struck against and caught between objects. The Table - 2 shows the number of cause-wise fatal injuries and their percentage.

TABLE – 2

CAUSE WISE FATAL INJURIES

Type of AccidentNo. of accidentsPercentage

 

Fall of persons13
Fall of objects39
Stepping, striking, struck against26
Caught in between objects26
Expo. to or contact with
extreme temp.
13
Expo. to or contact with
electric objects
412
Expo. to or contact with
harmful subs.
13
Explosions17*52
Others26

* One occurrence in explosive manufacturing unit caused 15 fatalities

 

5.1.3 Agency wise:

In terms of the agency involved in the fatal injuries, explosives have contributed to about 45% of the accidents, 12% of the injuries are because of problems in the electrical installation, 6% because of problems in the other transmission machinery and 3% are due to pressure vessels, other equipment, chemicals, dust, flying objects and other materials and substances. Table - 3 gives the agency-wise fatal injuries

TABLE – 3

AGENCY WISE FATAL INJURIES

Agency involvedNo. of accidentsPercentage
Transmission machinery13
Other means of trans.26
Pressure vessels13
Electrical installations412
Other equipments13
Explosives15*46
Dust, gases, liquid
chemicals
13
Flying objects13
Other materials subs.13
Indoor13
Other agencies515

*One occurrence in explosive manufacturing unit caused 15 fatalities

5.1.4 Nature wise:

Nature of injury analysis of the fatal injuries shows that 18% of the fatal injuries are of the unspecified injuries 12% due to effects of electrical current, 9% are due to contusion and crushing. The Table -4 shows the nature-wise fatal injuries.

 

TABLE – 4

NATURE WISE FATAL INJURIES

Nature of injuryNo.of accidentPercentage
Concussions other internal injury13
Other wounds26
Contusions Crushings39
Burns13
Asphyxia26
Effects of electrical currents412
Multiple injuries of different nature18*55
Others and unspecified injuries26

 

* One occurrence in explosive manufacturing unit caused 15 fatalities

5.1.5 Location wise:

Multiple location injuries contributed to 63% of the fatal accidents, followed by 12% in upper limb and 9% head injury. The location wise injury is shown in Table – 5

TABLE – 5

LOCATION WISE FATAL INJURIES

Location of injuryNo. of accidentsPercentage
Head39
Trunk13
Upper limb412
Multiple locations21*64
General injuries26
Unspecified locations of injury26

* One occurrence in explosive manufacturing unit caused 15 fatalities

5.1.6 Age and Sex wise:

A total of 33 no. of people have met with fatal accident, of these 75% are male and 25% are female. 30% of the people are insured and their families were entitled to get compensation, whereas 70% of the fatal injuries were not insured. 70% of the people sustaining fatal injuries were in the age of 18 to 33 years, 21% were in the age group of 36 to 51 years. Table - 6 gives age and sex wise injuries.

TABLE – 6(A)

SEX WISE FATAL INJURIES

SexNo. of accidentsPercentage
Male25*75
Female825

* One occurrence in explosive manufacturing unit

caused 15 fatalities

TABLE – 6(B)

INSURED/UNINSURED FATAL INJURIES

Insured/UninsuredNo.of accidentsPercentage
Insured1030
Uninsured23*70

* One occurrence in explosive manufacturing unit

caused 15 fatalities

TABLE – 6(C)

AGE WISE FATAL INJURIES

AgeNo.of accidentsPercentage
18 to 362370
36 to 51721
51 to 6126
61 above13

5.2 NON FATAL INJURIES

A total number of 5467 non-fatal occupational injuries have been reported by the 2900 of industries in the state of Kerala. A sample of 499 was taken and analyzed. The

5.2.1 Industry-wise:

The industry-wise analysis of non-fatal injuries shows that 38% of the accidents are in the cotton textile manufacturing industry and 27% are in the industries manufacturing basic chemicals and chemical products. The Table - 7 shows the industry-wise non-fatal injuries.

TABLE – 7

INDUSTRY WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

Industry descriptionNo.of accidentsPercentage

 

Manufacture of food products122.4
Manufacture of cotton textiles18938
Manufacture of wool, silk and
man-made fibbers
40.8
Manufacture of jute and other
vegetable
30.6
Manufacture of wood and
wood products
30.6
Manufacture of paper and
paper products
51
Manufacture of basic chemicals
and chemical products
13527
Manufacture of rubber, plastic,
petroleum and coal products
234.6
Manufacture of non-metallic
mineral products
5110
Basic metals and alloys industry183.6
Manufacture of metal products
and parts
244.9
Manufacture of machinery
and equipment
81.7
Manufacture of transport equipments
and parts
20.4
Other manufacturing industries10.2
Repair of capital goods20.4
Storage and ware housing10.2
5.2.2 Age and Sex wise:

Of the injured 95% persons were male and 5% were female. Injuries were high (48%) in the age group of 36-51, followed by 38% in the age group of 18-36, 14% in the age group of 51-61. 90% of the persons were insured and 10% uninsured. The Table - 8 gives the details of injuries age and sex wise.

TABLE – 8(A)

SEX WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

SexNo.of accidents

 

Percentage

 

Male47795
Female225

TABLE – 8(B)

INSURED/UNINSURED NON-FATAL INJURIES

Insured/UninsuredNo.of accidentsPercentage
Insured45090
Uninsured4910

TABLE – 8(C)

AGE WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

AgeNo.of accidentsPercentage

 

15 to 1820.5
18 to 3618838
36 TO 5123947
51 to 616814
61 above20.5
5.2.3 Cause Wise:

Cause wise analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows that 37% of the accidents are due to struck by falling objects, 29% by stepping on, striking against and struck by objects, 11% each by fall of persons and by caught in between objects. The Table - 9 shows the cause-wise non-fatal injuries.

TABLE – 9

CAUSE WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

Type Of AccidentNo.of accidentsPercentage

 

Fall of persons5511
Fall of objects18337
Stepping, striking, struck
against
14529
Caught in between objects5511
Over-exertion or wrong
movements
153
Expo. to or contact with
extreme temp.
194
Expo. to or contact with
harmful substances.
194
Others82

In textile industry where the number of non-fatal injuries are high, 35% of the injuries are due to stepping on, striking against or struck by objects, 32% injuries are due to fall of objects. Similarly in basic chemical and chemical products manufacturing industry 34% injuries are due to stepping striking against or struck by objects and 28% injuries are due to fall of objects. Overall falling of objects contributed to 37% of the accidents.

5.2.4 Agency Wise

The Indian Standard 3786-1983 which is as comprehensive as the ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases has been used to These are given in the Annex of the report.

The analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows that material and substances is the major agency contributing to 30% of the injuries and machinery other than transmission, wood and metal working machinery has contributed to 21% of the injuries

In textile industry which has 38% of non-fatal injuries, the major agency responsible are machinery contributing to 40% of the injuries, and materials and substances contributing to 26% of the injuries. Similarly in case of basic chemical products industry some of the agencies involved is material and substances which contribute to about 29% of the injuries in this segment. Table - 10 shows the agency involved in non-fatal injuries in different group of industry.

TABLE – 10

AGENCY WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

AgencyNo.of accidentsPercentage

 

Prime Movers10.2
Transmission machinery173.4
Metal working machine163.2
Other machines10621
Other wheeled Means
of Trans.
285.5
Electrical installations10.2
Tools, implements
applns.
4910
Ladders, mobile ramps81.6
Scaffolding30.6
Other equipments40.8
Dust, gases, liquid
chemicals
234.7
Flying objects173.4
Other materials
subs.
14930
Indoor4910
Animals20.4
Other agencies265
5.2.5 Location wise :

According to IS3786 and ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of occupational accidents and diseases, the location of injury has been divided into 9 categories. 40% of the injuries have occurred in the upper limp region comprising of shoulder, upper arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand and fingers. This is closely followed by 37% in the lower limb region comprising of the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, foot and toes.

In textile industry location of injury is mainly in the upper limp and the lower limb, contributing to 41% of the injuries each. In basic chemical and chemical product manufacturing industry, 45% of the injuries of the upper limb, followed by 24% to the lower limb and 20% to the head region. Overall 15% of the injuries are to the head region which include injuries to cranium (skull, brain, scalp), eye, ear, mouth, nose and face. The Table - 11 shows the distribution of injuries location-wise.

TABLE – 11

LOCATION WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

Location of injuryNo.of accidentsPercentage

 

Head7615
Neck30.6
Trunk173.4
Upper limb19739.4
Lower limb18337
Multiple locations163.2
General injuries51
Unspecified locations
of injury
20.4
5.2.6 Nature of injury wise:

Nature of injury according to IS3786 is

Non-fatal injuries in the state have been found to be mainly the nature of wounds like lacerations, cuts, contussion with wounds, scalp wounds, etc. these wounds have contributed to 43% of the injuries. 19% of injuries are of superficial nature like abrasion, scratches, blisters, etc., 13% of the injuries are of sprains and strains nature. Table - 12 gives the percentage distribution of injuries.

