Management of Occupational Safety and Health has become a very vital issue because of the technological advancements and deployment of newer technology, complex and hazardous processes. The threat of occupational hazards, particularly in the chemical and petrochemical industries is of great concern, especially for the people who are responsible for policy planning and designing of instruments and other interventions for protecting the large workforce in the country. The major problem faced by the policy planners is the non-availability of timely information on vital areas such as occupational injuries and diseases, infrastructure available at the unit and the state level for taking up awareness, promotional and developmental programs. Directorate General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI), Mumbai is relied upon by central and state governments for a variety of information pertaining to occupational safety and health. At present, the facilities available in our country do not allow as quick a response as is often needed. Further, substantial increase in the number of registered factories, introduction of sophisticated modern technology and complexities in plant and equipment design have brought many constraints in the area of Occupational Safety and Health policy making at national level. For planning of effective strategy on control of accidents and ill health, timely and reliable information is vital.
The Ministry of Labour has been deeply concerned over the non-availability of occupational safety and health information for policy planning. To overcome this deficiency the scheme “Setting up of a Data Bank-cum-Information Centre” at Central Labour Institute was proposed during the 7th Five Year Plan. The Planning Commission approved the scheme in the 7th Plan.
The scheme was continued in the modified form during the 8th Plan period with the title “Development of Safety & Health Information System and Data Bank”. During this period information systems were installed at the Central Labour Institute and the 3 Regional Labour Institutes. Databases of Major Accident Hazard Installations, hazardous chemicals, national specialists, etc. were developed. Information on Material Safety Data Sheets were disseminated to the industries and agencies related to occupational safety and health.
During the 9th Plan period DGFASLI website was launched. Abstracts of safety and health technical reports of DGFASLI were prepared, a national directory of organization profile was compiled, the statutes related to safety and health were computerized and ported on the website. Publication of INDOSHNEWS, a quarterly news bulletin of this organization was started and till date 14 issues have been published. Work related to translation of International Chemical Safety Cards in three Indian languages—Hindi, Tamil and Bangla was initiated with a view to make these cards available on the website.
The present Plan Scheme “Development of Safety & Health Information System and Data Bank” being operated during the 10th Plan envisages creation of the National Inventory on Occupational Safety and Health Information to widen the information base and making available the information at one source to help in the activities specially those related to policy planning directed at improving the occupational safety and health of the workers. The national inventory besides having OSH information collected state-wise through respective state inspectorates will also include the following:
To develop all the five Labour Institutes under the DGFASLI Organisation as the action resource centers for collection, processing and dissemination of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) information with a view to create an inventory of OSH Information for the prevention of occupational injuries and health problems in the country
The proposed scheme will have the following components:
In order to create a national inventory of OSH information, the following activities are envisaged to be carried out in each State:
The various activities under the project are being carried out by the five Labour Institutes as nodal agencies. The Regional Labour Institute, Chennai, is the nodal agency for the four southern states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, and Pondicherry.
The State of Tamilnadu was selected for the collection of data during the first year of the 10th Plan period 2002-2003. The State of Andhra Pradesh was selected during the year 2003-2004. The State of Karnataka was taken up for the collection of data during the year 2004-2005. The States of Pondicherry will be taken up for detailed study in the subsequent years.
A Task Force comprising of the following officers and staff of Regional Labour Institute, Chennai and the Directorate of Factories and Boilers, Government of Karnataka, Bangalore, was constituted for carrying out the above mentioned activities:
|1.||Shri G.M.E.K. Raj,||Director-in-Charge|
|2.||Shri P. Nagarajan,||Deputy Director (Safety) - Coordinator|
|3.||Shri B.S. Chavan,||Additional Assistant Director (Safety)|
|4.||Shri D. Gnanasundaram,||Technical Assistant|
|5.||Smt. Kanthimathi Natarajan,||Steno.|
|1.||Shri A.R. Vijendra,||Deputy Director of Factories|
|2.||Dr. V.H.H. Surendra,||Deputy Director of Factories (Medical)|
|3.||Shri K.G. Nanjappa,||Sr. Assistant Director of Factories|
|4.||Shri D. Lakshmikanth,||Executive cum Admin. Assistant|
|5.||Shri R. Vasudeva Singh,||Executive cum Admin. Assistant|
The present project aims at studying the existing system of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases at unit, district and state level in the state of Karnataka, identifying the areas for improving and establishing the system, which is in line with the systems existing in other countries.
The activities of the project have been divided in the following categories:
Based on the analysis of occupational injuries and diseases and the capabilities available, an attempt is made to assess the resources required for the better management of occupational safety and health in the state of Karnataka.
Modern Karnataka has emerged from Madras Presidency of British administration. At the time of Independence on 15 August 1947, Madras state comprised of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and some territorial areas of present Kerala. In 1953, the Madras state bifurcated into two states, viz. Andhra Pradesh comprising of Telugu speaking areas and Madras state comprising of Tamil speaking areas. Under the States Reorganization Act, 1956, the Madras state was further divided into the states of Kerala, Mysore (present Karnataka) and Madras. In August 1968, Madras state was rename>
The land area of the state of Karnataka is 1,91,791 Sq. km. and the population is 5, 28,50,562 as per 2001 Census. The land use pattern of the state is given in Table – 1.
|S. No.||Classification||Area in Hectares|
|1||Geographical Area 19049836|
|A. By Professional Survey||--|
|B. By Village Papers||--|
|3||Barren and uncultivable||475850|
|6||Permanent and other grazing land||--|
|7||Land under miscellaneous tree crops||--|
|8||Current fallow lands||1831535|
|9||Other fallow lands||512506|
|10||Net area sown||--|
Source: Statistical Hand Book of Karnataka –2003-04.
The State is divided into 27 administrative districts. This includes 176 talukas, 176 Revenue Divisions, 216 municipal corporations, 270 Towns, 5653 Villages Panchayats.
The various demographic data in respect of the state of Karnataka are given below:
The total population of Karnataka is 52850562 with 26898918 males and 25951644 females as per 2001 Census. It has a sex ratio of 964 female per thousand males. The number of literates in the state is of the order of 31710336 (67.04%). The density of population is 275 persons per Sq. km.
The official language of the state is Kannada, although large number of people is conversant with English.
|Birth Rate (%)||31.7||28.3||26.9||22.2||22.1||21.8|
Source: SRS Bulletin
The state had a birth rate of 31.7 % in 1971, which declined to 21.8 % in 2003.
|Death Rate (%)||12.1||9.1||9||7.6||7.2||7.2|
Source: SRS Bulletin
The state had a death rate of 12.1 % in 1971, which declined to 7.2 % in 2003.
|Infant mortality % per 1000 Birth||95||69||77||58||55||55|
Source: SRS Bulletin
The state has a combined infant mortality rate of 95 in 1971, which declined to 55 in 2003.