TABLE – 12

DISTRIBUTION OF INJURIES

Nature of injuryNo.of accidentsPercentage
Fractures142.8
Dislocations40.8
Sprains and strains6814
Amputations Enucleations40.8
Other wounds21543
Superficial injuries9719
Contusions Crushings5912
Burns306
Acute poisoning10.2
Multiple injuries of different nature30.6
Others and unspecified
injuries
40.8

In textile industry 48% of the injuries are wounds in nature and 16% are superficial injuries. In basic chemical and chemical products industry 45% of the injuries are wounds and 15% are superficial injuries.

5.3 COMPUTATION OF FREQUENCY, SEVERITY AND INCIDENCE RATE

5.3.1 Frequency Rate

The Frequency Rate(FR) is calculated for the number of reportable lost time injuries. The FR for 5467 accidents in all type of industries taken together is 13.02 and for the fatal injuries the frequency rate is 0.08.

5.3.2 Severity Rate

The Severity Rate(SR) is calculated on the basis of mandays lost due to reportable injuries and man hours worked. The SR for 5467 accidents in all type of industries taken together is 142.1 and that for the fatal injuries is 10.9.

5.3.3 Incidence Rate

The general Incidence Rate(IR) is taken as the ratio of the number of injuries to the number of persons employed during the period of review and is expressed as per thousand persons employed. The IR for all type of injuries in the state of Kerala for the year 1998 is 11.28. Industry wise FR, SR and IR is as given in the Table - 13.

TABLE - 13

Sr.no.IndustryFrequency RateSeverity RateIncidence Rate
1Food Products1.77312.01
2.Beverages, Tobacco, etc.31229.3062.4
3.Cotton textiles30.2207.6773.32
4.Wool, silk and manmade
fiber textiles
54.58840107
5.Jute and other vegetable fiber textiles11.59165.659.98
6.Textile products0.7855.271.5
7.Wood and wood
products, furniture
1.21615.022.42
8.Paper, paper products
printing, etc.
6.99153.113.61
9.Basic chemicals and chemical products8.36132.514
10.Rubber, plastic, petroleum and coal products13.28124.714.61
11.Non-metallic mineral
products
50.52563.111.30
12.Basic metals and
alloys industries
28.22163.662.86
13.Metal products and
parts except machinery
35.47673.3100.1
14.Machinery and equipment other than transport14.4114.313.8
15.Transport equipment
and parts
16.7116.239.58
16.Other manufacturing industries15.922027.1
17.Repair of capital
goods
5.563.79.8
18.Construction15.38238.441.87
19.Storage and
warehousing services
5.558.30.25
20.Repair services3.1263.17.14

5.4 ACCIDENTS IN MAH FACTORIES

Kerala State has 33 working MAH factories, employing 17400 workers. Out of these 16634 are male, 753 female and 13 young persons.

There have been 3 fatal injuries and 579 non-fatal injuries in these units. None of the injuries caused involved fire, explosion and toxic releases.

The fatal injuries have resulted in loss of 18000 mandays while the non-fatal injuries have led to loss of 6486.5 mandays.

Occupational diseases and poisoning in manufacturing activities

OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES AND POISONING IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases defines occupational diseases as “a disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activity.” Under Section 89 of tde Factories Act 1948 where any worker in a factory contacts any diseases specified in tde Third schedule (Annexure-I), tde manager of tde factory shall send a notice tdereof to such autdorities and in such form and witdin such time as may be prescribed.

Also any medical practitioner attending on a person who is or has been employed in a factory and is suffering from diseases specified in tde Third Schedule shall witdout delay send a report in writing to tde office of tde Chief Inspector of Factories.

In tde state of Kerala no occupational disease cases have been reported to tde Directorate of Factories and Boilers. However, tde ESIC, which deals witd compensation to tde workers for any loss while working in tde factory has 44 cases of occupational diseases as per tde Employees State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Act 1948. List of occupational diseases is given in Annexure-II. Out of 44 cases, 26 cases are byssinosis, 2 are silicosis, 2 are Pneumoconiosis, 2 are noise induced hearing loss, 2 are silicosiderosis and 1 is carcinoma lung. Of tde above byssinosis, silicosis, occupational cancer and noise induced hearing losses are notifiable diseases as per tde Third schedule under section 89 of tde Factories Act 1948. These cases have not been reported to tde Director of Factories and Boilers. The 31 workers who have acquired tde above diseases are mostly from textile, spinning & weaving mills and are receiving compensation from tde ESIC as per tde laid down rules.

The occupational diseases results in loss of earning capacity of tde workers. This loss varies according to tde occupational diseases contracted by tde worker. The severity of tde disease may result in permanent disability to tde worker. The cases tdat have been reported and are being compensated by tde ESIC in tde state of Kerala show tdat tde loss in earning capacity varies from 5-100%. In most of tde cases tde loss is more tdan 50%. Of tde 44 cases, 26 cases are Byssinosis and tde loss in earning capacity. for tdis disease ranged from 20-80%. There are 3 cases of COPD witd tde loss in earning capacity from 40-100%. Silicosis, Pneumoconiosis and silicosiderosis have resulted in tde loss of earning capacity ranging from 5-100%. There is also a case of carcinoma Lung which has resulted in a 100% loss in tde earning capacity of tde worker. The Table - 1 gives tde details of occupational disease, no. of cases and tde percentage of loss in earning capacity.

TABLE – 1

Occupational DiseasesNo.of cases% Loss in earning capacity
Silicosis25 - 100
Silicosiderosis240 - 100
Pneumoconiosis280
Byssinosis2620 - 80
Chronic Lung1100
Loss of vision1100
COPD340 – 100
Carcinoma Lung1100
Noise induced deafness210
Kerato Plassi125

The industry-wise analysis of tde occupational diseases shows tdat tde textile industry has tde highest number of occupational diseases, and Byssinosis is tde major disease. In tde foundry industry tde occupational diseases detected are Pneumoconiosis, silicosiderosis and byssinosis. In tde plywood industry noise induced hearing loss is prevailed. The Table - 2 gives tde industry-wise occupational disease and tde no. of cases reported.

TABLE – 2

IndustryOccupational diseases reportedNo. of cases
LatexSilicosis1
FoundryPneumoconiosis
Silicosisderosis
Byssinosis
1
2
1
RayonChronic Lung1
Textile MillsByssinosis
Carcinomo Lung
25
1
Plywood industriesNoise induced hearing loss2

The cases reported above are only from tde industries covered by tde ESIC Act 1948 and tderefore cannot be taken as a true sample of tde total population of workers working in tde manufacturing sector in tde state of Kerala. However, tde figures are sufficient indicators of tde dangers of tde occupational diseases arising from tde risk factors existing in tde work place, and needs to be looked into.

Management of occupational safety and health at unit level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT UNIT LEVEL

The Chapter as is evident, deals with the management of occupational safety and health at the unit level, i.e. manufacturing units. The state has a total no. of 17124 manufacturing units, the breakup of which according to factories registered under Section 2(m), Section 85 of the Factories Act, 1948 is given in Chapter - 4. In order to have a fair idea, about the safety and health status in these units, the following aspects on safety and health have been covered under the Chapter :-

  • Safety Policy
  • Appointment of Safety Officers
  • Safety Committee
  • Occupational health centers (FMO, Ambulance)
  • Welfare (WO, Canteen, creche, lunch room, shelter etc.)
  • On-site emergency plans
  • Safety reports
  • Safety audits
  • HAZOP studies

There are certain statutory requirements as provided under the Factories Act, 1948 and Rules framed thereunder, for each of the aspects stated above. Items 7.6 to 7.9 are additional requirement exclusively applicable to MAH installations which are covered by separate set of rules. Each of the aspect with its status has been discussed in the following paragraphs.

7.1 SAFETY POLICY

The Rule 81 AB of the Kerala Factory Rules, 1957 framed under the provisions of Sections 7A(3), 41-B(2) and 112 requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by the factories meeting the following criteria :-

  • Units covered under Section 2(m)(i) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers
  • Units covered under Section 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 100workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948
  • Units covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948

In addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories or >

As per the details available 3047 units required preparation of safety policy, however, 780 units only have prepared the safety policy which is about 25% of the total.

7.2 APPOINTMENT OF SAFETY OFFICERS

As per the provisions of Section 40-B of the Factories Act, 1948, Safety Officer is required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria :-

7.2.1 (a) Units employing more than 1000 workers,

Units wherein any manufacturing process or operation is carried on Involving any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or diseases or any hazard to health.

As per the details available, 78 Safety Officers were required to be appointed. As against this89 Safety Officers were appointed in various factories in the State.

7.3 SAFETY COMMITTEE

The Rule 81-I of the Kerala Factory Rules, 1957 framed under the provisions of Section 41 and 41-G of the Factories Act, 1948 require constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:-

  • Units employing 250 or more workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers
  • Units covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers

As per information available 2819 units required constitution of Safety Committees. However, only 132 units have constituted Safety Committees. It is observed that less than 5% of the units have constituted the Safety Committees. Further, cashew nut factories covered under Section 87 which are more hazardous in nature have not constituted Safety Committees at all.

7.4 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH CENTERS

As per the Rule 81-AJ of the Kerala Factory Rules, 1957 prescribed under the Section 41-C of the Factories Act, 1948 Occupational Health Centers are required to be set up in the Factories carrying and ‘hazardous process’ as described under Section 2(cb) of the Act. The Industries have been divided into 3 categories. i.e. the industries employing up to 50 workers, employing 51 – 100 workers and employing more than 200 workers. No information is available regarding requirement and establishment of Occupational Health Centers in factories. However in 93 factories submitting complete annual returns, ambulance room have been set up.

7.5 WELFARE

This part of the Chapter deals with the Welfare facilities e.g. appointment of Welfare officer, crèche facilities, canteen facilities, shelters, rest room and lunch room.

As per the provisions of Section 49 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 500 workers is required to employ a Welfare Officer. As per the details available 177 units were required to appoint the welfare officers. However, 160 units have actually appointed the welfare officers.

As per the provisions under Section 48 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing 30 or more than women workers are required to provide creche facilities for the use of children under the age of 6 years for the women employees. There are certain requirements under the Section for these creches which are to be met by the occupier of the factory.

As per the details available 560 units have provided the creche facilities.

As per the provisions under Section 47 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 150 workers is required to provide adequate and suitable>

As per the details available 1462 units have provided the shelters or rest rooms and 1121 units have provided lunch rooms facilities.

As per the provisions under Section 46 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 250 workers is required to provide canteen facilities for the use of workers.

As per the details available 490 units have provided canteen facilities.

As stated earlier items 7.6 to 7.9 are the additional items exclusively applicable to Major Accident Hazard Control Unit. There are a total number of 33 working MAH units in the State. The Statutory requirement for the units are covered by “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard (Kerala) Rules, 1993” notified under Section 41-B of the Factories Act, 1948. The Statutory requirement for the above items and their status is discussed in the following paragraphs.

7.6 ON-SITE EMERGENCY PLANS

As per the provisions of the Rule 13 of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard (Kerala) Rules, 1993” an occupier who has control of the Industrial activity as described under the Rule shall prepare an on-site emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on the site on which industrial activity is carried on.

As per the information available 33 no. of MAH installations were required to prepare the on-site emergency plan. However, 32 MAH installation have prepared the plans and submitted to the Director of Factories.

7.7 & 7.8 SAFETY REPORTS AND SAFETY AUDITS

As per the provisions of the Rule 10 of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard (Kerala) Rules, 1993” it is mandatory for an occupier to prepare and submit to the Chief Inspector before the commencement of an industrial activity the Safety Report of the Industrial activity to which these rules apply. The Safety Report is to be submitted in the prescribed format. Further it is advisable that all the units after the commencement of the Industrial activity shall carry out an independent Safety Audit of the respective industrial activities with the help of an expert not associated with such industrial activities. This will help the management to know the weak points in their system and to take suitable>

As per the information available 26 no.of units were required to prepare Safety Reports. However, 23 units have prepared the Safety Report and submitted to the Director of Factories. Further, 27 units have carried safety audit and submitted reports to the Director of Factories.

7.9 RISK ASSESSMENT STUDIES

The HAZOP Studies i.e. the hazard and operability studies are carried out in advance on any plant to examine the process or at least the relevant parts of the process to discover how deviation from the intention of design can occur to decide whether such deviations can give rise to hazardous conditions.

The technique aims to simulate the imagination of designer in a systematic way and is useful in identifying potential hazards in advance and allow the user to take corrective measures.

As per the information available 23 units have conducted risk

assessment studies.

Management of occupational safety and health at state level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT STATE LEVEL

Management of safety and health at the state level is more complex than at the unit level. At unit level the problems are relatively simple and unit specific depending upon the type of industry. However at the state level the management of safety and health is not unit or industry specific and the instruments such as policies, legislation, etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues in all type of occupations. Apart from the Factories Act 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities. These legislations are enforced by various state government agencies such as Directorate of Factories and Boilers, Labour commissioner, etc.

Education and training plays an important role in management of safety and health at state level and thus cannot be neglected. Non-government organizations (NGOs), voluntary organization’s, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health are contributing in their own way towards the objective for giving the workers a safe and healthy work environment.

Safety and health at work is governed by variety of statutes in the state depending on the nature of work place, manufacturing activity and specific aspects of safety and health. Some of the important statutes are given below :

1. The Factories Act 1948

2. The Kerala State Factories Rules

3. Indian Boilers Act 1923

4. Kerala Boilers Rules

5. Indian Boilers Regulations

6. Dangerous machines (Regulations) Act

7. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulations) Act

8. Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals

Rules 1989

9. Major Industrial Accident Hazards (Kerala) Rules, 1993

10. Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulation

11. Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Rules

12. Building and other construction workers Act

13. Indian Electricity Act

14. Indian Electricity Rules

15. Indian Explosives Act

16. The Petroleum Act

17. Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels Rules

There are different departments of Central Government and State Government entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes. the efforts of the enforcement agencies are also supplemented by other organization’s such as training and research institutions, employers associations, employees associations, etc. in promoting occupational safety and health in the state.

8.1 DEPARTMENT OF FACTORIES AND BOILERS:

This department, under the Department of Labour and Rehabilitation at State Secretariat is looking after safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories. The department is headed by Director, Factories and Boilers. In the state of Kerala, the Factories and Boilers are under the same Directorate unlike many other states in the country where the Boilers are looked after by the Chief Inspector of Boilers and the factories are looked after by the Chief Inspector of Factories. Thus in the state of Kerala the Directorate of Factories have to look after the enforcement of Factories Act 1948 as well as the Indian Boilers Act 1923. The inspectors with mechanical engineering background are also Boiler Inspectors.

8.1.1 Organization :

The organization functions under the Department of Labour and Rehabilitation, Ministry of Labour, Government of Kerala headed by Secretary (Labour). The Department of Labour and Rehabilitation is headed by Secretary (Labour) supported by Additional Secretary, Joint Secretary, Deputy Secretary and Under Secretary. Department of Labour and Rehabilitation is further divided into the Director of Factories and Boilers and Office of the Labour Commissioner. The Directorate of Factories and Boilers is headed by the Director and is assisted by 5 Joint Directors. One Joint Director(Medical) is exclusively for industrial hygiene and health. Out of Four Joint Directors one is stationed at Head Quarters and one each in the regions - Thiruvananthapuram, Ernakulam, Kozhikode and Ammonia Plant FACT.. The Joint Directors are assisted by Senior Inspector of Factories, Inspector of Factories, Additional Inspector of Factories. The Inspector of Factories and Additional Inspector of Factories look after the respective areas allotted to them. The organisation is given below.

img

Legends :

SR. Jt.DFB - Sr. Joint Dir. of Fac. Boilers

Jt. DF B - Joint Dir. of Factories Boilers

AO - Administrative Officer

FA - Financial Advisor

TO - Technical Officer

Sr. IFB - Sr. Inspector of Fac. Boilers

IF - Inspector of Factories

AIF - Additional Inspector of Fact.

HQ - Head Quarter

Kze - Kozhikode

Tcr - Trichur

Pgt - Palakkad

Cnr - Cannoor

Apy - Alapuza

Chr - Chenganoor

Tlp -Thaliparambi

Ekm - Ernakulam

Qln - Quillon

Ijk - Iranjilakuda

Mlp - Malappuram

Tly - Talassery

Kur - Kundara

Chn - Kochi

CHW - Cashew

Ktm - Kottayam

Awy - Alwaye

Tvm - Trivandrum

8.1.2. Offices and Areas covered:

The state of Kerala is divided into 3 zones and 20 divisions. The zonal offices are located at Thiruvananthapuram, Ernakulam and Kozhikode. Each divisional office is under the charge of one Inspector of Factories and Boilers and is assisted by Additional Inspector of Factories for the enforcement of statutes. The zonal offices are headed by the Joint Directors.

The state of Kerala has notified rules under the Factories Act for the Cashew industry and has a special officer for this industry in Kollam exclusively for the enforcement of Factories Act and Rules.

In addition to the above, the Directorate has a Technical Officer (Chemical) alongwith the Chemical Inspector at the state level. The Chemical Inspector and the Medical Officer assists the Joint Director in the 3 zonal offices. The directorate also has a safety cell.

8.1.3. Strength of the Directorate :

The Directorate is equipped with trained and experienced personnel Details are as given below :

Director of Factories Boilers - 1

Joint Director Factories Boilers - 4

Joint Director (Factorie4s Boilers (Medical) - 1

Sr. Inspectors - 8

Additional Inspectors - 23

Specialist Inspector:

(a) Medical - 4

(b) Chemical - 5

The directorate also has administrative setup as given below:

Administrative Officer - 1

Finance Officer - 1

Sr. Superintendent - 1

Head Statistician - 1

In addition to the above, the directorate also has supporting administrative and technical staff - head draughts man, librarian, chemist, accountant, typist, assistants, drivers, peons, etc.