Karnataka is the good literate amongst all the states of India. The total literacy rate of the state is 67.4 %. Total literates in the state, as per 2001 Census, is 4,06,24,398.
The working population of the state is 27.812 million comprising of workers in organised and un-organised sectors, cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers as per census of India 2001.
The number of job seekers in the employment exchanges of Karnataka was about 4.37 million at the end of year 2000.
The Per-Capita Income of the state is Rs. 21,229 at current prices and Rs. 12,954 at constant prices for the year 2000-2001 (base year 1993-94). The Net State Domestic Product at current prices is Rs. 1,31,73,056 lakhs and Rs. 80,38,435 lakhs at constant prices.
The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) which is the aggregate income of the state increased from Rs. 80,843 crores in 1998-1999 to 86,872 crores in 1999-2000 registering an impressive growth rate of 7.46 % in real terms (1993-94 prices). The first three years of the 9th five year plan had posted an average growth of 7.21 % against the target of 7 % approved by the National Development Council for the plan. This order of growth rate achieved by Karnataka was higher than the GDP growth rate of 5.9 % recorded at the national level. The sectoral distribution of state income during 1999-2000 is given in Table - 2.
SECTORAL DISTRIBUTION OF STATE INCOME (1999-2000)
|Income (Rs. in Crores)||% change over the previous year|
|1. Agriculture & Allied Activities||14083||6.5|
|2. Forestry & logging||1084||4.9|
|4. Mining & Quarrying||671||18.1|
|1. Manufacturing - registered||10378||8.3|
|2. Manufacturing unregistered||5272||6.3|
|3. Electricity, Gas & Water Supply||1663||4.1|
|1. Trade, Hotel & Restaurants||11326||4.8|
|3. Transport by other means||2325||6.7|
|6. Banking and Insurance||5292||7.5|
|7. Real estate, Ownership of dwelling & Business Services||6151||14.6|
|8. Public Administration||2731||4.8|
|9. Other Services||7253||13|
|1||Contribution to state income||(In crores)||14083|
|2||Population engaged in Agriculture Sector||(In thousands)||52851|
|3||Area under cultivation net||(In lakhs)||98.47|
|4||Area under irrigation net||(In lakhs)||23.84|
|5||Major crops||Paddy, Jawar, Sun|
Teer, Ground nut
|6||Fertilizer consumption||(In Lakh Tones||9.2|
|7||Plant protection measures||(Grams)||330|
|1||Conribution State Income||(In Crores)||15650|
|3||Contribution to Export|
|1||Conribution State Income||(In Crores)||671|
|1||Conribution State Income||(In Crores)||5597|
Power Generation Sector
|1||Contribution State Income||(In Crores)||1663|
Road Transport Sector
|1||Construction State Area||(In Crores)||2325|
|1||Ware Housing Facilities|
|1||Contribution State income||(In Crores)||276|
Fish Processing Sector
(Quantity in Metric Tonnes)
Total number of large and medium industrial units in Karnataka as on 31.3.2004 was 4001. The sector wise distribution is given below:
Central sector - 150
Private sector - 3851
As per the index of industrial production for 2003-04, the following industries contributed to most of the value of industrial production in the state as given in Table – 1.
INDEX OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN MANUFACTURING SECTOR BY MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUPS (2001-2002 to 2003-2004)
(Base 1993-94 = 100)
|Sl. No.||NIC Group||Industry Group||Weight||2001-02||2002-03||2003-04 *|
|2||22||Beverages. Tobacco & Tobacco Products||5.03||168.71|
|4||24||Wool Silk & Man Made Fibre Textiles||4.71||187.88|
|6.||27||Wood & Wood Products||1.95||186.98|
|7||28||Paper & Paper Products||4.16||169.43|
|8||29||Leather & Leather Products||1.62||160.64|
|9||30||Chemicals & Chemical Products||6.66||140.32|
|10||31||Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum & Coal Products||3.33||159.48|
|11||32||Non-Metallic Mineral Products||5.60||157.48|
|12||33||Basic Metal and Alloys||6.34||159.55|
|13||34||Metal Products & Parts||3.65||167.13|
|14||35-36||Machinery & Equipment other than Transport||19.15||165.44|
|15||37||Transport Equipment, Machinery & Parts||6.41||162.32|
|16||38||Other Manufacturing Industries||1.84||131.20|
Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Bangalore
Note: Figures in brackets indicate the percentage growth compared to previous year
* Provisional figures.
The total number of factories and the number of workers employed for the year ending 2002 are given in Table - 2.
NUMBER OF REGISTERED FACTORIES AND WORKERS EMPLOYED
FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31-12-2002
|Category of factories||Factories as defined under Section 2m(i)||Factories as defined under Section 2m(ii)||Factories as notified under Sec. 85||Grand Total|
|No. of factories on register at the beginning of the period||9362||132||--||9494|
|No. of factories newly licensed and registered during the period||636||--||15||651|
|No. of factories on the register at the end of the period||534||80||--||614|
|No. of working factories at the end of the period||9464||52||15||9531|
|No. of working factories||9464||52||15||9531|
|No. of factories submitting returns||--||--||--||4001|
|Average daily no. of workers employed||--||--||--||315666|
|No. of factories not submitting returns||--||--||--||5530|
|Estimated average daily employment||--||--||--||764208|
|Total average daily no. of workers||--||--||--||1079874|
The distribution of factories district-wise as on 31-3-2005 is given in Table - 3. Bangalore and Bangalore Rural Districts are having the largest number of working factories.
DISTRCT-WISE NUMBER OF FACTORIES AND WORKERS EMPLOYED
|S. No||Name of the District||Number of Factories as on 31-03-2005|
|Textiles||Chemical||Engg.||Others||Total||Total No. of Employees|
There are 1091 textiles industries, 445 chemical industries, 2472 engineering industries and 6020 other industries. The total number of factories in the state is 10028. The region-wise distribution of industries and employees in the state is given in Table - 4.
REGION-WISE NUMBER OF FACTORIES AND WORKERS EMPLOYED
AS ON 31-03-2005
|Region||Textiles||Chemicals||Engg.||Others||Total||Total no. of employees|
Brief information on some of the industrial centers is given below:
In Dakshina Kannada the industrial districts are Bangalore, Bangalore (Rural), Chitradurga, Davangere, Kolar, Shivamoga, Tumkur, Chikmagalur, Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Hasan, Kodagu, Mandya and Mysore, Chamarajnagar.