8.1.4. Activities :

The different activities undertaken by the department are given below

8.1.4.1 Enforcement :

The Directorate enforces provisions contained in the following statutes:

(a) The Factories Act, 1948 and the Kerala State Factories rules

(b) The Indian Boilers Act 1923 and the Kerala Boiler Rules
(c) Payment of Wages Act

(d) Maternity Benefit Act
(e) Dangerous Machines (Regulations) Act

(F) The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules 1989

(g) Major Industrial Accidents Hazards (Kerala) Rules 1993

In addition, a separate office of Special Officer Cashew nut Industry is established at Kollam under this directorate for enforcing provisions of various statutes in cashew nut processing factories.

Inspection of processing factories, identification of unregistered factories, investigation of accidents, approval of plans, attending to complaints are some of the activities undertaken for effective implementation of statutory provisions.

8.1.4.2 Education and Training :

The Directorate also conducts education and training programs for increasing safety and health awareness amongst various target group from factories. Seminars and workshops are also organized to deliberate and discuss issues of safety and health and to come out with practicable solutions to the problems.

8.1.4.3Technical Advice and studies :

The Directorate renders technical and advisory services in the field of safety, industrial hygiene and occupational health. A separate cell is established, headed by Joint Director (Medical) to undertake these activities. Investigation into major accident is also carried out by this cell. Sometimes studies are also carried out in order to assess the statutes of safety and health at workplace.

8.1.4.4 Promotional activities :

In addition, the Directorate is also involved in organizing industry-enforcement authority meet, safety day celebrations, exhibitions etc. in order to promote workplace safety and health in factories.

8.1.5 Inspection activities :

The state of Kerala has a total of 17124 registered factories out of which 5192 are registered under Section 2(m) and 11932 are registered under section 85 of the Factories Act 1948. The inspectors from directorate inspected 4612 factories registered under section 2(m) and 10196 factories registered under section 85 during the year 1998.

8.1.6 Prosecutions and convictions :

The chapter 10 of the Factories Act provides for penalties and procedures for violation of the provisions. The analysis shows that the prosecutions have been carried out under the section 92 of the Factories Act. The section 92 of the Factories Act speaks about the general penalties for offences.

During the year 1998, 106 factories registered under section 2(m) and 73 factories registered under section 85 were prosecuted. There were 28 convictions under section 92 and fines of Rs.51,950/- were collected from factories registered under section 2(m). There were 23 convictions of the factories registered under section 85 and fines of Rs.1,68,250/- were collected. There were no penalty such as imprisonment under section 92 or section 96(A). The directorate also issued prohibition notices under section 40(2) section 87A to 3 factories registered under section 2(m) and 2 factories registered under section 85. Improvement notices under section 40(1) were issued to 4 factories registered under section 2(m) and 3 factories registered under section 85. Orders calling for test reports were issued under section 39 to 9 factories registered under section 2(m) and 1 factory registered under section 85.

8.2 OFFICE OF THE LABOUR COMMISSIONER :

This is another important department to protect the interest of workers for matters related to other than safety and health. The main objective of the department is to

1.Look after the welfare of the workers

2.To see that the facilities as per various statutes are made available to the workers

3.To look after the labour disputes and industrial relations

4.Registration of trade unions

5.To see functioning of various committees formed for the workers engaged in different occupations

6.To see the functioning of the Welfare boards

7.To carry out inspections, prosecutions and convictions for the violation of the provisions of various Acts enforced by the Labour Commissioner

8.To implement pension schemes for workers working in different occupations

9.To implement group insurance scheme

8.2.1 Organization structure:

The department is headed by the Labour commissioner and supported by 2 Additional Labour Commissioners - internal reform and enforcement. The Additional Labour Commissioners are assisted by 3 Regional Labour Commissioners in 3 regions in the state of Kerala and 4 Joint Labour Commissioners 1 each for Hydel electric project, Kakkad, Super Thermal Power Project, Kayam kulam, Ammonia Plant FACT, Lower Periyar Project, Idukki.. The Joint Labour Commissioners are supported by the Deputy Labour Commissioners and District Labour Officers and Assistant Labour Officers. The organisation structure is given below :

img2

8.2.2 Activities:

The major activity of this department is to see the welfare of the labour working in all the occupations in the state of Kerala. The activities include enforcement of the following Acts:

Minimum Wages Act

Workmen Compensation Act

Shop and Commercial Establishment Act

Contract Labour Act

Bidi and Cigar Workers Act

Kerala Cultural Workers Act

National and Festival Holidays Act

Payment of Wages Act

Equal Remuneration Act

Motor Transport Workers Act

Head Load Workers Act

Maternity Benefit Act

Child Labour Act

Casual and Badli Workers Act

Inter-state Migrant Workers Act

The enforcement of the above Act aims to make available all the benefits to the workers engaged in different occupations and maintain the environment of peace and harmony in the industrial, construction and service sectors.

8.2.3 Offices and Areas covered :

The state of Kerala is divided into 3 zones viz. Kollam, Ernakulam and Kozhikode and each zone is looked after by Regional Joint Labour Commissioner. There is also a Chief Plantation Inspector stationed in Kottayam. The 4 Joint Labour Commissioners are exclusively looking after the 4 projects/plants each - Hydel electric project, Kakkad, Super Thermal Power Project, Kayam kulam, Ammonia Plant FACT, Lower Periyar Project, Idukki.

8.2.4 Inspections, prosecutions and convictions :

The department enforces various Acts for the welfare of people engaged in various occupations. The details of the inspections made under each Act, number of prosecutions and convictions for violation of various provisions of the Act for the year 1995-96 are given in Table - 1.

TABLE - 1

Sr.No.

Name of Acts

No.of inspect-ions

No.of Prosecut-ions

No. of Convic-tions

1.

Beedi Cigar workers Act

216

2

-

2.

Shop Commercial Est. Act

68404

850

770

3.

Contract Labour Act

129

4

1

4.

Minimum Wages Act

33889

656

568

5.

Kerala Agricultural Workers Act

37

-

-

6.

National Festival Holiday Act

1162

16

7

7.

Payment of Wages Act

1203

-

-

8.

Equal Remuneration Act

72

-

-

9.

Motor Transport Workers Act

4861

69

108

10

Head Load Workers Act

694

1

1

11

Maternity Benefit Act

231

1

1

12

Child Labour Act

207

-

-

13

Casual/Badli Workers Act

7

-

-

14

Inter-State Migrant
Workers Act

2

-

-

TOTAL

1,11,114

1599

1456

In addition to the state government agencies, the Directorate of Factories Boilers and Labour Commissioner which enforce the various statutes, there are other organization’s, institutions, agencies to supplement the efforts required to provide health services, training, education and awareness.

Some of such organizations, institutions, agencies identified in the state of Kerala are given below with their brief objective, areas covered and contract persons.

8.3 SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT DEPARTMENT

Kerala State Committee on Science Technology was constituted in 1972 under the Government of Kerala which was latter reconstituted as Science, Technology and Environment Committee in 1984. The committee is headed by a Scientist/technologist Chairman who function directly under the Chief Secretary and the Chief Minister. The other members of the committee belong to different disciplines and various departments and scientific organizations connected with the State Government, Central Government and eminent scientists and technologists attached to universities and such other academic institutions. STEC plays the role of a catalyst in bringing together the RD centres and concerned user agencies to identify field problems which can lead to ST solution. The main objective of the committee is to have constant review of scientific and technological policies in relation to the objectives of the successive five year plans. The committee is also responsible for the promotion of administrative autonomy for the state owned Research Laboratories and Research Institutes.

The main functions of Science, Technology and Environment committee are:

1. To advise Government on how to employ Science and Technology as
an effective instrument for social and economic change.

2. To identify and eliminate the existing bottlenecks of development by selecting and employing appropriate technology for industrialization in the corporate sector.

3. To foster, promote and sustain a spirit of Scientific enquiry and innovative entrepreneurship by properly planning and co-ordinating all activities in science, engineering and technology in the State in all its aspects.

4. To plan for quicker acquisition and wider dissemination of scientific and technological knowledge for the improvement of traditional industries.

5. To initiate and encourage planned programmes to train scientists and technologists to handle special problems in agriculture, industry and allied fields.

6. To monitor, guide and co-ordinate research activities etc.

7. To identify areas for application of science and technology to the development needs, objectives and goals of the State.

8. To advise Government in the preparation of Science and Technology Plans to the development needs, objectives and goals of the State.

9. To advise Government on all environment issues especially water and air pollution control, wildlife conservation, creation of environmental awareness through education, dissemination of information relating to environmental aspects, research and field action through specific projects, clearing of industrial and other developmental projects from the environmental angle.

Environmental activities are carried out by the Environmental wing of the Science, Technology and Environment Committee. This wing has a hospital waste and hazardous waste management committee and competent with monitoring working environment, training and education and workplace inspection. Some of the activities carried out by the wing during the last few years are :

1. Coastal Zone Management plan.

2. Environmental Awareness Champaign.

3. Study of urban waste.

4. Environmental Impact Assessment.

5. Bio village project.

Science, Technology and Environment Committee has a well maintained library having more than two thousand publications in the field of Science, Technology and Environment. Beside these publications library has well collection of video cassettes and films. The committee has also been publishing a number of booklet/brochures on environment. The organisation is headed by the Director.

8.3.1 Pollution Control Board:

Kerala State Pollution Control Board was set up in 1974 under Health Family Welfare Department, Government of Kerala. The Board is a statutory authority for planning, supervising and implementing comprehensive programmes for prevention and control of pollution in the State of Kerala. The board with its Head Office at Thiruvananthapuram has regional and district offices and headed by a Chairman.

The Board is the environmental protection authority and is responsible for controlling water, air, noise and land pollution for maintaining the wholesomeness of environment. The Board is competent in the areas of environmental protection, environmental monitoring, policy and standard, training educations, environmental legislations and laboratory analysis.

The statutory activities of the Kerala State Pollution Control Board are carried by more than 70 engineers and 50 scientist at time of reporting beside administrative support. The board has a library with good collection of publications, w ell equipped laboratory and mobile laboratory. The board has published a number of project report in the field of environmental protection beside regularly bring out quarterly newsletter on environmental activities. The Contact person is Member Secretary.

8.4 INDUSTRIES AND COMMERCE DEPARTMENT

Industries and Commerce Department is comprised of three directorates namely Industries and Commerce Directorate, Handloom Directorate and Coir Directorate.

Except the coir sector, the industrial development plans in respect of all the other industrial sectors are implemented by the District Industrial centers headed by the General Managers or the Taluk officers under the control of General Managers of respective District Industrial centers. The developmental activities in the coir sector are undertaken by 10 Coir Project officers supervised by respective Project officers and 42 Coir Inspectorates under the control of the respective coir project officers. The department also takes care of OSH and other related issues especially in the coir and handloom sectors.

In the reporting year 1996-97 17,421 small scale industrial units were temporarily registered and 25,885 units were permanently registered. 41 sick industrial units were registered during the year 1996-97 and steps are taken to rehabilitate these units. 1236 units for female workers were also registered. in the same year. The Organization is headed by the Director.

8.5 DEPARTMENT OF EXPLOSIVE

The Department of Explosive is a department attached to the Ministry of Industrial Development, Government of India. The department with its head office at Nagpur has 5 Regional offices known as Circle Offices. Apart from regional offices there are a number of factory specific offices viz. at Bhandara attached to the Ordnance Factory. The Chief Controller of Explosives is the head of the department and function through circle offices. The Office of the Dy. Chief Controller of Explosive (Sub-Circle office), Ernakulam, Kerala was set up in 1981 and functions under the administrative control of the Regional Office at Chennai.

The Department of Explosive is entrusted with the administration of the Explosive Act, 1884, Petroleum Act, 1934 and Inflammable Substances Act, 1952. The sub-circle office at Ernakulam is a field office to carry out inspection of the various licensed and unlicensed premises coming under the preview of the acts and rules thereunder. Beside these activities it has additional responsibilities pertaining to grant of licenses in respect of the transportation of hazardous chemicals under Petroleum Rules, 1976. The sub-circle office is also competent in the areas of chemical safety, fire protection, training and education and workplaces inspection.

All these activities of the sub-circle office are carried out by the technical officers who are supported by the administrative staff. It has also a technical library for reference materials. The contact person is the Head of Office.

8.6 ELECTRICAL INSPECTORATE DEPARTMENT

Electrical Inspectorate Department is a separate agency of the Government was formed by the Government of Kerala in G.O(MS) No. 28/68/PW in 1968. The department with its headquarter headed by Chief Electrical Inspectorate has the District offices in every district in the State. The department has also a Meter Testing and Standard Laboratory at Thiruvananthapuram and 3 regional Testing Laboratories attached to the District Offices at Thiruvananthapuram, Ernakulam and Kozhikode.

The main functions of the department are :

1. Technical Inspection such as Inspections of Electrical Installations of the licenses and K.S.E. Board under Rule 29 of the Indian Electricity Rules, 1956. Annual Inspections of all H.V. Consumer’s Installations and K.S.E. Board, Power Station, Sub-station etc.

2. Inspection of the account relating to the Electricity duty : Exercising the duties and functions of the Inspecting officers under Kerala State Electricity Duty Act, 1963 and the rules issued thereunder.

3. Issue of Competency Certificate, licenses etc., such as issue of Electrical Contractors License and Competency Certificate and permits to supervisors and wireman, issue of ‘C’

The Chief Electrical Inspector to Government of Kerala is a member of the Central Electricity Board, ETD Power. He is also member of the panel for examining documents of International Electro Technical Commission. The contact person is the Chief Electrical Inspector.

8.7 PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT

The Department of Health Services functions under the administrative control of Health Family Welfare Department of Government of Kerala. The department is headed by Director of Health Services and has 14 District General Hospitals, 36 Taluk hospitals, 8 women and children hospitals, 3 mental hospitals, 3 Leprosy Sanitorium, 3 Sanitorium for chest disease, 51 Community Health Centers, 924 primarily Health Centers and 53 all type of dispensary. There are 3 T.B. Hospitals having beds 774 also functions under the department.

The main function of the department is public health care in a wholesome manner and the attainment of Family Welfare including maternal and child health care. The activities of the department centered round the programmes oriented towards preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitation aspect of public health. To carry out these activities a five tier delivery system function with Government dispensaries and those converted as a new Public Health Center to serve the population. Block primary Health Centers, Taluk headquarter Hospitals, Community Health Centers and Government Hospitals provide health services and treatment at different tier delivery system. Certain institutions function exclusively for special treatment of the cases of Leprosy, T.B., Mental disease etc. Beside these, the department also functions for the control of communicable disease, rendering of family welfare services including mental and child health services, implementation of national control/eradication programmes.

8.8 EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE AND WORKMEN COMPENSATION DEPARTMENT

The Insurance Medical Services Department was earlier a part of Health Department. It started functioning as a independent department from 1st April 1985 and all the ESI hospitals and dispensaries are now functioning under this department. The Insurance Medical services department is headed by the Director. The main aim of ESI is to provide all the facilities available under the ESI scheme to the workers. Approximately 5.24 lakh workers and their families have been benefited by the scheme so far.

In Kerala there are 13 ESIC hospitals, 136 dispensaries, 14 part-time dispensaries, 14 homeopathy units, 10 ayurvedic units for providing medical and financial assistance to the workers. Apart from this, an rehabilitation center attached to Perurkkada ESI hospital, blood bank attached to Ashram hospital, a cancer detection unit attached to Udyogmandal ESI hospital and an allergy/immuno-therapy clinic are operational. In order to make ESI scheme operational 51 local offices in Kerala and one regional office in Trichur are functioning.

In the reporting year 1996-97 5 ,24,003 workers were insured. 25,90,614 families and 22,82,376 workers were benefited from these dispensaries and 32,167 workers and their families were admitted in different hospitals. The Organization is headed by the Director.

8.9 FIRE BRIGADE

Kerala Fire Force was set up in 1963 under the Home Department, Government of Kerala to prevent the loss of life and property from the fire hazard. Beside the State Head Quarter at Thiruvananthapuram the Kerala Fire Force has 3 Regional offices at Thiruvananthapuram, Ernakulam and KKD. It has also District Head Quarters station at every district in the State.

Kerala Fire Force is responsible for fire protection and rescue operation. These activities are carried out by 3018 technical officials supported by 142 administrative officials. The contact person is Commandant General.

8.10 EMPLOYERS ASSOCIATIONS

8.10.1 Confederation of Indian Industry

Confederation of Indian Industry - Kerala Chapter, Cochin was set up in 1885 under the Confederation of Indian Industry to advice the industries on various industry related issues. The association has State level Council with various sectoral panels.

The main aim of Confederation of Indian Industry is to advice the industry on all key relevant issues including occupational safety and health. The association is competent in the areas of technical guidance and training education. The association has in-house faculty for conducting training programmes and workshop. The contact person is the Executive Officer.

8.10.2 Kerala State Productivity Council

Kerala State Productivity Council was set up in 1959. It is a registered society having Government, Management and Labour as its members, and Minister of Industries of the Government of Kerala as president (ex-officio).

The aims of the council are to increase productivity by adopting productivity technique and by preventing occupational accident and diseases by providing Industrial Engineering Services such as work study, method study, job evaluation etc., and by training programmes and workshops. The council is competent with chemical safety, machine safety, fire protection, workplace inspection and training education. In relation to occupational safety and health activities the council provide technical guidance and training education. These activities are carried out by the professional and technical consultant supported by the administrative staff.

The council is equipped with the library having well collection of reference publications in the field of industrial safety health and reading room, training room and a conference hall. The council has also produced a number of materials on the above field. The organisation is headed by the Director.

8.10.3 Kerala Management Association:

Kerala management association was set up in 1956. The association is a single body and affiliated to All India Management Association, New Delhi. It is headed by a president.

The objectives of the association are management development and training education in the areas related to industrial relations, safety, health, environment, etc. The association address the economic sectors of manufacturing, transport, construction, electricity, gas water, financing, insurance, real estate and business services, social and personal services. The association is competent with the training education and information. It has library facilities and publish a quarterly journal. The contact person is the Executive Director.

8.11 EMPLOYEES ASSOCIATIONS (RECOGNISED BY STATE GOVERNMENT)

Ernakulam District Construction Workers Union was established in 1972 under the Indian National Trade Union Congress. It is a workers association engaged in construction sector. It has 14 member committee with general convener and joint convener on Occupational Safety and Health.