In Uttar Karnataka, the industrial districts are Belgaum, Bijapur, Bagalkote, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri, Uttara Kannada, Bellary, Bidar, Gulbarga, Raichur and Koppal.
Industrial Disputes, Strikes, Lockouts And Man-days Lost
Industrial disputes in the state are declining over the years. In the year 2004, total disputes handled decreased. Only 12 disputes led to strikes and lockouts. The total number of man-days lost due to strikes and lockouts are 11,34,509 during 2004. The details are given in Table - 5.
TABLE - 5
INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES LOCK OUTS & MAN-DAYS LOST (2004)
|S. No.||Year||Strikes||Lock outs||No. of Man-days Lost||No. of workers involved|
The manufacturing is the second largest economic sectors in the State of Karnataka. It covers those units registered under the Factories Act, 1948 as well as those not registered. As per the provisions of the Act, a manufacturing unit is to be registered if manufacturing process is carried on with the aid of power and 10 or more persons are employed or manufacturing process is carried on without the aid of power and 20 or more persons are employed.
The state government is also empowered to notify any unit carrying on manufacturing process as a factory irrespective of number of persons employed therein.
As on 31.12.2003 there were 9477 registered factories including factories not submitting returns but excluding defence factories
In the State of Karnataka once a factory is registered it is considered as working factory till its name>
DETAILS OF WORKING FACTORIES AS PER NIC CODE
|NIC Code||Type of industry||No. of factories submitting returns|
|Public Sector||Private Sector||Total||Percentage %|
|014||Agriculture and animal husbandry service activities||2||83||85||2.12|
|151||Processing and preservation of meat, fish, fruit vegetable>||0||1||1||0.02|
|153||Grain mill products, starches and starch products, prepared animal feeds||1||108||109||2.72|
|171||Spinning, Weaving & finishing of textiles||3||209||212||5.3|
|181||Wearing apparel, except fur apparel||0||4||4||0.1|
|202||Wood, cork, straw & plaiting materials||7||110||117||2.92|
|210||Paper & Paper Products||1||27||28||0.7|
|222||Printing & Service activities related to printing||3||462||465||11.62|
|232||Refined petroleum products||0||7||7||0.17|
|233||Processing of nuclear fuel||0||41||41||1.02|
|269||Non-metallic mineral products||0||35||35||0.9|
|271||Basic Iron & Steel||5||103||108||2.7|
|281||Structural metal products, tanks, reservoirs and steam generators||6||19||25||0.62|
|289||Other fabricated metal products, metal working service activities||3||6||9||0.22|
|291||General purpose machinery||0||23||23||0.6|
|289||Other fabricated metal products; metal working service activities||3||6||9||0.22|
|291||General purpose machinery||0||23||23||0.6|
|292||Special purpose machinery||1||239||240||5.64|
|311||Electric motors, generators and transformers||0||6||6||0.14|
|315||Electric lamps and lighting equipment||0||37||37||0.97|
|319||Other electrical equipment n.e.c.||0||130||130||3.24|
|321||Electronic valves & tubes and other electronic components||0||15||15||0.37|
|331||Medical appliances & instruments & appliances for measuring, checking, testing, navigating and other purposes except optical instruments||0||164||164||4.1|
|333||Watches & clocks||0||29||29||0.75|
|342||Bodies for motor vehicles; and of trailers & semi-trailers||0||50||50||1.24|
|352||Railway & Tramway locomotives & rolling stock||0||75||75||1.9|
|353||Aircraft & spacecraft||1||96||97||2.5|
|369||Jewellery & related articles||0||82||82||2.04|
|401||Production, collection & distribution of electricity||3||114||118||2.94|
|410||Collection, Purification & distribution of water||0||9||9||0.22|
|502||Maintenance & repair of motor vehicles||0||2||2||0.04|
|603||Transport via pipelines||2||27||29||0.72|
|630||Supporting & auxiliary transport activities; activities of travel agencies cargo handling||0||46||46||1.14|
|731||Research & experimental development on natural sciences and engg. (NSE)||0||36||36||0.9|
|900||Sewage & refuse disposal, sanitation and similar activities||0||11||11||0.27|
|112||Service activities incidental to oil and gas extraction excluding surveying||0||9||9||0.22|
|141||Quarrying of stone, sand and clay||1||35||36||0.9|
|173||Knitted & crocheted fabrics & articles||0||8||8||0.2|
|182||Dressing & Dyeing of fur, manufacture of articles of fur||0||6||6||0.14|
|191||Tanning and dressing of leather, manufacture of luggage handbags, saddlery & harness||1||9||10||0.24|
|202||Wood, cork, straw & plaiting materials||3||30||33||0.82|
|243||Manufacture of man-made fibres||0||1||1||0.02|
|261||Manufacture of glass & glass products||0||3||3||0.07|
|272||Manufacture of basic precious & non ferrous metals||0||102||102||2.5|
|273||Casting of metals||1||1||0.02|
|293||Manufacture of domestic appliances, n.e.c.||0||0||0||0|
|300||Manufacture of office, accounting and computing machinery||1||0||1||0.02|
|312||Manufacture of electricity distribution & control apparatus||0||4||4||0.09|
|313||Manufacture of insulated wire & cable||0||23||23||0.6|
|314||Manufacture of accumulators, primary cells & primary batteries||0||43||43||1.07|
|322||Manufacture of television & radio transmitters and apparatus for line telephony and line telegraphy||5||10||15||0.4|
|323||Manufacture of television and radio receivers, sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus and associate goods||0||0||0||0|
|332||Manufacture of optical instruments & photographic equipment||79||34||113||2.81|
|341||Manufacture of motor vehicles||0||2||2||0.04|
|343||Manufacture of parts and accessories for motor vehicles and their engines||0||3||3||0.07|
|351||Building and repair of ships and boats||0||0||0||0|
|359||Manufacture of transport equipments nec||1||2||3||0.07|
|504||Sale, maintenance and repair of motorcycles and related parts and accessories||0||0||0||0|
|505||Retail sale of automotive fuel||0||7||7||0.17|
|749||Business activities n.e.c.||0||0||0||0|
|930||Other service activities||0||9||9||0.22|
The details of man-days worked and man-hours worked by men and women workers are given in Table - 2.