The association is competent in workplace inspection, occupational accident and occupational disease statistics. It conduct medical examination of the workers through health supervisors in connection of occupational safety and health. The association holds meetings and visits worksite every month. It regularly bring out periodical in this field. The contact person is the President.

8.12 NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION:

8.12.1 Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd

Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd It was established in 1978 with a aim to promote safety and loss control through education training and consultancy. LPA has been providing safety consultancy and advisory services to various organizations through professionals with expertise in the various technological aspect of loss prevention as well as in the field of mass communication.

The Association work involved both the educational and engineering aspect of safety. The main broad objectives of the association are :

* To publicize cause and magnitude of losses and create an awareness of the need

for loss prevention.

*To provide education, training, consultancy and advisory services.

* To build and maintain a data bank on loss prevention.

The Association is competent in the areas of Chemical Safety, Fire protection, Training education, Work place inspection Fire investigation.

Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd The association has produced over 15 films on various aspects of safety beside some safety posters. The association has well maintained library with good collection of publications on OSH. The contact person is the Officer Incharge.

8.12.2 National Safety Council of India, Kerala Chapter

National Safety Council of India, Kerala Chapter was established in 1968 under National Safety Council of India, Mumbai. The council is a tripartite body comprised of Government, Employer and Employee. The council is headed by a chairman.

The main objectives of the council are to make safety consciousness in industries and among the public by preventing accident including occupational accident and diseases. The activities of the council related to occupational safety and health are mainly accident investigation, safety equipment certification, technical guidance, training and education and workplace inspection.

The council is equipped with a well maintained library. It has also collection of Industrial Safety News and Industrial Safety Chronicle published by National Safety Council, Mumbai beside Suraksha quarterly journal produced by the council. The contact person is the Treasurer.

8.12.3 Indian Aluminium Company Ltd INDAL OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE CENTRE

The Indian Aluminium Company Ltd The company has shown great concern over the health issues of its employees and therefore has set up an health center.

The INDAL Occupational Health Service Center, Cochin under the Indian Aluminium Company Ltd

The basic objectives of the center are to protect, maintain and promote the health of each and every employee by ensuring a health and hazard free work environment. The center is competent in the areas of training and education, laboratory analysis, occupational hygiene, occupational medicine, accident investigation and work place inspection.

The center is well equipped with the facilities of training room, chemical laboratory for analysis and library. Library has unique collection of more than 1000 publications on OSH. The center has both health professionals as well as technicians for carrying out the above activities. The contact person is the Manager (OSH).

8.13 INSTITUTIONS

8.13.1 Manpower Utilization and Safety Training Institute (MUSTI)

Manpower Utilization and Safety Training Institute (MUSTI) was setup in 1988. The Institute is a registered and non-profitable charitable society and only approved institute in all India level by Directorate General Factory Advice Service Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) for conducting specialized training course for prevention of chemical accident for supervisors of factories involving hazardous process as stipulated under Section 41-c(b) of Factories Act. The Directorate of Factories and Boilers, Govt. of Kerala has also approved the Institute to conduct specialized training programme on Workers Health and Safety at Work.

The Institute’s objectives are imparting training in various areas of human endeavour to develop positive attitude and motivate personnel engaged in production and related activities. The institute is competent in the occupational safety and health areas of chemical safety, occupational hygiene, fire protection, machine safety, training education, technical guidance and workplace inspection.

The Institute is equipped with the facilities of training room and library. It’s activities are carried out by faculty member on various disciplines supported by administrative officials. The institute has produced a large number of course manuals and course text books for specific training programmes. The contact person is the Executive Director.

8.13.2 Central Board for Workers Education

Regional Directorate, Central Board for Workers Education, Kochi, is a tripartite society and was established in 1958 by Ministry of Labour, Government of India to undertake workers education activities. The headquarter of the Board is located at Nagpur, Maharashtra.

The main objectives of the Board are to conduct training programmes on topics which help to improve the quality of worklife and to develop a positive attitude among all sections of employees.

The Regional Directorate is carrying out its activities through professional and education officers and is equipped with Library and training room facilities. Monographs, periodicals etc., on Occupational Safety Health are being published by the Regional Directorate.

8.13.3 Kuttukaran Institute for H.R.D.

Kuttukaran Institute for H.R.D. was set up in 1987 under the Kuttukaran Group of organisation. It is a non-government organisation and headed by a Director. The institute carry out its activities through school of management, school of automobile engineering, school of computer technology, institute of hotel management and school of fashion technology.

The objectives of the Institute are to provide excellent education to promote health, safety and occupational hygiene among the public. It has a committee on occupational safety and health. The institute is competent with the accident investigation, medical examination, training education, information and policy standard. In the occupational safety and health field the institute conducts periodical medical examinations among employees and students, arranging blood groupings and blood donation, conducts training programmes among student, staff and employees of various organisation.

The Institute is well equipped with the library, laboratory, training rooms and audio visual aids. It has also developed data base on occupational hazard surveys. The organisation is headed by the Director.

Resources available and needed

RESOURCES AVAILABLE AND NEEDED FOR MANAGEMENT OF OSH

During the study, the team visited departments and organisations dealing with occupational safety and health in the manufacturing sector with a view to establish inventory of occupational safety and health information in the state of Kerala. The activities of these departments, resources available at their disposal were examined to determine the problems faced by the organisations in the matters of occupational safety and health and further resources needed in order to effectively manage occupational safety and health at the state level.

The scope of the study was limited to cover the organisations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident forms. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, availability of safety reports, crèches, etc. as per the provisions of the Factories Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was outside the defined scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, the more elaborate in-depth study is required to be taken up to get a comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.

The findings and recommendations as brought out by the study are summarized below :

RECOMMENDATIONS

1.In the State, there are 5192 factories registered under Section 2(m) of the Factories Act. In addition 11932 factories are notified under Section 85, which are essentially employing less than 10/20 workers. As per The Labour Laws (Exemption from furnishing returns and maintaining registers by certain establishment) Act, 1988, certain notified factories are exempted from submitting annual returns. As such, only 5192 factories are required to submit annual returns, half-yearly returns, etc. as per Section 118 of the Factories Act and Rule – of Kerala Factories Rules 1957. However, only 3098 factories submitted annual returns for the year 1998. This accounts approximately 60% of the registered factories. As the Annual Returns contains basic information such as employment, man hour employed, accidents, man-hours lost due to accidents, provision of welfare facilities, appointment of welfare officers and safety officers, occupational health facilities, etc. which are essential for compilation of state level data on occupational safety and health it is desirable that submission of Annual Returns should be insisted upon from all the factories.

It is observed that out of 3098 returns only 2900 returns were found complete in all respect. Rest of 802 returns were not complete and did not give sufficient information regarding status of compliance with the provisions of the Factories Act. It is recommended that efforts should be made to ensure compliance with the requirement of submission of annual returns in prescribed format by registered factories. It is also recommended that the occupier/manager of the factories should be made to submit complete details in the annual returns. Noncompliance with such provisions can be brought to the notice of the occupier by issuing notice by the inspecting officials.

2. There are 2808 factories covered under section 2(cb) as well as under section 87 of the Factories Act. Out of these, 1306 factories are notified under section 85. As such, there are 1502 factories which are carrying on hazardous processes as well as undertaking dangerous operations and registered under section 2(m). It was informed that it is very difficult to segregate factories as coming under Section 2(cb) or Section 87 merely on the basis of information given in annual return form or license form or Registration form. Therefore, it is suggested that the annual return form prescribed under the Kerala Factories Rules should be amended to include following additional information:

(i)The description of the factory as per NIC

(ii) NIC Code

(iii) Whether covered under Section 2(cb)

(iv)Whether notified as factory carrying on dangerous operations under section 87

(v) Whether covered under MSIHC Rules as MAH installations.

3.During the year 1998 there was one incident in explosive manufacturing unit wherein 17 fatalities were reported contributing to more than 50% of total fatal accidents in the state. Since this is an isolated case, this particular accident has not been considered for making any recommendations. As such electrocution or contact with electrical energy is the major cause of fatal accident. Therefore during the inspection of factories electrical safety aspect should be given consideration by the Factory Inspectors by essential inclusion of this in their checklist. The matter should also be brought to the notice of Chief Electrical Inspector, so that the common programme for improving safety while working with electricity can be formulated. The guidelines issued by DGFASLI under section 7A with regard to electrical safety should be circulated and given wide publicity amongst the factories.

4.

Almost 50% of nonfatal accidents occurred to the workers in the age group 36-50 years of age. This may be due to overconfidence amongst more experienced workers in factories. Another reason for this could be the change of job of these workers without proper training/ retraining in the safety and health related aspect pertaining to their jobs.

It is recommended that the need for training and retraining of workers in safety and health aspect at regular intervals, and also when there is a change in their job should be brought to the notice of occupiers or managers. Further, occupiers can also be directed to introduce an incentive scheme and other motivational tools for promoting safety and health at workplace.

5. Almost 37% of nonfatal accidents are caused due to struck by falling objects and about 29% are due to striking against or struck by objects. This indicates that proper work procedure, safe system of work, safe operating procedures are not being followed in the factories.

It is recommended that the occupiers or the managers of the factories should be told about their statutory duties for designing and implementing suitable They should be instructed to design such work procedures in respect of all the jobs and the system of checking the implementation of this procedure should also be emphasized.

6. Material handling; tools, implements, appliances used on the shop floor; machines and indoors are the major agencies causing accidents.

It is therefore suggested that the occupiers/ managers of the factories should be advised on:

(i)design, maintenance and proper use of material handling equipment

(ii)safe use of tools, appliances and equipment

(iii) adequate guarding of machinery, and

(iv)proper house keeping

7.The analysis of accidents with respect to the location of injuries reveal that head, hands and foot are the body parts which are frequently injured in accidents. This indicates that proper protection of these body parts is not ensured at workplace. Therefore the occupiers should be advised to give appropriate personal protective equipment to their workers and make sure that they are used by workers while working in factories.

8. Statistics on the frequency rate, severity rate and incident rate of accident in the State of Kerala, reveal that wool, silk and other man made textile industry has the highest severity rate of accident followed by manufacture of metal products and next by non-metallic mineral products including manufacture of bricks. Manufacture of beverages, tobacco; and cotton textile industry also has very high potential for causing severe accidents.

It is recommended that industries having potential for severe accidents should be notified under Section 87 of the Factories Act. More emphasis should be given on compliance with the provisions of the Factories Act in these factories.

9.Byssinosis is the most prevalent occupational diseases detected among the workers employed in factories. Out of 44 cases reported to the ESIC Hospitals and, which are being compensated, 26 are Byssinosis cases. Byssinosis is caused due to prolonged exposure of worker to the coir fibers, cotton fibers and other such fibers. Therefore, it is suggested that all such industries processing or handling coir, cotton or synthetic fibers should be notified under Section 87 of the Factories Act and the medical examination of the workers employed in such factories should be made statutory requirement.

10.Although 44 cases of occupational diseases were reported to ESIC hospitals, and which are being compensated, not a single case was reported to the Directorate of Factories & Boilers in a prescribed format as required under Section 89 of the Factories Act. Thus there seems to be lack of co-ordination between various agencies connected with management of occupational health/diseases at unit level. It must be emphasized upon the management of the factories that whenever any suspected case of occupational disease is reported to ESIC hospital, it should also be reported to the Inspectorate of Factories/Chief Inspector of Factories in the prescribed format. It is further recommended that in the area of detection, diagnosis and control of occupational disease, ESIC should inform the Directorate of Factories and Boilers of the cases which are under consideration for compensation.

11. As regards to preparation of safety policy and constitution of safety committees, the level of compliance with these provisions is very low. The statistics regarding number of factories required to prepare safety policy and those required to constitute safety committees is not readily available. Therefore, it is recommended that on the basis of the provisions of the Factories Act and the criteria laid down in Factories Rules, all units requiring preparation of safety policy and constitution of safety committee should be clearly identified. Thereafter, the compliance with these provisions should be strengthened through strict enforcement and inspection.

12.There is a satisfactory level of compliance as far as the appointment of safety officer in factories is concerned. However, the reports of accidents in Form 24, furnishing details of the accidents, causes of accidents and agencies involved therein, non use of personal protective equipment etc. indicate that the safety officers have not been effective in discharging their duties. It is therefore suggested that safety officers in all the factories should be trained and retrained through refresher courses on:

(i) Technique of safety audit

(ii) Establishment of safety management system

(iii) Costing of accidents, and

(iv) Leadership for safety and health

This may lead to better status of safety and health management in factories. It is also recommended that there should be better interaction between Factory Inspectors and Safety Officers through discussions on the ways and means for improving the safety, health and working conditions in their factories.

13.As per the requirement under Rule 81 AJ of Kerala Factories Rules, 1957, only in 93 factories submitting returns occupational health centers are established. No information is available regarding the number of factories requiring establishment of occupational health centers. However, as per the provisions under the Factories and the State Factories Rules, the requirement could be as high as in 3000 factories.

Therefore, it is suggested that on the basis of the recommendation at Serial No.2, the factories requiring (a) ambulance room (b) occupational health centers and (c) appointment of factory medical officer on retainership/part-time/full-time basis may be identified. Thereafter, efforts should be made by prevailing upon the management of such factories to establish occupational health centre as per the provisions of the Factories Act and the Rules.

14.The provisions under the Factories Act and Rules provides for medical examination of workers employed in certain categories of factories by certifying surgeon. As there are more than 2800 factories requiring medical examination of workers employed therein it is practically impossible to cover these factories by a Medical inspector of factories employed in the Directorate of Factories and Boilers.

Therefore, it is suggested that on the lines of what is being done in other states such as Maharashtra, private Medical Practitioner could be appointed as certifying surgeon for particular areas, in order to conduct medical examination of workers and issue certificate of fitness as required under the Factories Act and the Rules.

15.Statistics regarding inspection of the factories carried out during the year 1998 reveal that about 89% of the factories notified under Section 2(m) and about 85% of the factories registered under Section 85 of the Factories Act have been inspected. On the whole, on an average 478 factories were inspected per inspector covering almost 86% of the registered factories in the state.

As against suggested norm of 150 factories per inspector this figure is quite high, leaving scope for compromises on quality of inspection. Therefore efforts should be made to bring down this ratio to a more reasonable level. This can be achieved through :

1. prioritization of inspection

2. strengthening of inspectorate

Most of the factories notified under Section 85 are the small scale units engaged in manufacturing of bricks, processing of cashew nuts, saw mills, fish processing, canning & preserving, cotton textile handloom units and coir textile manufacturing units, employing less than 10/20 workers. The emphasis on inspection of such factories could be reduced and more emphasis could be given on inspection of the factories engaged in manufacturing of chemicals, cotton textile mills, manufacture of paper, food products, etc. which are more hazardous in nature and employing more number of workers. This would require an in-depth study of the pattern of industry vis-à-vis. the quantum and quality of hazard, level of employment etc. Thereafter, action plan for prioritization of inspection should be worked out. Separate checklist for inspection of small, notified factories should be prepared, keeping in view the general level of compliance expected in respect of these factories.

16.A number of factories in the state are employing labour on contract for undertaking various activities. As per the definition of “worker” under Section 2(l) of the Factories Act, 1948, even the contract worker is to be provided adequate safety and health in the factory premises. It is often observed that the occupier/manager of the factory tend to ignore this responsibility. The Contract Labour Act is enforced by the office of the Labour Commissioner in the State. In order to ensure that adequate attention given to the safety, health and welfare of the contract labour by the occupiers, a programme for enforcement of safety and health provisions for the benefit of contract labour employed in the factory can be jointly undertaken by Directorate of Factories & Boilers and Office of the Labour Commissioner. This programme can also include awareness improvement and training and education in the area of safety and health.

17.Department of Science, Technology and Environment among other things is responsible for clearing industrial projects from environmental angle. There is a Site Appraisal Committee under the Chair of Directorate of Factories & Boilers constituted under Section 41-A of the Factories Act. These two committees are having similar objectives i.e., clearing the location of industry from safety, health and environment angle. It is therefore suggested that these two committees should work in close coordination with each other in order to avoid duplication of efforts to facilitate faster clearance of industrial projects and to reduce the inconvenience to the industries and promote economic growth. In fact, as per the recommendation of the High Level Committee, constituted by Ministry of Labour to study the overlapping provisions, the Site Appraisal Committee, constituted under the Factories Act should be empowered to give environment clearance to the initial location of industrial projects likely to be covered under the Factories Act.

18.There are more than 40000 small-scale industrial units in the state. These units are registered with Department of Industries and Commerce. The department looks after the licensing, development, training, marketing and financial aspects in respect of these units. However, the safety, health and welfare of workers ere not adequately covered by this department. For educating the owner-managers as well as the workers of small scale units in the field of safety, health and productivity, a collaborative programme can be devised and implemented by the Directorate of Factories & Boilers and the Department of Industries & Commerce. For this purpose, the training module developed by Central Labour Institute in collaboration with ILO could be used. If required, Central Labour Institute/ Regional Labour Institute can also be associated extensively in these efforts.

19.As stated at para 5, more number of fatal accidents are caused due to contact with electrical energy. This indicates inadequacy of attention paid to safety while working with electrical energy. This could be because of low level of awareness, lack of education and training, employment of non-qualified personnel for the works connected with electricity, etc. Since these aspects are coming under the scope of activities of Electrical Inspectorates, it is suggested that a programme could be formulated in collaboration with Directorate of Factories & Boilers to improve the status of electrical safety in factories. In this programme specific electrical hazards while working in the factories could be identified and the precautions to be taken could be disseminated through various modes such as training programmes, leaflets, booklets, lectures, etc. The factory inspector should also be trained in this area to identify the noncompliance with the provisions and issue necessary directives/ guidelines to the occupiers/managers.