DETAILS OF MAN-DAYS WORKED AND MAN-HOURS WORKED BY MEN AND WOMEN WORKERS
|NIC Code||Total no. of man-hours worked inclusive of overtime hours||Man-days worked|
The details of man-days worked and man-hours worked by men and women workers in the public sector undertakings (government and local fund) of the state are given in Table - 3.
DETAILS OF MAN-DAYS WORKED AND MAN-HOURS WORKED BY MEN AND WOMEN WORKERS IN PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKINGS
|NIC Code||Total No. of man-hours worked Inclusive of overtime hours||Man-days worked|
As per the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948, any unit carrying on manufacturing process, which has potential to cause material impairment to the health of the workers or pollution of the general environment, is termed as a unit carrying on hazardous process. Similarly, State government is also empowered to declare any operation or process as dangerous, if in its opinion the process or operation has a potential to cause a serious bodily injury, poisoning or diseases to persons exposed to such operation or processes.
As per the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948, there is restriction on employment of women, and young persons in the processes or operations declared as dangerous by state government. As a result in these factories no young person is employed.
The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 framed under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 provides for > hazardous installations according to level of hazards involved. There are three such categories in which a factory can be > The middle or upper tier requirements are applicable to the factories handling specified chemicals beyond certain threshold limits/quantities. These are generally referred to as MAH units.
There are total 66 MAH units in the state. Large storages of petroleum product are located at Dakshina Kannada followed by Bangalore distrits. Large quantity of chlorine is handled at Uttar Kannada followed by Shimoga and Haveri districts. Large quantity of Ammonia is being handled at Dakshina Kannada. Large quantity of liquid oxygen is being handled at Bellary District. Large quantity of (5.6 million metric tonnes per annum) petroleum products is being pumped into the Mangalore – Bangalore oil pipeline.
Under the MSIHC Rules, 1989, threshold quantities for middle tier requirements and upper tier requirements for certain chemicals have been specified. The middle tier requirements include notification of major accident, preparation of on-site emergency plan, notification of site, disclosure of information, etc. The details of MAH units storing hazardous chemicals to which middle tier requirements are applicable are given in Table - 4.
DETAILS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORED, USED AND HANDLED
|2||Petroleum Products||295396 KL||Fire|
|3||Chlorine||1705 MT||Toxic and Corrosive|
|4||Liquid Oxygen||4591 MT MT||Cold burns, Oxidizing|
|5||Carbon Di Sulphide||200 MT||Toxic|
|6||Ammonia||10053 MT||Toxic and corrosive|
|7||Liquid Nitrogen||720 MT||Cold burns|
|8||Corex Gas||100000 nm3||Toxic, Fire and Explosion|
|9||Hydrochloric acid||1185 MT||Corrosive|
|10||Sulphuric acid||3039 MT||Corrosive|
|11||Phosphoric acid||21000 MT||Corrosive|
|12||Blast Furnace Gas||27000 nm3||Toxic, Fire and Explosion|
|13||Others like Naptha, Solvent, ethyl mercaptan, sulphur di oxide, Sodium Hyroxide etc.||5402 MT||-|
(COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948)
As on 31.03.2005, the state of Karnataka had 1028 working factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948. In the year 2003, for which the detailed analysis of accidents is available, there were 2010 reportable accidents in these factories, out of which 50 were fatal and 1960 were non-fatal injuries.
For classification of accidents the Indian Standards IS:3786-1983 titled “Method for computation of frequency and severity rates in industrial injuries and classification of industrial accidents” along with the ILO code of practice on recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases were used. The industries were classified according to the new National Industrial Classification (NIC) Code. The fatal and non-fatal injuries have been dealt with separately and a number of injuries have been taken for each group of industries.
Fatal injuries in the state of Karnataka as reported in the Annual returns submitted by the factories for the year 2003 were 50. The 50 fatal injuries from 13 factories were analyzed as stated above. The analysis has been done industry group wise, cause wise, sex wise etc.
Of the total fatal injuries analyzed, 14 accidents were in the units manufacturing basic chemicals and products. The industry-wise analysis of the fatal accidents shows that 28 % of the accidents were in the industry manufacturing basic metals, 18 % fatal injuries are in non-metallic minerals product manufacturing industry and 18 % fatal injuries are in manufacture of food products and beverages. The industry-wise fatal injuries are given in Table - 1.
INDUSTRY-WISE FATAL INJURIES (2001 to 2003)
|NIC Code||Type of Factory||2001||2002||2003|
|No. of Fatal Injuries||Percentage( % )||No. of Fatal Injuries||Percentage( % )||No. of Fatal Injuries||Percentage( % )|
|15||Manufacture of food products and Beverages||12||34.28||13||29.56||9||18|
|17||Manufacture of Textile||1||2.86||1||2.27||3||6|
|18||Wearing: Apparel; Dressing and Dyeing of Fur||-||-||1||2.27||-||-|
|20||Wood and wood products||2||5.71||1||2.27||2||4|
|21||Manufacture of Paper and Paper products||1||2.86||-||-||-||-|
|23||Manufacture of Petroleum and Petroleum Product||2||5.71||-||-||-||-|
|24||Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products||2||5.71||5||11.39||3||6|
|25||Manufacture of Rubber and Plastic Product||-||-||-||-||1||2|
|26||Manufacture of Other Non-metallic Mineral Products||2||5.71||1||2.27||9||18|
|27||Manufacture of Basic Metals||2||5.71||8||18.18||14||28|
|28||Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, except Machinery and Equipment||1||2.86||2||4.54||1||2|
|29||Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C.||1||2.86||2||4.54||1||2|
|30||Manufacture of Office, Accounting and computing machinery||-||-||1||2.27||-||-|
|31||Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and apparatus N.E.C.||2||5.71||1||2.27||-||-|
|35||Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment||3||8.58||-||-||1||2|
|40||Electricity, Gas, Steam and Hot Water Supply||1||2.86||2||4.54||2||4|
|50||Sale, Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel.||1||2.86||4||9.09||2||4|
|93||Other service activities||1||2.86||-||-||2||4|
The analysis of the 50 fatal injuries shows that explosion has contributed to about 18 % of the fatal accidents, 14 % were due to persons falling, 12 % due to handling goods and 10 % due to electrocution. The Table - 2 shows the number of cause-wise fatal injuries and their percentage.
CAUSE-WISE FATAL INJURIES (2001 to 2003)
|No.||Type of Causation||2001||2002||2003|
|No. of Fatal Injuries||Percentage( % )||No. of Fatal Injuries||Percentage( % )||No. of Fatal Injuries||Percentage( % )|
|1||Prime Movers (101)||1||2.85||1||2.28||1||2|
|2||Machinery Moved by Mechanical Power|
(102 – 112)
|3||Machinery not moved by Mechanical Power (122 – 123)||2||5.71||-||-||2||4|
|4||Transport (113 – 116)||1||2.85||3||6.81||1||2|
|9||Molten and other hot or corrosive substances (121)||-||3||6.81||1||2|
|10||Hand tools (124)||1||2.85||1||2.28||0||-|
|11||Struck by falling body (125)||4||11.42||4||9.09||2||4|
|12||Person falling(126 - 128)||10||28.57||10||22.73||7||14|
|13||Stepping on or striking against object (129)||-||-||-||-||2||4|
|14||Handling goods (130)||1||2.85||1||2.28||6||12|
Note: The figures given in bracket indicate the code number of causes
During the year 2003, a total number of 50 people have met with fatal accidents. All these were male. Table - 3 gives sex-wise injuries.
SEX-WISE FATAL INJURIES (2001 to 2003)
|No. of Fatal injuries||Percentage( % )||No. of Fatal Injuries||Percentage( % )||No. of Fatal Injuries||Percentage( % )|
A total number of 1960 non-fatal injuries have been reported by the industries in the state of Karnataka. The >
The industry-wise analysis of non-fatal injuries shows that 38 % of the accidents were in the cotton textile manufacturing industry and 27% were in the industries manufacturing basic chemicals and chemical products. The Table - 4 shows the industry-wise non-fatal injuries.
INDUSTRY-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES
|NIC Code||Type of Factory||2001||2002||2003|
|No. of Injuries||Percentage( % )||No. of Injuries||Percentage( % )||No. of Injuries||Percentage( % )|
|15||Manufacture of food products and Beverages||199||8.68||127||6.08||102||5.20|
|16||Manufacture of Tobacco Product||1||0.04||1||0.04||--||--|
|17||Manufacture of Textile||528||23.06||361||17.28||452||23.06|
|18||Wearing: Apparel ; Dressing and Dyeing of Fur||29||1.26||56||2.68||5||0.26|
|19||Tanning and dressing, Handling, Saddlery, Harness and foot wear||-||---||4||0.19||1||0.05|
|20||Wood and wood products||12||0.53||1||0.04||1||0.05|
|21||Manufacture of Paper and Paper products||4||0.17||195||9.34||195||9.95|
|22||Manufacture of Publishing and Products||8||0.35||5||0.24||6||0.31|
|23||Manufacture of Petroleum and Petroleum Product||65||2.83||9||0.43||1||0.05|
|24||Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products||26||1.13||35||1.68||32||1.63|
|25||Manufacture of Rubber and Plastic Product||526||22.96||246||11.78||351||17.91|
|26||Manufacture of Other Non-metallic Mineral Products||87||3.79||134||6.42||113||5.77|
|27||Manufacture of Basic Metals||148||6.56||199||9.53||165||8.42|
|28||Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, except Machinery and Equipment||40||1.74||149||7.14||135||6.89|
|29||Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C.||53||2.32||180||8.62||113||5.77|
|30||Manufacture of Office, Accounting and computing machinery||2||0.08||5||0.24||2||0.10|
|31||Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and apparatus N.E.C.||7||0.30||47||2.25||14||0.72|
|32||Manufacture of Radio, Television and Communication Equipment and apparatus||1||0.04||30||1.44||5||0.26|
|33||Manufacture of Medical, Precision and optical instruments, watches and clocks||1||0.04||23||1.10||14||0.71|
|34||Manufacture of Motor vehicles, Trailers and Semi-trailers||13||0.56||54||2.59||42||2.14|
|35||Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment||359||15.67||25||1.20||40||2.04|
|40||Electricity, Gas, Steam and Hot Water Supply||34||1.48||36||1.73||37||1.89|
|50||Sale, Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel.||41||1.79||110||5.28||62||3.15|
|93||Other service activities||62||2.70||8||0.38||53||2.70|
Sex-wise analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows 94 % persons were male and 6 % were female in 2001, 97 % persons were male and 3 % were female in 2002, 97 % persons were male and 3 % were female in 2003, The Table - 5 gives the details of injuries sex-wise.
SEX-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES
|No. of Non- Fatal injuries||Percent-age( % )||No. of Non-Fatal Injuries||Perce-ntage( % )||No. of Non-Fatal Injuries||Percent-age ( % )|
Cause-wise analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows that 17.76 % of the accidents are due to other causes, 15.67 % of the accidents are due to handling goods, 12.24 % by machinery moved by mechanical power, 12.05 % each by struck by falling body. The Table - 6 shows the cause-wise non-fatal injuries.
|Sl. No.||Type of Causation||2001||2002||2003|
|No. of non-fatal Injuries||Percentage( % )||No. of non-fatal Injuries||Percentage( % )||No. of non-fatal Injuries||Percentage( % )|
|1||Prime Movers (101)||29||1.26||82||3.92||41||2.09|
|2||Machinery Moved by Mechanical Power (102 – 112)||452||19.73||225||10.78||240||12.24|
|3||Machinery not moved by Mechanical Power (122 – 123)||144||6.29||50||2.39||224||11.42|
|4||Transport (113 – 116)||77||3.37||20||0.95||18||0.91|
|9||Molten and other hot or corrosive substances (121)||26||1.13||41||1.96||48||2.45|
|10||Hand tools (124)||237||10.35||153||7.33||78||3.98|
|11||Struck by falling body (125)||290||12.67||294||14.08||236||12.05|
|12||Person falling (126 - 128)||173||7.56||207||9.92||207||10.57|
|13||Stepping on or striking against object (129)||214||9.35||218||10.45||165||8.42|
|14||Handling goods (130)||180||7.86||355||17.00||307||15.67|
ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases defines occupational diseases as “a disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activity”. Under Section 89 of the Factories Act, 1948 where any worker in a factory contacts any diseases specified in the Third schedule (Annexure-I), the manager of the factory shall send a notice thereof to such authorities and in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.
Also any medical practitioner attending on a person who is or has been employed in a factory and is suffering from diseases specified in the Third Schedule shall without delay send a report in writing to the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories.
In the state of Karnataka no occupational disease cases have been reported to the Directorate of Factories and Boilers.
The Chapter deals with the management of occupational safety and health at the unit level, i.e. manufacturing units. The state has a total number of 9,531 manufacturing units, the break-up of which, according to factories registered under Section 2 (m), Section 85 of the Factories Act, 1948, is given in Table—3.2. In order to have a fair idea, about the safety and health status in these units, the following aspects of safety and health are covered under this chapter:
There are certain statutory requirements as provided under the Factories Act, 1948 and Rules framed thereunder, for each of these aspects stated above. Items 6 to 9 are additional requirements exclusively applicable to MAH installations, which are covered by a separate set of rules. Each of these aspects with its status has been discussed in the following paragraphs.
The Rule 81 AB of the Karnataka Factories Rules, 1957 framed under the provisions of Sections 7-A (3), 41-B (2) and 112 requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by the factories, meeting the following criteria:
In addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories or class or description of factories to comply with the above requirements of Safety Policy if in his opinion it is expedient to do so.
As per the details available 664 units required preparation of safety policy, however, 452 units only have prepared the safety policy which is about 68 % of the total. The details are given below.
|Sl. No.||Details||Safety Policy|
|1||No. of factories requiring Safety policy||413||773||664|
|2||No. of Factories having Safety policy||303||492||452|
As per the provisions of Section 40-B of the Factories Act, 1948, Safety Officers are required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria:
As per the details available, 104 Safety Officers were required to be appointed in 75 factories. As against this, 85 Safety Officers were appointed in 71 factories in the state in the year 2003. The details are shown below.
|Year||Safety Officers Required / Appointed||No. of factories||No. of Safety Officers|
The Rule 81-I of the Karnataka Factories Rules, 1957 framed under the provisions of Section 41 and 41-G of the Factories Act, 1948 require constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:
As per information available, 75 units required constitution of Safety Committees. However, only 71 units have constituted Safety Committees. It is observed that less than 95 % of the units have constituted the Safety Committees. The details are given below.
|Sl. No.||Details||SAFETY COMMITTEE|
|1||No. of factories requiring Safety Committee||352||608||610|
|2||No. of factories having Safety Committee||258||491||487|
As per the Rule 81-AJ of the Karnataka Factories Rules, 1957 prescribed under the Section 41-C of the Factories Act, 1948 Occupational Health Centers are required to be set up in the factories carrying and ‘Hazardous Process’ as described under Section 2(cb) of the Act. As per the information received for the year 2003, 165 Medical officers are required on full-time basis and 191 medical officers are required on retainer-ship or part-time basis whereas, only 131 full-time medical officers and 164 part-time medical officers are appointed on retainer-ship or part time basis. Please see the details given below.
|Year||Details||No. Of Medical Officers||No. Of Factories|
|Full-Time Basis||Retainership Or Part-Time Basis||Ambulance Vans||Ambulance Rooms|
This part of the chapter deals with the welfare facilities e.g. appointment of welfare officer, crèche facilities, canteen facilities, shelters, rest room and lunchroom.
As per the provisions of section 49 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 500 workers is required to employ a welfare officer. As per the details available 238 units were required to appoint the 261 welfare officers. However, 219 units have actually appointed the 236 welfare officers.
|Year||Details||No. Of Factories||No. Of Welfare Officers|
As per the provisions under section 48 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing 30 or more than women workers are required to provide creche facilities for the use of children under the age of 6 years for the women employees. There are certain requirements under the Section for these creches, which are to be met by the occupier of the factory.
As per the details available for the year 2003, only 751 units out of 947 have provided the creche facilities.
As per the provisions under section 47 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 150 workers is required to provide adequate and suitable shelters or rest rooms and lunch- rooms for the use of the workers employed.
As per the details available for the year 2003, only 2365 units out of 2723 units have provided the shelters or rest rooms and lunchroom facilities.
As per the provisions under section 46 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 250 workers is required to provide canteen facilities for the use of workers.
As per the details available for the year 2003, 386 units out of 390 units have provided canteen facilities. The details are given below.
|Year||Item||Canteen||Shelter, Rest Room, Lunch Room||Cretches|
|2001||No. of factories requiring||230||471||598|
|No. of factories having||191||417||525|
|2002||No. of factories requiring||198||671||946|
|No. of factories having||345||606||800|
|2003||No. of factories requiring||390||2723||947|
|No. of factories having||386||2365||751|
As per the provisions of the Rule 13 of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard (Karnataka) Rules, 1993” an occupier who has control of the Industrial activity as described under the Rule shall prepare an on-site emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on the site on which industrial activity is carried on.
The details of on site emergency plan in respect of MAH units are given below.
|1||No. of factories required to draw such plan||293||323||339|
|2||No. of factories which have drawn Emergency Plan||244||274||290|
As per the information available, 339 MAH installations were required to prepare the on-site emergency plans. However, 290 MAH installations have prepared the plans and submitted to the Director of Factories.
Management of safety and health at the state level is more complex than at the unit level. At unit level the problems are relatively simple and unit specific depending upon the type of industry. However at the state level the management of safety and health is not unit or industry specific and the instruments such as policies, legislation, etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues in all type of occupations. Apart from the Factories Act, 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities. These legislations are enforced by various state government authorities, namely, the Chief Inspector of Factories, the State Labour commissioner, etc.
Education and training plays an important role in management of safety and health at state level and thus cannot be neglected. Non-government organizations (NGOs), voluntary organization’s, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health are contributing in their own way towards the objective for giving the workers a safe and healthy work environment.
Safety and health at work is governed by a variety of statutes in the state depending on the nature of work place, manufacturing activity and specific aspects of safety and health. Some of the important statutes are given below:
Different departments of the central government and the state government are entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes. The efforts of the enforcement agencies are also supplemented by other organizations such as training and research institutions, employers associations, employees associations, etc. in promoting occupational safety and health in the state. A brief account of these organizations is given in the following paragraphs.
This department, under the Department of Labour and Rehabilitation at State Secretariat is looking after safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories. The department is headed by a Director, Factories and Boilers. In the state of Karnataka, the Factories and Boilers are under the same Directorate unlike many other states in the country where the boilers are looked after by the Chief Inspector of Boilers and the factories are looked after by the Chief Inspector of Factories. Thus in the state of Karnataka the Directorate of Factories have to look after the enforcement of Factories Act 1948 as well as the Indian Boilers Act 1923.
The Directorate of Factories and Boilers is headed by the Director and is assisted by Joint Directors, Deputy Directors, Sr. Asst. Director, Asst. Inspector, Specialist Inspector like Deputy Director (Med), O. H. S. (Med), Hygiene Inspectors along with regular staff.
The Directorate is equipped with trained and experienced personnel. Details are given below :
|1.||Director/Chief Inspector of Factories and Boilers||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|2||Additional Chief Inspector of Factories||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|3||Joint Director Of Factories||3||3||3||3||2||2|
|4||Dy. Director of factories||10||10||10||10||8||8|
|5||Sr. Asst. Director of Factories||14||14||14||12||9||9|
|6||Asst. Director of Factories||29||16||29||14||22||10|
|7||Asst. Inspector Of Factories||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Dy. Director of factories (Med)||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|O. H. S. Medical||-||-||-||-||1||1|
|9||Total Inspection Staff (Item 1 to 8)||73||60||73||56||59||47|
|Employed by the Inspectorate||-||-||-||-||-||-|
The Directorate enforces provisions contained in the following statutes:
Inspection of processing factories, identification of unregistered factories, investigation of accidents, approval of plans, attending to complaints are some of the activities undertaken for effective implementation of statutory provisions.
|Sl. No.||Year||No. Of Factories Inspected||No. Of Factories Not Inspected||Grand Total|
In 2001 the state of Karnataka has a total of 9448 registered factories, in 2002 it has 9531 and in 2003 it has 9477 registered under Section 2 (m) of the Factories Act 1948. The inspectors from directorate inspected 6790 factories during the year 2001, 5900 factories during the year 2002 and 6595 factories during the year 2003.
The chapter 10 of the Factories Act provides for penalties and procedures for violation of the provisions. The analysis shows that the prosecutions have been carried out under the section 92 of the Factories Act. The section 92 of the Factories Act speaks about the general penalties for offences.
The details of prosecutions launched, decided and the convictions made are given in the following table> There were no penalty such as imprisonment under section 92 or section 96(A).
|Nature of Offence||Year||No. of Prosecutions pending from previous year||No. of Prosecution pending launched during the year||No. of prosecution decided during the year||No. of convic-tions||Penalty Imposed|
|Impris-onment||Total fine Imposed (Rs)|
|Notices, Registers and Returns||2001||10||2||1||1||-||4000|
|Hazardous process and dangerous operation||2001||2||1||-||-||-||-|
|Health and Welfare||2001||42||18||15||6||-||18000|
Regional Occupational Health Centre (Southern), Bangalore was set up in the year 1977 in the Bangalore Medical College Campus. The Indian Council of Medical Research’s programme in the area of occupational health and safety in the southern region is conducted through this regional Centre at Bangalore under the aegis of National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH), Ahmedabad to achieve the goal of mitigating the adverse impact of work environment on workers health and community at large. This center aims at carrying out research in Occupational Health in the Southern States namely, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and the Union Territory of Pondicherry.
The Centre plans to expand research based on issues that pose greatest risks to unorganized and under privileged sector. To address the increasingly complex industrial and environmental health problems, it was proposed to focus the research activities in key areas and to develop intervention strategies with sound science, judgment and vision. The center’s overall planning process engenders an applied research and development programme focused on answering key scientific ad technical questions in the area of environmental and occupational health (EOH), particularly in the area of agro medicine. The centre also recognizes the need to develop a long-term core research programme, which extends knowledge base of EOH in agro medicine and anticipated problems in the foreseeable future due to introduction of new agricultural inputs like biotechnology and pesticides along with non-traditional newer challenges in leading economic frontiers of occupational and environmental health.
Some of the centre’s programmes are as follows:
Keeping in mind the specific objectives and functions, the centre made efforts in procuring initially the indigenously available equipments and accessories and subsequently highly sophisticated instrumentation required in undertaking research mainly oriented in 1) ambient and work room environment monitoring equipments 2) sampling devices 3) analytical equipments 4) equipments which can be used for the different estimations of concentration of metals, toxic substances, metabolites in biological samples and also supportive instrumentation and basic laboratory equipments. Along with this medical monitoring equipments viz. medical kits, portable> The annexure enclosed gives the details of the equipments, their accessories, their technical details, indicating type of the investigation which can be carried out and where all they can be utilized.
|No.||Name of the Instrument||Model No.||Make|
|1.||Atomic Absorption Spectrphotometer||3110||Perkin Elmer, USA|
|2.||Sartorious Balance||R200 D||Sartorious GMBM, Germany|
|3.||Medspiror (computersied||Medspiror III||India|
|4.||RA-50 Chemistry Analyser||Rs 232 c||Miles Inc./West Germany|
|5.||Hemacomp – 5M||H5M||SEAC, Italy|
|6.||Digital Conductivity Meter||NDC 732||Naina, India|
|8.||Cooling Micro Fuge (Centrifuge)||CM-12/8/8-94||Remi Instruments, India|
|9.||Gas Chromatorgraph||5765||AMIL Nucon, India|
|10.||EMDEX II 50 Hz electromagnetic field meter||2474||Enertech/USA|
|13.||Personal Cascade Inspector||298 K||USA|
|14.||Personal Sampler & Accessories||-||-|
|15.||Mini Lux –2 Portable>||-||-|
|16.||Precision Sound Level Meter||232||B & K|
|17.||Noise & Vibration equipment||2236||B & K|
|18.||High Volume air sampler||APM-411||Envirotech, India|
|19.||Audiometer Micro Lab||-||USA|
|20.||Shimatzu High Performance Liquid Chromatograph||HPLC|
Karnataka Employers’ Association (KEA) a leading employers’ organisation in the state of Karnataka was established in the year 1961. It is the first employers’ organisation in the state with the objective to promote, safeguard and protect legitimate interest of employers and to foster harmonies relationship between employers and Employers, employees and employers.
It has been rendering the following services to its members:
This organisation has been educating its members on various labour legislations, including Occupational Safety and Health. Members are advised to observe Safety Day and to train their employees to adhere to safety norms and other precautionalry measures. Members are also kept updated on ILO Standards of Safety and Occupational Health.
Karnataka Employers’ Association is sensitive on the latest developments and changes in the area of Employee Relations in the State and in the country and proactively takes up the causes before the appropriate forums. It actively solicits the opinion from Members and provides guidance as well as to represent before the authorities in formulation of Labour policies and/or to bring any changes/amendments to the legislations.
It guides the members in collective bargaining process. The officers of this organisation appear on behalf of Members before the conciliatory and ad judicatory authorities.
This Association is a major source of information to its members. It regularly informs the members trends and changes in labour and economic policies of central and state governments, issues in the area of industrial relations, amendments to labour legislations, latest judicial judgements, prospects and perspectives on issues connected with labour management and related matters through its periodical circulars.
This Association offers training programmes to its members in the areas of collective bargaining, productivity, industrial relations, labour legislations, disciplinary issues etc. It also offers In-house programmes to its members on specific themes based on their needs. These programmes are well conceived, designed and modulated and conducted by well known Faculty.
It conducts Seminars and conferences on topical themes and subjects that are useful to the Members in the area of Labour Management. The Seminars & Conferences conducted by this Association are very popular and members do look forward for these seminars/conferences.
This Association represents at the National & State Level Tripartite Committees and Commissions, Statutory Committees under Labour legislations, National Apprenticeship Council, ESI and PF Governing Boards etc.
Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB), enforces the following pollution control laws and rules relating to environmental protection in the state.
Apart from implementation of above said laws, the board is also encouraging the industries to adopt ISO: 14000 (Environmental Management System) standards and cleaner technologies.
The board is monitoring water quality of major rivers and lakes at strategic locations in the state ad also monitoring ambient air quality at major towns of the state. The board is also conducting several awareness programmes at regular intervals in order to educate people in the field of environmental protection and pollution control to comply with the above regulation.
The scope of the study was limited to cover the organisations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948 was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident forms. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, availability of safety reports, etc. as per the provisions of the Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was outside the scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, a more elaborate and in-depth study is required to be taken up to get a comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.
The findings and recommendations as brought out by the study are summarised below:
In the State of Karnataka, there are 9531 registered factories out of which 9531 factories are working factories. Number of factories submitting returns is 4001 and not submitting returns is 5530. Average daily number of workers employed in the factories submitting returns is 315666 as per the report by the Directorate of Factories and Boilers, Bangalore for the year ending 31.12.2002. As the annual returns contain vital information such as average daily employment, man-hours worked, man-days lost, number of accidents, provision of health and welfare facilities, etc. which are essential for the compilation of state level inventory on Occupational Safety and Health, it is recommended that the submission of annual returns should be made compulsory for all the registered factories.
The analysis of accidents according to industry reveals that 18 % of the total fatal accidents are in the ‘explosions’ and 28 % of total Fatal accidents are in the "Manufacture of Basic Metals". The analysis of non-fatal accidents indicate “Others” accounted for 17.76 % of the total accidents followed by 15.67 % of total accidents accounted for " Handling goods " reason. The analysis is indicative of the fact that more enforcement and training efforts are required in the above mentioned >
In addition to what is being done by the non-governmental organization such as the National Safety Council, Karnataka Chapter, the Loss Prevention Association of India may also take up similar activities in the field of Occupational Safety and Health on a large scale. This should include organizing Seminars, Workshops on the issues arising out of liberalization, privatization and globalization, modern manufacturing techniques, technological developments in the field of manufacturing etc. vis-a-vis their impact on the safety, health and welfare of the workers.
In order to promote safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories, training programmes, seminars and workshops should be organized to increase the awareness of the Trade Union Officials in the field of occupational safety and health. The Unit level Trade Union Officials should be involved in training and education of workers in the field of Occupational Safety and Health. In such programmes, more emphasis should be given on the role of Union Leaders in the field of Safety and Health at the workplace.
While collecting the statistics regarding the factories as well as the accidents, it was found by the study team that although the factories were submitting the annual returns in the prescribed format to the local offices as well as to the Regional Offices and Headquarters, the information was not being compiled and sent to the Headquarters in time. As a result the collected information could not be processed and the trends regarding various parameters on occupational safety and health could not be established. A closer examination of the issue reveals that the information at the field level could not be compiled or is taking time for compilation because of manpower shortage. It is, therefore, suggested that all field level offices should be equipped with suitable> This arrangement will also improve the communication among the offices under the Directorate of Factories leading to effective implementation of the orders issued under the provisions of the Factories Act eliminating the delays.
In order to review the status of safety, health and welfare in the factories and formulate an action plan on the basis of findings from time to time, a state level tripartite committee on occupational safety and health should be constituted under the Chairmanship of the Labour Minister. In this committee representatives of government departments connected with factories and labour, representatives of employers’ and employees’ may be included. This is also in line with the recommendations made by Standing Labour Committee to the Indian Labour Conference.
For better interaction between DGFASLI, RLI and CIF Office and for exchange of information relating to Occupational Safety and Health frequent interaction among the officers DGFASLI and the CIF Office is necessary. It is therefore recommended that suitable>
|1.||Infectious and parastic diseases contracted in an occupation where there is a particular risk of contamination.|
|2.||Diseases caused by work in compressed air.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|3.||Diseases caused by lead or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|4.||Poisoning by nitrous fumes.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|5.||Poisoning by organphosphorus compound||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|1.||Diseases caused by phosphorus or toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|2.||Diseases caused by mercury or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|3.||Diseases caused by benzene or its toxic homologues.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|4.||Diseases caused by nitro and amino derivatives of benzene or its homologues.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|5.||Diseases caused by chromium or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|6.||Diseases caused by arsenic or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|7.||Diseases caused by radioactive substances and ionising radiations.||All work involving exposure to the reaction of radioactive substances or ionising radiations.|
|8.||Primary epithelomatous cancer of the skin caused by tar, pitch bitumen, mineral oil, anthracene or the compounds, products or residues of these substances||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|9.||Diseases caused toxic halogen derivatives by hydrocarbons (of the aliphatic and aromatic series).||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|10.||Diseases caused by carbon disulphide.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|11.||Occupational cataract due to infra-red radiations.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|12.||Diseases caused by manganese or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|13.||Skin diseases caused by physical, chemical or biological agents not include in other items.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|14.||Hearing impairment caused by noise.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|15.||Poisoning by dinitrophenol or a homologue or by substituted dinitrophenol or by the salts of such substances.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|16.||Diseases caused by beryllium or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|17.||Diseases caused by cadmium or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|18.||Occupational asthma caused by recognised sensitising agents inherent to the work process.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|19.||Diseases caused by fluorine or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|20.||Diseases caused by nitroglycerine or other nitroacid esters.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|21.||Diseases caused by alcohols and ketones.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|22.||Diseases caused by asphyxiants; carbon monoxide, and its toxic derivatives, hydrogen sulphide.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|23.||Lung cancer and mesotheliomas caused by asbestos.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|24.||Primary neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder or the kidneys or the ureter.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|1.||Pneumoconiosis caused by sclerogenic mineral dust (silicosis, anthraoosilicosis asbestosis) and silico-tuberculosis provided that silicosis is an essential factor in causing the resultant incapacity or death.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|2.||Bagassosis||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|3.||Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by cotton, flax hemp and sisal dust (Byssinosis)||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|4.||Extrinsic allergic alvoelities caused by the inhalation of organic dusts.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|5.||Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by hard metals.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|