20.The Department of Health Services in the State has 14 District general hospitals and 36 taluk hospitals. The medical practitioners appointed in these hospitals are mainly concentrating on diagnosis, prevention, control and treatment of the common diseases such as leprosy, tuberculosis, etc. It is suggested that all medical practitioners in these hospitals should also be exposed/trained in occupational health. Their extensive training in the field of occupational health will improve their skills in early detection or diagnosis of occupational diseases and will help them in recommending suitable By this way, the status of occupational health of the workers employed in factories could be improved.

21.The Insurance Medical Services Department in the State provides the medical services to the workers covered under ESIC Act, 1948. The workers are referred to the hospitals for diagnosis and treatment. However, it was found that the suspected as well as confirmed cases of occupational diseases are not brought to the notice of Directorate of Factories & Boilers. As a result, no case of occupational disease is reported under Section 89 of the Factories Act, which is contrary to the fact. It is suggested that a programme for close coordination between ESIC, ESI Hospitals (The Insurance Medical Services Department) and Directorate of Factories & Boilers should be prepared for early detection, diagnosis and prevention of occupational diseases. This will facilitate taking appropriate preventive measures by the inspectors of factories in order to eliminate or control the causative working conditions in various factories. This will improve the status of occupational health of the working

22.The programme on control of fire incidents could be prepared in collaboration with Fire Brigade Department, Industries Association and Directorate of Factories & Boilers. This programme should include, formulation of mutual aid scheme and establishments of emergency response centers in various industrial pockets of the states.

23.In addition to what is being done by the non-governmental organisation such as Loss Prevention Association of India, National Safety Council, various employers association in the state should also take up the activities in the field of safety and health on a large scale. This should include organising seminars and workshops, debates for senior executives from the industries and trade union leaders, etc. In these seminars and workshops the issues arising out of liberalization, globalization, modern manufacturing techniques and developments, new innovations in the field of manufacturing etc. vis-à-vis. their impact on safety, health and welfare of the workers should be discussed.

24.In order to promote safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories, seminars and workshops should also be organised for increasing the awareness level of union leaders in the field. The unit level union leaders should be involved in training and education of workers in the field of safety and health. In such programmes, more emphasis should be given on the role of union leaders in promotion of safety and health at the workplace.

25.The facilities available with INDAL Occupational Health Services Centre should be used to assess the occupational health status of workers employed in small-scale units, particularly those employed in cashew processing units. Based on the outcome, suitable

26.Central Board for Workers Education in collaboration with Directorate of Factories & Boilers should design and conduct specialised training programmes on safety and health for the workers. The programmes should also be organised for state level trade union leaders for improving the safety and health awareness among them.

27. While collecting the statistics regarding the factories as well as the accidents, it was found by the study team that although the factories were submitting the annual returns in the prescribed format to the local offices as well as to the Regional Offices and Headquarters, the information was not being compiled and sent to the Headquarters in time. As a result the collected information could not be processed and the trends regarding various parameters on occupational safety and health could not be established. A closer examination of the issue reveals that the information at the field level could not be compiled or is taking time for compilation because of manpower shortage. It is therefore suggested that all field level offices should be equipped with suitable This arrangement will also improve the communication among the offices of Directorate leading to effective implementation of the orders issued under the provisions of the Factories Act eliminating the delays.

28.In order to review the status of safety, health and welfare in the factories and formulate action plan on the basis of findings from time to time, a tripartite state level committee on occupational safety and health should be constituted under the chairmanship of Labour Minister. In this committee representatives of Government departments, connected with factories and labour, representatives of employers' and employees' can be included. This is also in line with the recommendations made by Standing Labour Committee to the Indian Labour Conference.

References

REFERENCES

  • Economic Review, 1998
    State Planning Board, Thiruvananthapuram
  • Farm Guide, 1999
    Farm Information Bureau, Govt. of Kerala
  • Statistics since Independence
    Department of Economics and Statutes, Govt. of Kerala
  • Administration Report 1993-94
    The Port Department, Govt. of Kerala
  • Annual Accounts and Annual Report 1994-95
    Kerala Khadi and Village Industries Board, Thiruvananthapuram
  • STEC Review 1995-96 (Annual Report 1995-96)
    State Committee on Science Technology and Environment
  • Annual Report 1995-96
    Kerala State Pollution Control Board, Thiruvananthapuram
  • Labour Statistics at a Glance 1995 and 1996
    Statistical Wing of the Labour Department, Kerala
  • Administration Report 1997-98
    Electrical Inspectorate Department, Govt. of Kerala
  • Administration Report 1993-94
    Health Services Department, Govt. of Kerala
  • Administration Report 1995-96
    Labour Department, Govt. of Kerala
  • Administration Report 1995-96
    Fire Brigade Department, Govt. of Kerala
  • Administration Report 1996-97
    Industry and Commerce Department, Govt. of Kerala
  • Administration Report 1996-97
    Factories and Boilers Department, Govt. of Kerala
  • Administration Report 1996-97
    Insurance Medical Services Department, Govt. of Kerala
  • Factories Act, 1948 and Kerala State Rules
  • ILO Code of Practice for Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and diseases
  • Indian Standards IS 3786 on Method for Computation of Frequency and Severity Rates for Industrial Injuries and  industrial accidents

Annexures

ANNEXURE - I

THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 ( AMENDED 1987 ), 1948
THE THIRD SCHEDULE
(See section 89 and 90)

List of notifiable diseases

  • Lead poisoning including poisoning by any preparation or compound of lead or their sequelae.
  • Lead tetra-ethyl poisoning.
  • Phosphorous poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Mercury poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Manganese poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Arsenic poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Poisoning by nitrous fumes.
  • Carbon bisulphide poisoning.
  • Benzene poisoning, including poisoning by any of its homologues, their nitro or amido derivatives or its sequelae.
  • Chrome ulceration or its sequelae.
  • Anthrax.
  • Silicosis.
  • Poisoning by halogens or halogen derivatives of the hydrocarbons, of the aliphatic series.
  • Pathological manifestation due to : -
    • radium or other radioactive substances.
    • X-rays.
  • Primary epitheliomatous cancer of the skin.
  • Toxic anaemia.
  • Toxic jaundice due to poisonous substances.
  • Oil acne or dermatitis due to mineral oils and compounds containing mineral oil base.
  • Byssionosis.
  • Asbestosis.
  • Occupational or contact dermatitis caused by direct contract with chemical and paints. These are of types, that is, primary irritants and allergic sensitizers.
  • Noise induced hearing loss (exposure to high noise levels).
  • Beryllium poisoning.
  • Carbon monoxide.
  • Coal miners' pneumoconiosis.
  • Phosgene poisoning.
  • Occupational cancer.
  • Isocyanides poisoning.
  • Toxic nephritis.

ANNEXURE - II

EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE ACT, 1948
THE THIRD SCHEDULE
LIST OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES

PART A

Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Infectious and parastic diseases contracted in an occupation where there is a particular risk of contamination.
  • All work involving exposure to health or laboratory work;
  • All work involving exposure to veterinary work;
  • Work relating to handling animals, animals carcasses, part of such carcasses, or merchandise which may have been contaminated by animals or animal carcasses;
  • Other work carrying a particular risk of contamination.
2.Diseases caused by work in compressed air.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
3.Diseases caused by lead or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Poisoning by nitrous fumes.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Poisoning by organphosphorus compoundAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned

PART B

Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Diseases caused by phosphorus or toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.Diseases caused by mercury or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Diseases caused by benzene or its toxic homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Diseases caused by nitro and amino derivatives of benzene or its homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Diseases caused by chromium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
6.Diseases caused by arsenic or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
7.Diseases caused by radioactive substances and ionising radiations.All work involving exposure to the reaction of radioactive substances or ionising radiations.
8.Primary epithelomatous cancer of the skin caused by tar, pitch bitumen, mineral oil, anthracene or the compounds, products or residues of these substancesAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
9.Diseases caused toxic halogen derivatives by hydrocarbons (of the aliphatic and aromatic series).All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
10.Diseases caused by carbon disulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
11.Occupational cataract due to infra-red radiations.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
12.Diseases caused by manganese or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
13.Skin diseases caused by physical, chemical or biological agents not include in other items.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
14.Hearing impairment caused by noise.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
15.Poisoning by dinitrophenol or a homologue or by substituted dinitrophenol or by the salts of such substances.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
16.Diseases caused by beryllium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
17.Diseases caused by cadmium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
18.Occupational asthma caused by recognised sensitising agents inherent to the work process.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
19.Diseases caused by fluorine or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
20.Diseases caused by nitroglycerine or other nitroacid esters.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
21.Diseases caused by alcohols and ketones.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
22.Diseases caused by asphyxiants; carbon monoxide, and its toxic derivatives, hydrogen sulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
23.Lung cancer and mesotheliomas caused by asbestos.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
24.Primary neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder or the kidneys or the ureter.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned

PART C

Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Pneumoconiosis caused by sclerogenic mineral dust (silicosis, anthraoosilicosis asbestosis) and silico-tuberculosis provided that silicosis is an essential factor in causing the resultant incapacity or death.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.BagassosisAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by cotton, flax hemp and sisal dust (Byssinosis)All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Extrinsic allergic alvoelities caused by the inhalation of organic dusts.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by hard metals.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned