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About the Project

ABOUT THE PROJECT

Introduction

Management of Occupational Safety and Health has become a very vital issue because of the technological advancements and deployment of newer technology, complex and hazardous processes. The threat of occupational hazards, particularly in the chemical and petrochemical industries is of great concern, especially for the people who are responsible for policy planning and designing of instruments and other interventions for protecting the large workforce in the country. The major problem faced by the policy planners is the non-availability of timely information on vital areas such as occupational injuries and diseases, infrastructure available at the unit and the state level for taking up awareness, promotional and developmental programs. Directorate General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI), Mumbai is relied upon by central and state governments for a variety of information pertaining to occupational safety and health. At present, the facilities available in our country do not allow as quick a response as is often needed. Further, substantial increase in the number of registered factories, introduction of sophisticated modern technology and complexities in plant and equipment design have brought many constraints in the area of Occupational Safety and Health policy making at national level. For planning of effective strategy on control of accidents and ill health, timely and reliable information is vital.

The Ministry of Labour has been deeply concerned over the non-availability of occupational safety and health information for policy planning. To overcome this deficiency the scheme “Setting up of a Data Bank-cum-Information Centre” at Central Labour Institute was proposed during the 7th Five Year Plan. The Planning Commission approved the scheme in the 7th Plan.

The scheme was continued in the modified form during the 8th Plan period with the title “Development of Safety & Health Information System and Data Bank”. During this period information systems were installed at the Central Labour Institute and the 3 Regional Labour Institutes. Databases of Major Accident Hazard Installations, hazardous chemicals, national specialists, etc. were developed. Information on Material Safety Data Sheets were disseminated to the industries and agencies related to occupational safety and health.

During the 9th Plan period DGFASLI website was launched. Abstracts of safety and health technical reports of DGFASLI were prepared, a national directory of organization profile was compiled, the statutes related to safety and health were computerized and ported on the website. Publication of INDOSHNEWS, a quarterly news bulletin of this organization was started and till date 14 issues have been published. Work related to translation of International Chemical Safety Cards in three Indian languages—Hindi, Tamil and Bangla was initiated with a view to make these cards available on the website.

Project

The present Plan Scheme “Development of Safety & Health Information System and Data Bank” being operated during the 10th Plan envisages creation of the National Inventory on Occupational Safety and Health Information to widen the information base and making available the information at one source to help in the activities specially those related to policy planning directed at improving the occupational safety and health of the workers. The national inventory besides having OSH information collected state-wise through respective state inspectorates will also include the following:

  • Abstracts of OS&H national literature
  • OS &H literature acquired from abroad
  • Factory Advice Service databases
  • Dock Safety related databases
  • Details of MAH installations, hazardous chemicals, national specialists, etc.
  • Scanner based database on accident events, etc.

Objectives of the Project

To develop all the five Labour Institutes under the DGFASLI Organisation as the action resource centers for collection, processing and dissemination of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) information with a view to create an inventory of OSH Information for the prevention of occupational injuries and health problems in the country

Scope of the Project

The proposed scheme will have the following components:

  • Development of Occupational Safety and Health national inventory and connectivity between State Factory Inspectorate and DGFASLI. The inventory will cover information pertaining to manufacturing activities covered under the Factories Act 1948, Occupational injuries and diseases in the sector, management of OSH at unit and state level.
  • Creation of occupational safety and health information action resource centers at the five labour Institutes by providing them with computer hardware and software facilities and also by involving other organizations specialized in the field of safety, health and environment to participate in the project.
  • Human Resource Development of personnel attached to action resource centers.
  • Dissemination of information through electronic media using the latest information technology for creating public awareness about safety, health and environment.
  • Dissemination of information through conventional media to reach the large workforce including decision makers not having access to the information technology. This will include publication of newsletter, technical reports, safety cards etc.
  • Creation of databases containing information on handling of containers and dangerous goods, hazardous installations, inland container depots, minor and intermediate ports, competent persons, panel of doctors in ports, etc. Dock Safety division will participate by way of providing raw data collected from the field.
  • Developing infrastructure for occupational safety and health e-self learning centers at all action resource centre in the labour institutes.
  • Effective implementation of the 12 point minimum agenda for E-Governance. This includes providing computers upto the level of Section Officers, setting up of LAN, training of all staff in computer operation, procure and use office automation software, website updation and maintenance, developing software packages for delivery of services and information, etc.
  • As information technology is developing very fast, the latest hardware and software available during the plan period will be acquired.

The Methodology

In order to create a national inventory of OSH information, the following activities are envisaged to be carried out in each State:

  • Identification of support information
  • Location of sources of information
  • Creation of suitable mechanism for information collection
  • Selection and use of appropriate technology for processing and storage of information
  • Development of procedures for user-friendly dissemination of information
  • Development of suitable infrastructure for achieving the above

The Project Team

The various activities under the project are being carried out by the five Labour Institutes as nodal agencies. The Regional Labour Institute, Chennai, is the nodal agency for the four southern states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, and Pondicherry.

The State of Tamilnadu was selected for the collection of data during the first year of the 10th Plan period 2002-2003. The State of Andhra Pradesh was selected during the year 2003-2004. The State of Karnataka was taken up for the collection of data during the year 2004-2005. The States of Pondicherry will be taken up for detailed study in the subsequent years.

A Task Force comprising of the following officers and staff of Regional Labour Institute, Chennai and the Directorate of Factories and Boilers, Government of Karnataka, Bangalore, was constituted for carrying out the above mentioned activities:

I. Regional LabourInstitute, Chennai

1.Shri G.M.E.K. Raj,Director-in-Charge
2.Shri P. Nagarajan,Deputy Director (Safety) - Coordinator
3.Shri B.S. Chavan,Additional Assistant Director (Safety)
4.Shri D. Gnanasundaram,Technical Assistant
5.Smt. Kanthimathi Natarajan,Steno.

II.Inpsectorate of Factories, Govt. of Karnataka, Bangalore.

1.Shri A.R. Vijendra,Deputy Director of Factories
2.Dr. V.H.H. Surendra,Deputy Director of Factories (Medical)
3.Shri K.G. Nanjappa,Sr. Assistant Director of Factories
4.Shri D. Lakshmikanth,Executive cum Admin. Assistant
5.Shri R. Vasudeva Singh,Executive cum Admin. Assistant

Activities under the Project

The present project aims at studying the existing system of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases at unit, district and state level in the state of Karnataka, identifying the areas for improving and establishing the system, which is in line with the systems existing in other countries.

The activities of the project have been divided in the following categories:

  • Background information about the state of Karnataka - Deals with the demographic and geographic characteristics of the state of Karnataka, population in different districts and major occupations of the people.
  • Economic activities - Deals with the various aspects of economic sectors in the state, their value of production, employment generated and contribution to the GDP.
  • Activities in the manufacturing sector - Deals with the different activities carried out in the manufacturing sector as per the National Industrial Code (NIC), value of production, employment generation, etc.
  • Occupational injuries and diseases - Deals with the analysis of the occupational injuries – fatal and non-fatal and cases of occupational diseases in the manufacturing sector.
  • Management of occupational safety and health - Deals with the infrastructure and resources available at the unit level and at the state level for managing the crucial issue of occupational safety and health.
  • Resources available and needed for the management of occupational safety and health.

Based on the analysis of occupational injuries and diseases and the capabilities available, an attempt is made to assess the resources required for the better management of occupational safety and health in the state of Karnataka.

The State of Karnataka

THE STATE OF KARNATAKA

General Information

Modern Karnataka has emerged from Madras Presidency of British administration. At the time of Independence on 15 August 1947, Madras state comprised of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and some territorial areas of present Kerala. In 1953, the Madras state bifurcated into two states, viz. Andhra Pradesh comprising of Telugu speaking areas and Madras state comprising of Tamil speaking areas. Under the States Reorganization Act, 1956, the Madras state was further divided into the states of Kerala, Mysore (present Karnataka) and Madras. In August 1968, Madras state was rename>

Land Area

The land area of the state of Karnataka is 1,91,791 Sq. km. and the population is 5, 28,50,562 as per 2001 Census. The land use pattern of the state is given in Table – 1.

Table - 1

LAND UTILISATION - (2002-2003)
S. No.ClassificationArea in Hectares
1Geographical Area 19049836
A. By Professional Survey--
B. By Village Papers--
2Forests3070330
3Barren and uncultivable475850
4Non-agricultural uses2119660
5Cultivable waste421263
6Permanent and other grazing land--
7Land under miscellaneous tree crops--
8Current fallow lands1831535
9Other fallow lands512506
10Net area sown--

Source: Statistical Hand Book of Karnataka –2003-04.

Administration

The State is divided into 27 administrative districts. This includes 176 talukas, 176 Revenue Divisions, 216 municipal corporations, 270 Towns, 5653 Villages Panchayats.

Demographic Context

The various demographic data in respect of the state of Karnataka are given below:

Population

The total population of Karnataka is 52850562 with 26898918 males and 25951644 females as per 2001 Census. It has a sex ratio of 964 female per thousand males. The number of literates in the state is of the order of 31710336 (67.04%). The density of population is 275 persons per Sq. km.

Language

The official language of the state is Kannada, although large number of people is conversant with English.

Birth rate

Year197119811991200120022003
Birth Rate (%)31.728.326.922.222.121.8

Source: SRS Bulletin

The state had a birth rate of 31.7 % in 1971, which declined to 21.8 % in 2003.

Death rate

Year197119811991200120022003
Death Rate (%)12.19.197.67.27.2

Source: SRS Bulletin

The state had a death rate of 12.1 % in 1971, which declined to 7.2 % in 2003.

Infant Mortality Rate

Year197119811991200120022003
Infant mortality % per 1000 Birth956977585555

Source: SRS Bulletin

The state has a combined infant mortality rate of 95 in 1971, which declined to 55 in 2003.

Literacy rate

Karnataka is the good literate amongst all the states of India. The total literacy rate of the state is 67.4 %. Total literates in the state, as per 2001 Census, is 4,06,24,398.

Working population

The working population of the state is 27.812 million comprising of workers in organised and un-organised sectors, cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers as per census of India 2001.

Unemployment

The number of job seekers in the employment exchanges of Karnataka was about 4.37 million at the end of year 2000.

Per-Capita Income

The Per-Capita Income of the state is Rs. 21,229 at current prices and Rs. 12,954 at constant prices for the year 2000-2001 (base year 1993-94). The Net State Domestic Product at current prices is Rs. 1,31,73,056 lakhs and Rs. 80,38,435 lakhs at constant prices.

Economic Scenario

The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) which is the aggregate income of the state increased from Rs. 80,843 crores in 1998-1999 to 86,872 crores in 1999-2000 registering an impressive growth rate of 7.46 % in real terms (1993-94 prices). The first three years of the 9th five year plan had posted an average growth of 7.21 % against the target of 7 % approved by the National Development Council for the plan. This order of growth rate achieved by Karnataka was higher than the GDP growth rate of 5.9 % recorded at the national level. The sectoral distribution of state income during 1999-2000 is given in Table - 2.

TABLE - 2

SECTORAL DISTRIBUTION OF STATE INCOME (1999-2000)

BASE (1993-94)

S. No.Sector1999-2000
Income (Rs. in Crores)% change over the previous year
IPrimary
 1. Agriculture & Allied Activities140836.5
 2. Forestry & logging10844.9
 3. Fishing2767.7
 4. Mining & Quarrying67118.1
TOTAL161145.1
IISecondary
 1. Manufacturing - registered103788.3
 2. Manufacturing unregistered52726.3
 3. Electricity, Gas & Water Supply16634.1
 4. Construction55975.7
TOTAL229106.9
IIITertiary
 1. Trade, Hotel & Restaurants113264.8
 2. Railways3296.4
 3. Transport by other means23256.7
 4. Storage183.0
 5. Communication56027.2
 6. Banking and Insurance52927.5
 7. Real estate, Ownership of dwelling & Business Services615114.6
 8. Public Administration27314.8
 9. Other Services725313
TOTAL41,52510.9

Agriculture Sector

  Unit2003-04
1Contribution to state income(In crores)14083
2Population engaged in Agriculture Sector(In thousands)52851
3Area under cultivation net(In lakhs)98.47
  Gross (-do-)114.5
4Area under irrigation net(In lakhs)23.84
5Major cropsPaddy, Jawar, Sun
Flower, Ragi
Teer, Ground nut
 
6Fertilizer consumption(In Lakh Tones9.2
7Plant protection measures(Grams)330

Maufacturing Sector

1Conribution State Income(In Crores)15650
2Employment  
3Contribution to Export  

Mining Sector

1Conribution State Income(In Crores)671
2Population engaged  
3Mining Area  
4Production  
5Accidents  

Construction Sector

1Conribution State Income(In Crores)5597
2Employment  
3Accidents  

Power Generation Sector

1Contribution State Income(In Crores)1663
2Employment  

Road Transport Sector

1Construction State Area(In Crores)2325
2Road Lengths  
3Employment  
4Road Accidents  

Storage Sector

1Ware Housing Facilities  
2Employment  

Fishing Sector

1Contribution State income(In Crores)276 
 EmploymentMaleFemaleTotal
2Active Fishermen13750462022199526
 Fisher Pop423525330006753531

Fish Processing Sector

(Quantity in Metric Tonnes)

1Freezing26519
2Curing30151
3Canning29259
4Reduction143
5Miscellaneous Purpose14405
6Unspecified1518
7Fishman293

Manufacturing Sector

MANUFACTURING SECTOR

Major Industries

Total number of large and medium industrial units in Karnataka as on 31.3.2004 was 4001. The sector wise distribution is given below:

Central sector - 150

Private sector - 3851

As per the index of industrial production for 2003-04, the following industries contributed to most of the value of industrial production in the state as given in Table – 1.

TABLE – 1

INDEX OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN MANUFACTURING SECTOR BY MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUPS (2001-2002 to 2003-2004)

(Base 1993-94 = 100)

Sl. No.NIC GroupIndustry GroupWeight2001-022002-032003-04 *
120-21Food Products20.22173.85
(6.10)
180.90
4.06
189.50
4.75
222Beverages. Tobacco & Tobacco Products5.03168.71
(1.50)
193.41
(14.64)
224.48
(16.06)
323Cotton Textiles4.37166.50
(2.78)
209.77
(25.99)
217.50
(3.68)
424Wool Silk & Man Made Fibre Textiles4.71187.88
(2.19)
159.22
(-15.30)
164.77
(3.49)
5.26Textile Products4.96174.60
(1.20)
184.05
(5.41)
189.42
(2.92)
6.27Wood & Wood Products1.95186.98
(13.18)
188.57
(0.85)
191.51
(1.56)
728Paper & Paper Products4.16169.43
(7.10)
181.36
(7.04)
193.30
(6.58)
829Leather & Leather Products1.62160.64
(0.50)
157.42
(-5.74)
150.83
(-0.39)
930Chemicals & Chemical Products6.66140.32
(-2.08)
166.63
(18.41)
184.04
(10.45)
1031Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum & Coal Products3.33159.48
(4.10)
176.11
(10.22)
194.34
(10.35)
1132Non-Metallic Mineral Products5.60157.48
(1.25)
181.28
(15.11)
187.99
(3.70)
1233Basic Metal and Alloys6.34159.55
(2.90)
182.26
(14.23)
192.23
(5.47)
1334Metal Products & Parts3.65167.13
(2.02)
177.25
(6.06)
188.67
(6.44)
1435-36Machinery & Equipment other than Transport19.15165.44
(2.62)
166.63
(0.72)
187.54
(12.55)
1537Transport Equipment, Machinery & Parts6.41162.32
(3.41)
183.17
(12.84)
193.87
(5.84)
1638Other Manufacturing Industries1.84131.20
(3.40)
132.12
(0.70)
136.13
(3.04)
TOTAL
(Manufacturing)
100.00165.95177.00189.66
(3.30)(6.66)(7.15)

Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Bangalore

Note: Figures in brackets indicate the percentage growth compared to previous year

* Provisional figures.

No. Of Registered Factories And Workers Employed

The total number of factories and the number of workers employed for the year ending 2002 are given in Table - 2.

TABLE - 2

NUMBER OF REGISTERED FACTORIES AND WORKERS EMPLOYED

FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31-12-2002

Category of factoriesFactories as defined under Section 2m(i)Factories as defined under Section 2m(ii)Factories as notified under Sec. 85Grand Total
No. of factories on register at the beginning of the period9362132--9494
No. of factories newly licensed and registered during the period636--15651
No. of factories on the register at the end of the period53480--614
No. of working factories at the end of the period946452159531
No. of working factories946452159531
No. of factories submitting returns------4001
Average daily no. of workers employed------315666
No. of factories not submitting returns------5530
Estimated average daily employment------764208
Total average daily no. of workers------1079874

Major Industrial Centers

The distribution of factories district-wise as on 31-3-2005 is given in Table - 3. Bangalore and Bangalore Rural Districts are having the largest number of working factories.

TABLE – 3

DISTRCT-WISE NUMBER OF FACTORIES AND WORKERS EMPLOYED

S. NoName of the DistrictNumber of Factories as on 31-03-2005
TextilesChemicalEngg.OthersTotalTotal No. of Employees
1Bangalore87018317772209503954573
2Bangalore (Rural)17394517727827142
3Chitradurga19111291505513
4Davangare199371662316585
5Kolar6141713517217229
6Shivamoga055112918518655
7Tumkur085617123517083
8Chikmagalur03450574209
9Dakshina Kannada171447249432966
10Udupi25227128022501
11Hasan141131475109
12Kodagu00534393730
13Mandya07432434629
14Mysore16618829045548398
15Chamarajnagar8039201810
Dakshin
Kannada
959346211543057725761330
16Belgaum221116036756054077
17Bijapur02068704343
18Bagalkote63075848180
19Dharwad42168827942529237
20Gadag60376857377
21Haveri35564777740
22Uttara Kannada38127810115035
23Bellary49123822132025507
24Bidar0181258889687
25Gulbarga15177910221574
26Raichur012620922714370
27Koppal071614116412537
Uttar Karnataka1329935717152303209664
STATE10914452472602010028970994

There are 1091 textiles industries, 445 chemical industries, 2472 engineering industries and 6020 other industries. The total number of factories in the state is 10028. The region-wise distribution of industries and employees in the state is given in Table - 4.

TABLE - 4

REGION-WISE NUMBER OF FACTORIES AND WORKERS EMPLOYED

AS ON 31-03-2005

RegionTextilesChemicalsEngg.OthersTotalTotal no. of employees
Dakshina Kannada959346211543057725761330
Uttara Kannada1329935717152303209664
State   Total10028970994

Brief information on some of the industrial centers is given below:

In Dakshina Kannada the industrial districts are Bangalore, Bangalore (Rural), Chitradurga, Davangere, Kolar, Shivamoga, Tumkur, Chikmagalur, Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Hasan, Kodagu, Mandya and Mysore, Chamarajnagar.

In Uttar Karnataka, the industrial districts are Belgaum, Bijapur, Bagalkote, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri, Uttara Kannada, Bellary, Bidar, Gulbarga, Raichur and Koppal.

Industrial Disputes, Strikes, Lockouts And Man-days Lost

Industrial disputes in the state are declining over the years. In the year 2004, total disputes handled decreased. Only 12 disputes led to strikes and lockouts. The total number of man-days lost due to strikes and lockouts are 11,34,509 during 2004. The details are given in Table - 5.

TABLE - 5

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES LOCK OUTS & MAN-DAYS LOST (2004)

S. No.YearStrikesLock outsNo. of Man-days LostNo. of workers involved
1200457113450912397

Manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948

General

The manufacturing is the second largest economic sectors in the State of Karnataka. It covers those units registered under the Factories Act, 1948 as well as those not registered. As per the provisions of the Act, a manufacturing unit is to be registered if manufacturing process is carried on with the aid of power and 10 or more persons are employed or manufacturing process is carried on without the aid of power and 20 or more persons are employed.

The state government is also empowered to notify any unit carrying on manufacturing process as a factory irrespective of number of persons employed therein.

Registered Factories

As on 31.12.2003 there were 9477 registered factories including factories not submitting returns but excluding defence factories

Working Factories

In the State of Karnataka once a factory is registered it is considered as working factory till its name>

TABLE - 1

DETAILS OF WORKING FACTORIES AS PER NIC CODE

NIC CodeType of industryNo. of factories submitting returns
Public SectorPrivate SectorTotalPercentage %
014Agriculture and animal husbandry service activities283852.12
151Processing and preservation of meat, fish, fruit vegetable>0110.02
152Dairy product0880.2
153Grain mill products, starches and starch products, prepared animal feeds11081092.72
154Food products811190.5
155Beverages52662716.8
171Spinning, Weaving & finishing of textiles32092125.3
172Textiles043431.07
181Wearing apparel, except fur apparel0440.1
202Wood, cork, straw & plaiting materials71101172.92
210Paper & Paper Products127280.7
221Publishing0110.02
222Printing & Service activities related to printing346246511.62
232Refined petroleum products0770.17
233Processing of nuclear fuel041411.02
241Basic Metals013130.32
242Chemical products0440.1
251Rubber Products043431.07
252Plastic products287892.22
269Non-metallic mineral products035350.9
271Basic Iron & Steel51031082.7
281Structural metal products, tanks, reservoirs and steam generators619250.62
289Other fabricated metal products, metal working service activities3690.22
291General purpose machinery023230.6
289Other fabricated metal products; metal working service activities3690.22
291General purpose machinery023230.6
292Special purpose machinery12392405.64
311Electric motors, generators and transformers0660.14
315Electric lamps and lighting equipment037370.97
319Other electrical equipment n.e.c.01301303.24
321Electronic valves & tubes and other electronic components015150.37
331Medical appliances & instruments & appliances for measuring, checking, testing, navigating and other purposes except optical instruments01641644.1
333Watches & clocks029290.75
342Bodies for motor vehicles; and of trailers & semi-trailers050501.24
352Railway & Tramway locomotives & rolling stock075751.9
353Aircraft & spacecraft196972.5
361Furniture346346612
369Jewellery & related articles082822.04
401Production, collection & distribution of electricity31141182.94
410Collection, Purification & distribution of water0990.22
502Maintenance & repair of motor vehicles0220.04
603Transport via pipelines227290.72
630Supporting & auxiliary transport activities; activities of travel agencies cargo handling046461.14
731Research & experimental development on natural sciences and engg. (NSE)036360.9
900Sewage & refuse disposal, sanitation and similar activities011110.27
112Service activities incidental to oil and gas extraction excluding surveying0990.22
141Quarrying of stone, sand and clay135360.9
160Tobacco products31591614.02
173Knitted & crocheted fabrics & articles0880.2
182Dressing & Dyeing of fur, manufacture of articles of fur0660.14
191Tanning and dressing of leather, manufacture of luggage handbags, saddlery & harness19100.24
192Footwear0660.14
202Wood, cork, straw & plaiting materials330330.82
243Manufacture of man-made fibres0110.02
261Manufacture of glass & glass products0330.07
272Manufacture of basic precious & non ferrous metals01021022.5
273Casting of metals 110.02
293Manufacture of domestic appliances, n.e.c.0000
300Manufacture of office, accounting and computing machinery1010.02
312Manufacture of electricity distribution & control apparatus0440.09
313Manufacture of insulated wire & cable023230.6
314Manufacture of accumulators, primary cells & primary batteries043431.07
322Manufacture of television & radio transmitters and apparatus for line telephony and line telegraphy510150.4
323Manufacture of television and radio receivers, sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus and associate goods0000
332Manufacture of optical instruments & photographic equipment79341132.81
341Manufacture of motor vehicles0220.04
343Manufacture of parts and accessories for motor vehicles and their engines0330.07
351Building and repair of ships and boats0000
359Manufacture of transport equipments nec1230.07
504Sale, maintenance and repair of motorcycles and related parts and accessories0000
505Retail sale of automotive fuel0770.17
749Business activities n.e.c.0000
930Other service activities0990.22
TOTAL15038514001100.00
Employment in Registered Factories

The details of man-days worked and man-hours worked by men and women workers are given in Table - 2.

TABLE - 2

DETAILS OF MAN-DAYS WORKED AND MAN-HOURS WORKED BY MEN AND WOMEN WORKERS

NIC CodeTotal no. of man-hours worked inclusive of overtime hoursMan-days worked
MenWomenTotalMenWomenTotal
1234567
01418506637987142649377285490149837435327
1124120824244363251513035454
1411771324170821884030426537035796
1515159689384680190064906552555275941182849
1522147426390880253830630985352590362443
153104724677932531123542612737971287381402535
154193811281119009230571220290997914145954324574
1558327727184892910176656640581239500880081
1603451650034516504449640444964
171162967342262762585594930705135560753626588
17225862837709613357244357591108513466104
173633688481518481110811892
18196965412114248947211294607115179891450553026023519
182211384110279321663339871630250289
191187650631712155047721192903406052598955
192963900548824151272413317154362187533
20121682222962191181153928811827
2022261637116045237768245762836206493834
2101356017315076141506778713856041540891539693
2212813338281078309441632050536836357341
22278325972185351100179489584532648521223305
2324003321156407415972845405721480475537
2334753231829649361960837239263229
241379565213149339271454500001587646876
2422402756867870423081461031675218308413998362
2432632536534732860044089815352242
25111287715313945116016601379959422571422216
2527303850168766089915108940892151991109288
2611956700229698218639823818129697267878
2692333040524117642573974529989872838443282831
2714363767102589446635662320913736636945
2724094516217496431201259863328330626963
27318697589484420191820091782539654171847956
2815787772249495603726765220633585685793
2894793371938827135047282661380494892936627342
2917729474127091890003929660611837131149774
2923051351214119653192547737829731751243958097
29321868497690422637532751069496284602
3003660024403904048756095484
3112803994893876369787034145898843440301
3122478282620994309927630272365109367832
3133290984726514401749838935689470478826
3141995420437217243263724189659282301178
315304059377856311844951705110115527166
3191906912371381227829324040745806286213
3211405727471902242124749818237328877802711512
32267789643432811122248477152906137677
3233558576098941684679805818587990
3311857228127336198456423266215666248330
33271902831315610321849002340044130067
3332027242497704252494626169062703324393
3413769840376984670506705
3426353401925665459679409241581824
3433302155410412943406284837289071478573876764
351199601996199601996
35952008752855253726952760570132
3611736536267982200451821665036307252957
3694456396607642506403849751285747583259
40113187992491813437171741446075180219
502322483298908332374042255914616437175
504156880015688019610019610
5052507182432027503830709301133720
6301751842558420076824330360427934
749211386107236318622561091770373812
93051791664242582158359741887254846
TOTAL481536054179629369659869347594772782288047882357756
Grand Total575918850196167862770790636689043852377737292681757

The details of man-days worked and man-hours worked by men and women workers in the public sector undertakings (government and local fund) of the state are given in Table - 3.

TABLE - 3

DETAILS OF MAN-DAYS WORKED AND MAN-HOURS WORKED BY MEN AND WOMEN WORKERS IN PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKINGS

NIC CodeTotal No. of man-hours worked Inclusive of overtime hoursMan-days worked
MenWomenTotalMenWomenTotal
014909203408649500678218660614824
15160248602481204967531753115062
1521225805112878133868316141815167176585
15312440983503612791341708306280177110
1541596726769622736820232786828100
155-----0
1712162967310574322220312219786173969393755
1721161629041452014523631815
1817083161629672461288464211390577
202-----0
2109277902094929884112456029171127477
221------0
22218125835201847785375859454352
23244688299602381040712060152167161823
233874211216728958831087442712111456
241------0
24212012022401223601432729614625
251-271-----0
28134608034608432604326
28911964743209975121747181525033263661551399
291-----0
292891550302729218221105013997114498
31186654408665441082860108286
315-----0
31910596162392010835361324572990135447
3215958343549129650747279485469157864011
3311889953639095922280912816396824888042128486
3332159312151504231081658208431586613670
342&352-----0
3533139938167714330765242076829112449880
361&369-----0
401538251053825133754033754
50240833957113269409472262031225167932048018
603-----0
630429904299466504665
731&900-----0
Total9438279616538493110921289942710789689410324001

Hazardous Units

As per the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948, any unit carrying on manufacturing process, which has potential to cause material impairment to the health of the workers or pollution of the general environment, is termed as a unit carrying on hazardous process. Similarly, State government is also empowered to declare any operation or process as dangerous, if in its opinion the process or operation has a potential to cause a serious bodily injury, poisoning or diseases to persons exposed to such operation or processes.

Employment:

As per the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948, there is restriction on employment of women, and young persons in the processes or operations declared as dangerous by state government. As a result in these factories no young person is employed.

Major Accident Hazards Units

The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 framed under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 provides for > hazardous installations according to level of hazards involved. There are three such categories in which a factory can be > The middle or upper tier requirements are applicable to the factories handling specified chemicals beyond certain threshold limits/quantities. These are generally referred to as MAH units.

Number of units

There are total 66 MAH units in the state. Large storages of petroleum product are located at Dakshina Kannada followed by Bangalore distrits. Large quantity of chlorine is handled at Uttar Kannada followed by Shimoga and Haveri districts. Large quantity of Ammonia is being handled at Dakshina Kannada. Large quantity of liquid oxygen is being handled at Bellary District. Large quantity of (5.6 million metric tonnes per annum) petroleum products is being pumped into the Mangalore – Bangalore oil pipeline.

Hazardous Chemicals used

Under the MSIHC Rules, 1989, threshold quantities for middle tier requirements and upper tier requirements for certain chemicals have been specified. The middle tier requirements include notification of major accident, preparation of on-site emergency plan, notification of site, disclosure of information, etc. The details of MAH units storing hazardous chemicals to which middle tier requirements are applicable are given in Table - 4.

TABLE - 4

DETAILS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORED, USED AND HANDLED

Sl.No.ParticularsQuantityMain Hazard
1LPG72850 MTFire/Explosion
2Petroleum Products295396 KLFire
3Chlorine1705 MTToxic and Corrosive
4Liquid Oxygen4591 MT MTCold burns, Oxidizing
5Carbon Di Sulphide200 MTToxic
6Ammonia10053 MTToxic and corrosive
7Liquid Nitrogen720 MTCold burns
8Corex Gas100000 nm3Toxic, Fire and Explosion
9Hydrochloric acid1185 MTCorrosive
10Sulphuric acid3039 MTCorrosive
11Phosphoric acid21000 MTCorrosive
12Blast Furnace Gas27000 nm3Toxic, Fire and Explosion
13Others like Naptha, Solvent, ethyl mercaptan, sulphur di oxide, Sodium Hyroxide etc.5402 MT-

Occupational injuries in manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

(COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948)

General

As on 31.03.2005, the state of Karnataka had 1028 working factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948. In the year 2003, for which the detailed analysis of accidents is available, there were 2010 reportable accidents in these factories, out of which 50 were fatal and 1960 were non-fatal injuries.

For classification of accidents the Indian Standards IS:3786-1983 titled “Method for computation of frequency and severity rates in industrial injuries and classification of industrial accidents” along with the ILO code of practice on recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases were used. The industries were classified according to the new National Industrial Classification (NIC) Code. The fatal and non-fatal injuries have been dealt with separately and a number of injuries have been taken for each group of industries.

Fatal Injuries

Fatal injuries in the state of Karnataka as reported in the Annual returns submitted by the factories for the year 2003 were 50. The 50 fatal injuries from 13 factories were analyzed as stated above. The analysis has been done industry group wise, cause wise, sex wise etc.

Industry-wise Analysis

Of the total fatal injuries analyzed, 14 accidents were in the units manufacturing basic chemicals and products. The industry-wise analysis of the fatal accidents shows that 28 % of the accidents were in the industry manufacturing basic metals, 18 % fatal injuries are in non-metallic minerals product manufacturing industry and 18 % fatal injuries are in manufacture of food products and beverages. The industry-wise fatal injuries are given in Table - 1.

TABLE – 1

INDUSTRY-WISE FATAL INJURIES (2001 to 2003)

NIC CodeType of Factory200120022003
No. of Fatal InjuriesPercentage( % )No. of Fatal InjuriesPercentage( % )No. of Fatal InjuriesPercentage( % )
15Manufacture of food products and Beverages1234.281329.56918
17Manufacture of Textile12.8612.2736
18Wearing: Apparel; Dressing and Dyeing of Fur--12.27--
20Wood and wood products25.7112.2724
21Manufacture of Paper and Paper products12.86----
23Manufacture of Petroleum and Petroleum Product25.71----
24Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products25.71511.3936
25Manufacture of Rubber and Plastic Product----12
26Manufacture of Other Non-metallic Mineral Products25.7112.27918
27Manufacture of Basic Metals25.71818.181428
28Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, except Machinery and Equipment12.8624.5412
29Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C.12.8624.5412
30Manufacture of Office, Accounting and computing machinery--12.27--
31Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and apparatus N.E.C.25.7112.27--
35Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment38.58--12
36Furniture manufacturing12.8624.54--
40Electricity, Gas, Steam and Hot Water Supply12.8624.5424
50Sale, Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel.12.8649.0924
93Other service activities12.86--24
TOTAL351004410050100

Cause-wise Analysis

The analysis of the 50 fatal injuries shows that explosion has contributed to about 18 % of the fatal accidents, 14 % were due to persons falling, 12 % due to handling goods and 10 % due to electrocution. The Table - 2 shows the number of cause-wise fatal injuries and their percentage.

TABLE – 2

CAUSE-WISE FATAL INJURIES (2001 to 2003)

No.Type of Causation200120022003
No. of Fatal InjuriesPercentage( % )No. of Fatal InjuriesPercentage( % )No. of Fatal InjuriesPercentage( % )
1Prime Movers (101)12.8512.2812
2Machinery Moved by Mechanical Power
(102 – 112)
514.2849.0936
3Machinery not moved by Mechanical Power (122 – 123)25.71--24
4Transport (113 – 116)12.8536.8112
5Electricity (117)- 715.90510
6Explosions (118)12.8524.55918
7Fires (119)- 12.2824
8Gassing (120)12.85--0-
9Molten and other hot or corrosive substances (121)- 36.8112
10Hand tools (124)12.8512.280-
11Struck by falling body (125)411.4249.0924
12Person falling(126 - 128)1028.571022.73714
13Stepping on or striking against object (129)----24
14Handling goods (130)12.8512.28612
15Others822.85715.90918
TOTAL351004410050100

Note: The figures given in bracket indicate the code number of causes

Age and Sex-wise Analysis

During the year 2003, a total number of 50 people have met with fatal accidents. All these were male. Table - 3 gives sex-wise injuries.

TABLE – 3

SEX-WISE FATAL INJURIES (2001 to 2003)

Sl. NoSex200120022003
No. of Fatal injuriesPercentage( % )No. of Fatal InjuriesPercentage( % )No. of Fatal InjuriesPercentage( % )
1Male34974410050100
2Female130000
Total351004410050100

Non- Fatal Injuries

A total number of 1960 non-fatal injuries have been reported by the industries in the state of Karnataka. The >

Industry-wise Analysis

The industry-wise analysis of non-fatal injuries shows that 38 % of the accidents were in the cotton textile manufacturing industry and 27% were in the industries manufacturing basic chemicals and chemical products. The Table - 4 shows the industry-wise non-fatal injuries.

TABLE - 4

INDUSTRY-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

NIC CodeType of Factory200120022003
No. of InjuriesPercentage( % )No. of InjuriesPercentage( % )No. of InjuriesPercentage( % )
15Manufacture of food products and Beverages1998.681276.081025.20
16Manufacture of Tobacco Product10.0410.04----
17Manufacture of Textile52823.0636117.2845223.06
18Wearing: Apparel ; Dressing and Dyeing of Fur291.26562.6850.26
19Tanning and dressing, Handling, Saddlery, Harness and foot wear----40.1910.05
20Wood and wood products120.5310.0410.05
21Manufacture of Paper and Paper products40.171959.341959.95
22Manufacture of Publishing and Products80.3550.2460.31
23Manufacture of Petroleum and Petroleum Product652.8390.4310.05
24Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products261.13351.68321.63
25Manufacture of Rubber and Plastic Product52622.9624611.7835117.91
26Manufacture of Other Non-metallic Mineral Products873.791346.421135.77
27Manufacture of Basic Metals1486.561999.531658.42
28Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, except Machinery and Equipment401.741497.141356.89
29Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C.532.321808.621135.77
30Manufacture of Office, Accounting and computing machinery20.0850.2420.10
31Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and apparatus N.E.C.70.30472.25140.72
32Manufacture of Radio, Television and Communication Equipment and apparatus10.04301.4450.26
33Manufacture of Medical, Precision and optical instruments, watches and clocks10.04231.10140.71
34Manufacture of Motor vehicles, Trailers and Semi-trailers130.56542.59422.14
35Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment35915.67251.20402.04
36Furniture manufacturing411.79301.43190.97
37Recycling30.13180.87----
40Electricity, Gas, Steam and Hot Water Supply341.48361.73371.89
50Sale, Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel.411.791105.28623.15
93Other service activities622.7080.38532.70
TOTAL229010020881001960100

Sex-wise Analysis

Sex-wise analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows 94 % persons were male and 6 % were female in 2001, 97 % persons were male and 3 % were female in 2002, 97 % persons were male and 3 % were female in 2003, The Table - 5 gives the details of injuries sex-wise.

TABLE – 5

SEX-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

Sl. NoSex200120022003
No. of Non- Fatal injuriesPercent-age( % )No. of Non-Fatal InjuriesPerce-ntage( % )No. of Non-Fatal InjuriesPercent-age ( % )
1Male215194200797189797
2Female1396813633
Total229010020881001960100

Cause-Wise Analysis

Cause-wise analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows that 17.76 % of the accidents are due to other causes, 15.67 % of the accidents are due to handling goods, 12.24 % by machinery moved by mechanical power, 12.05 % each by struck by falling body. The Table - 6 shows the cause-wise non-fatal injuries.

TABLE – 6

CAUSE-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES
Sl. No.Type of Causation200120022003
No. of non-fatal InjuriesPercentage( % )No. of non-fatal InjuriesPercentage( % )No. of non-fatal InjuriesPercentage( % )
1Prime Movers (101)291.26823.92412.09
2Machinery Moved by Mechanical Power (102 – 112)45219.7322510.7824012.24
3Machinery not moved by Mechanical Power (122 – 123)1446.29502.3922411.42
4Transport (113 – 116)773.37200.95180.91
5Electricity (117)110.49200.95160.81
6Explosions (118)40.1730.15140.71
7Fires (119)180.78160.76130.66
8Gassing (120)50.2190.4450.26
9Molten and other hot or corrosive substances (121)261.13411.96482.45
10Hand tools (124)23710.351537.33783.98
11Struck by falling body (125)29012.6729414.0823612.05
12Person falling (126 - 128)1737.562079.9220710.57
13Stepping on or striking against object (129)2149.3521810.451658.42
14Handling goods (130)1807.8635517.0030715.67
15Others43018.7839518.9234817.76
TOTAL229010020881001960100

Occupational diseases and poisoning in manufacturing activities

ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases defines occupational diseases as “a disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activity”. Under Section 89 of the Factories Act, 1948 where any worker in a factory contacts any diseases specified in the Third schedule (Annexure-I), the manager of the factory shall send a notice thereof to such authorities and in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.

Also any medical practitioner attending on a person who is or has been employed in a factory and is suffering from diseases specified in the Third Schedule shall without delay send a report in writing to the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories.

In the state of Karnataka no occupational disease cases have been reported to the Directorate of Factories and Boilers.

Management of occupational safety and health at unit level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT UNIT LEVEL

Introduction

The Chapter deals with the management of occupational safety and health at the unit level, i.e. manufacturing units. The state has a total number of 9,531 manufacturing units, the break-up of which, according to factories registered under Section 2 (m), Section 85 of the Factories Act, 1948, is given in Table—3.2. In order to have a fair idea, about the safety and health status in these units, the following aspects of safety and health are covered under this chapter:

  • Safety Policy
  • Appointment of Safety Officers
  • Safety Committee
  • Occupational health centers (FMO, Ambulance)
  • Welfare (Welfare officers, Canteen, Creche, Lunch room, Shelter etc.)
  • On-site emergency plans
  • Safety reports
  • Safety audits
  • HAZOP studies

There are certain statutory requirements as provided under the Factories Act, 1948 and Rules framed thereunder, for each of these aspects stated above. Items 6 to 9 are additional requirements exclusively applicable to MAH installations, which are covered by a separate set of rules. Each of these aspects with its status has been discussed in the following paragraphs.

Safety Policy

The Rule 81 AB of the Karnataka Factories Rules, 1957 framed under the provisions of Sections 7-A (3), 41-B (2) and 112 requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by the factories, meeting the following criteria:

  • Units covered under Section 2(m) (i) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers
  • Units covered under Section 2(m) (ii) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 100 workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948
  • Units covered under Section 2(c b) of the Factories Act, 1948

In addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories or class or description of factories to comply with the above requirements of Safety Policy if in his opinion it is expedient to do so.

As per the details available 664 units required preparation of safety policy, however, 452 units only have prepared the safety policy which is about 68 % of the total. The details are given below.

Sl. No.DetailsSafety Policy
200120022003
1No. of factories requiring Safety policy413773664
2No. of Factories having Safety policy303492452

Appointment Of Safety Officers

As per the provisions of Section 40-B of the Factories Act, 1948, Safety Officers are required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria:

  • Units employing more than 1000 workers,
  • Units wherein any manufacturing process or operation is carried on involving any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or diseases or any hazard to health.

As per the details available, 104 Safety Officers were required to be appointed in 75 factories. As against this, 85 Safety Officers were appointed in 71 factories in the state in the year 2003. The details are shown below.

YearSafety Officers Required / AppointedNo. of factoriesNo. of Safety Officers
2001Required5377
Appointed4585
2002Required90118
Appointed8092
2003Required75104
Appointed7185

Safety Committee

The Rule 81-I of the Karnataka Factories Rules, 1957 framed under the provisions of Section 41 and 41-G of the Factories Act, 1948 require constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:

  • Units employing 250 or more workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers
  • Units covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers

As per information available, 75 units required constitution of Safety Committees. However, only 71 units have constituted Safety Committees. It is observed that less than 95 % of the units have constituted the Safety Committees. The details are given below.

Sl. No.DetailsSAFETY COMMITTEE
200120022003
1No. of factories requiring Safety Committee352608610
2No. of factories having Safety Committee258491487

Occupational Health Centers

As per the Rule 81-AJ of the Karnataka Factories Rules, 1957 prescribed under the Section 41-C of the Factories Act, 1948 Occupational Health Centers are required to be set up in the factories carrying and ‘Hazardous Process’ as described under Section 2(cb) of the Act. As per the information received for the year 2003, 165 Medical officers are required on full-time basis and 191 medical officers are required on retainer-ship or part-time basis whereas, only 131 full-time medical officers and 164 part-time medical officers are appointed on retainer-ship or part time basis. Please see the details given below.

YearDetailsNo. Of Medical OfficersNo. Of Factories
Full-Time BasisRetainership Or Part-Time BasisAmbulance VansAmbulance Rooms
2001Requiring6513790106
Having51947791
2002Requiring164160227230
Having117117142160
2003Requiring164191236221
Having131164147150

Welfare Facilities

This part of the chapter deals with the welfare facilities e.g. appointment of welfare officer, crèche facilities, canteen facilities, shelters, rest room and lunchroom.

As per the provisions of section 49 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 500 workers is required to employ a welfare officer. As per the details available 238 units were required to appoint the 261 welfare officers. However, 219 units have actually appointed the 236 welfare officers.

YearDetailsNo. Of FactoriesNo. Of Welfare Officers
2001Requiring13197
Having8691
2002Requiring244269
Having217242
2003Requiring238261
Having219236

As per the provisions under section 48 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing 30 or more than women workers are required to provide creche facilities for the use of children under the age of 6 years for the women employees. There are certain requirements under the Section for these creches, which are to be met by the occupier of the factory.

As per the details available for the year 2003, only 751 units out of 947 have provided the creche facilities.

As per the provisions under section 47 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 150 workers is required to provide adequate and suitable shelters or rest rooms and lunch- rooms for the use of the workers employed.

As per the details available for the year 2003, only 2365 units out of 2723 units have provided the shelters or rest rooms and lunchroom facilities.

As per the provisions under section 46 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 250 workers is required to provide canteen facilities for the use of workers.

As per the details available for the year 2003, 386 units out of 390 units have provided canteen facilities. The details are given below.

YearItemCanteenShelter, Rest Room, Lunch RoomCretches
2001No. of factories requiring230471598
No. of factories having191417525
2002No. of factories requiring198671946
No. of factories having345606800
2003No. of factories requiring3902723947
No. of factories having3862365751

On-Site Emergency Plans

As per the provisions of the Rule 13 of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard (Karnataka) Rules, 1993” an occupier who has control of the Industrial activity as described under the Rule shall prepare an on-site emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on the site on which industrial activity is carried on.

The details of on site emergency plan in respect of MAH units are given below.

SL.NO.DETAILS200120022003
1No. of factories required to draw such plan293323339
2No. of factories which have drawn Emergency Plan244274290

As per the information available, 339 MAH installations were required to prepare the on-site emergency plans. However, 290 MAH installations have prepared the plans and submitted to the Director of Factories.

Management of occupational safety and health at state level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AHD HEALTH AT STATE LEVEL

Introduction

Management of safety and health at the state level is more complex than at the unit level. At unit level the problems are relatively simple and unit specific depending upon the type of industry. However at the state level the management of safety and health is not unit or industry specific and the instruments such as policies, legislation, etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues in all type of occupations. Apart from the Factories Act, 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities. These legislations are enforced by various state government authorities, namely, the Chief Inspector of Factories, the State Labour commissioner, etc.

Education and training plays an important role in management of safety and health at state level and thus cannot be neglected. Non-government organizations (NGOs), voluntary organization’s, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health are contributing in their own way towards the objective for giving the workers a safe and healthy work environment.

Safety and health at work is governed by a variety of statutes in the state depending on the nature of work place, manufacturing activity and specific aspects of safety and health. Some of the important statutes are given below:

  • The Factories Act, 1948
  • The Karnataka State Factories Rules, 1957
  • Indian Boilers Act, 1923
  • Dangerous machines (Regulations) Act, 1983
  • Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulations) Act, 1986
  • Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989
  • Control of Major Accident Hazards Rules, 1993
  • Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare)Regulations, 1990
  • Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Rules, 1990
  • Building and other Construction Workers Act, 1986
  • Indian Electricity Act, 1923
  • Indian Electricity Rules, 1966
  • Indian Explosives Act, 1884
  • The Petroleum Act, 1934
  • Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels Rules, 1981.

Different departments of the central government and the state government are entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes. The efforts of the enforcement agencies are also supplemented by other organizations such as training and research institutions, employers associations, employees associations, etc. in promoting occupational safety and health in the state. A brief account of these organizations is given in the following paragraphs.

Department Of Factories And Boilers

This department, under the Department of Labour and Rehabilitation at State Secretariat is looking after safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories. The department is headed by a Director, Factories and Boilers. In the state of Karnataka, the Factories and Boilers are under the same Directorate unlike many other states in the country where the boilers are looked after by the Chief Inspector of Boilers and the factories are looked after by the Chief Inspector of Factories. Thus in the state of Karnataka the Directorate of Factories have to look after the enforcement of Factories Act 1948 as well as the Indian Boilers Act 1923.

The Directorate of Factories and Boilers is headed by the Director and is assisted by Joint Directors, Deputy Directors, Sr. Asst. Director, Asst. Inspector, Specialist Inspector like Deputy Director (Med), O. H. S. (Med), Hygiene Inspectors along with regular staff.

Staff Strength

The Directorate is equipped with trained and experienced personnel. Details are given below :

STRENGTH OF THE DIRECTORATE

Sr. No.DesignationStrength
200120022003
Sancti-onedWorkingSancti-onedWorkingSancti-onedWorking
1.Director/Chief Inspector of Factories and Boilers111111
2Additional Chief Inspector of Factories------
3Joint Director Of Factories333322
4Dy. Director of factories1010101088
5Sr. Asst. Director of Factories1414141299
6Asst. Director of Factories291629142210
7Asst. Inspector Of Factories------
8Specialist Inspector
 Dy. Director of factories (Med)111111
 O. H. S. Medical----11
 Hygiene Inspector----1515
 Other (Specify)--1515--
9Total Inspection Staff (Item 1 to 8)736073565947
10Certifying Surgeons      
 Employed by the Inspectorate------
 Notified------

Activities

The Directorate enforces provisions contained in the following statutes:

  • The Factories Act, 1948 and the Karnataka State Factories rules
  • The Indian Boilers Act 1923 and the Karnataka Boiler Rules
  • Payment of Wages Act
  • Maternity Benefit Act
  • Dangerous Machines (Regulations) Act
  • The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules 1989
  • Major Industrial Accidents Hazards (Karnataka) Rules 1993

Inspection of processing factories, identification of unregistered factories, investigation of accidents, approval of plans, attending to complaints are some of the activities undertaken for effective implementation of statutory provisions.

Inspection activities

Sl. No.YearNo. Of Factories InspectedNo. Of Factories Not InspectedGrand Total
12001679026589448
22002599035419531
32003659528829477

In 2001 the state of Karnataka has a total of 9448 registered factories, in 2002 it has 9531 and in 2003 it has 9477 registered under Section 2 (m) of the Factories Act 1948. The inspectors from directorate inspected 6790 factories during the year 2001, 5900 factories during the year 2002 and 6595 factories during the year 2003.

Prosecutions and convictions

The chapter 10 of the Factories Act provides for penalties and procedures for violation of the provisions. The analysis shows that the prosecutions have been carried out under the section 92 of the Factories Act. The section 92 of the Factories Act speaks about the general penalties for offences.

The details of prosecutions launched, decided and the convictions made are given in the following table> There were no penalty such as imprisonment under section 92 or section 96(A).

Nature of OffenceYearNo. of Prosecutions pending from previous yearNo. of Prosecution pending launched during the yearNo. of prosecution decided during the yearNo. of convic-tionsPenalty Imposed
Impris-onmentTotal fine Imposed (Rs)
23456789
General2001911---
200220976-31750
200322877-29350
Women2001------
2002------
2003------
Young persons2001623---
200210121--
20039211---
Notices, Registers and Returns200110211-4000
2002179108-15000
2003168158-72000
Safety200110331305-22000
2002126441618-131550
200312449377-94600
Hazardous process and dangerous operation200121----
2002322---
20033311-1000
Health and Welfare20014218156-18000
200250141315-82000
2003514186-85700
Others20016919201-900
2002157414313-67025
2003155148220-51804
2001241777013-44900
20023831209361-327325
20033808817149-342454

Regional Occupational Health Centre (Southern) Bangalore

Regional Occupational Health Centre (Southern), Bangalore was set up in the year 1977 in the Bangalore Medical College Campus. The Indian Council of Medical Research’s programme in the area of occupational health and safety in the southern region is conducted through this regional Centre at Bangalore under the aegis of National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH), Ahmedabad to achieve the goal of mitigating the adverse impact of work environment on workers health and community at large. This center aims at carrying out research in Occupational Health in the Southern States namely, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and the Union Territory of Pondicherry.

The Centre plans to expand research based on issues that pose greatest risks to unorganized and under privileged sector. To address the increasingly complex industrial and environmental health problems, it was proposed to focus the research activities in key areas and to develop intervention strategies with sound science, judgment and vision. The center’s overall planning process engenders an applied research and development programme focused on answering key scientific ad technical questions in the area of environmental and occupational health (EOH), particularly in the area of agro medicine. The centre also recognizes the need to develop a long-term core research programme, which extends knowledge base of EOH in agro medicine and anticipated problems in the foreseeable future due to introduction of new agricultural inputs like biotechnology and pesticides along with non-traditional newer challenges in leading economic frontiers of occupational and environmental health.

Some of the centre’s programmes are as follows:

  • Consultancy services as required by industries and unorganized sectors.
  • Augmentation of the existing research laboratories with more sophisticated instruments such as Atomic Absorption Spectorscopy, High pressure liquid Chromatorgraphy, Sound Level meter, Personal heat stress monitoring equipments, etc.
  • To keep abreast with current knowledge the library is equipped with recent text books on occupational medicine, occupational hygiene, toxicology, physiology, bio statistics with on line access with ICMR facilities related to the centre’s work.
  • To undertake collaborative studies in association with institutes of repute.
  • Liaison with related professional organizations like Pollution Control Boards, Chief Inspectorate of Factories to undertake collaborative projects of common interests.
  • Conducting training courses, orientation courses, workshops on occupational and environmental health surveillance programme.
  • Programmes to inculcate awareness and importance of occupational health to general public, professional and technical organizations.
  • The centre in addition to its extramural and intra-mural research activities extends laboratory facilities to number of postgraduate students in their dissertation work and for the upliftment of scientific temperament among different related branches of science.

Instrumentation

Keeping in mind the specific objectives and functions, the centre made efforts in procuring initially the indigenously available equipments and accessories and subsequently highly sophisticated instrumentation required in undertaking research mainly oriented in 1) ambient and work room environment monitoring equipments 2) sampling devices 3) analytical equipments 4) equipments which can be used for the different estimations of concentration of metals, toxic substances, metabolites in biological samples and also supportive instrumentation and basic laboratory equipments. Along with this medical monitoring equipments viz. medical kits, portable> The annexure enclosed gives the details of the equipments, their accessories, their technical details, indicating type of the investigation which can be carried out and where all they can be utilized.

LIST OF INSTRUMENTS/EQUIPMENTS/FACILITY AVAILABLE

No.Name of the InstrumentModel No.Make
1.Atomic Absorption Spectrphotometer3110Perkin Elmer, USA
2.Sartorious BalanceR200 DSartorious GMBM, Germany
3.Medspiror (computersiedMedspiror IIIIndia
4.RA-50 Chemistry AnalyserRs 232 cMiles Inc./West Germany
5.Hemacomp – 5MH5MSEAC, Italy
6.Digital Conductivity MeterNDC 732Naina, India
7.Ultrosonic systems-India
8.Cooling Micro Fuge (Centrifuge)CM-12/8/8-94Remi Instruments, India
9.Gas Chromatorgraph5765AMIL Nucon, India
10.EMDEX II 50 Hz electromagnetic field meter2474Enertech/USA
11.Bedside monitor5289BPL/India
12.E.C.G.M.N o.408BPL/India
13.Personal Cascade Inspector298 KUSA
14.Personal Sampler & Accessories--
15.Mini Lux –2 Portable>--
16.Precision Sound Level Meter232B & K
17.Noise & Vibration equipment2236B & K
18.High Volume air samplerAPM-411Envirotech, India
19.Audiometer Micro Lab-USA
20.Shimatzu High Performance Liquid ChromatographHPLC 

Karnataka Employers’ Association

Karnataka Employers’ Association (KEA) a leading employers’ organisation in the state of Karnataka was established in the year 1961. It is the first employers’ organisation in the state with the objective to promote, safeguard and protect legitimate interest of employers and to foster harmonies relationship between employers and Employers, employees and employers.

It has been rendering the following services to its members:

  • Data collection and compilation
  • Employee Relations
  • Information Services
  • Training/Seminar/Conference
  • Representation at State and National Committees

This organisation has been educating its members on various labour legislations, including Occupational Safety and Health. Members are advised to observe Safety Day and to train their employees to adhere to safety norms and other precautionalry measures. Members are also kept updated on ILO Standards of Safety and Occupational Health.

Employee Relations

Karnataka Employers’ Association is sensitive on the latest developments and changes in the area of Employee Relations in the State and in the country and proactively takes up the causes before the appropriate forums. It actively solicits the opinion from Members and provides guidance as well as to represent before the authorities in formulation of Labour policies and/or to bring any changes/amendments to the legislations.

It guides the members in collective bargaining process. The officers of this organisation appear on behalf of Members before the conciliatory and ad judicatory authorities.

Information Services

This Association is a major source of information to its members. It regularly informs the members trends and changes in labour and economic policies of central and state governments, issues in the area of industrial relations, amendments to labour legislations, latest judicial judgements, prospects and perspectives on issues connected with labour management and related matters through its periodical circulars.

Research & Information

This Association offers training programmes to its members in the areas of collective bargaining, productivity, industrial relations, labour legislations, disciplinary issues etc. It also offers In-house programmes to its members on specific themes based on their needs. These programmes are well conceived, designed and modulated and conducted by well known Faculty.

Seminars & Conferences

It conducts Seminars and conferences on topical themes and subjects that are useful to the Members in the area of Labour Management. The Seminars & Conferences conducted by this Association are very popular and members do look forward for these seminars/conferences.

Representations

This Association represents at the National & State Level Tripartite Committees and Commissions, Statutory Committees under Labour legislations, National Apprenticeship Council, ESI and PF Governing Boards etc.

Karnataka State Pollution Control Board

Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB), enforces the following pollution control laws and rules relating to environmental protection in the state.

  • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 as amended in 1978 and 1988.
  • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 as amended in 1991.
  • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 as amended in 1987.
  • The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  • The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986
  • The Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989 as amended in 2000.
  • The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, 1989 as amended in 2000.
  • The Bio-Medical Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 as amended in 2000.
  • The Plastic Manufacture, Sale & and Usage Rules, 1999.
  • The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000.
  • The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000.

Apart from implementation of above said laws, the board is also encouraging the industries to adopt ISO: 14000 (Environmental Management System) standards and cleaner technologies.

The board is monitoring water quality of major rivers and lakes at strategic locations in the state ad also monitoring ambient air quality at major towns of the state. The board is also conducting several awareness programmes at regular intervals in order to educate people in the field of environmental protection and pollution control to comply with the above regulation.

Resources available and needed

RESOURCES AVAILABLE AND NEEDED FOR MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

General

The scope of the study was limited to cover the organisations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948 was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident forms. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, availability of safety reports, etc. as per the provisions of the Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was outside the scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, a more elaborate and in-depth study is required to be taken up to get a comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.

The findings and recommendations as brought out by the study are summarised below:

Recommendations

Submission of returns by the factories

In the State of Karnataka, there are 9531 registered factories out of which 9531 factories are working factories. Number of factories submitting returns is 4001 and not submitting returns is 5530. Average daily number of workers employed in the factories submitting returns is 315666 as per the report by the Directorate of Factories and Boilers, Bangalore for the year ending 31.12.2002. As the annual returns contain vital information such as average daily employment, man-hours worked, man-days lost, number of accidents, provision of health and welfare facilities, etc. which are essential for the compilation of state level inventory on Occupational Safety and Health, it is recommended that the submission of annual returns should be made compulsory for all the registered factories.

Analysis of Accidents

The analysis of accidents according to industry reveals that 18 % of the total fatal accidents are in the ‘explosions’ and 28 % of total Fatal accidents are in the "Manufacture of Basic Metals". The analysis of non-fatal accidents indicate “Others” accounted for 17.76 % of the total accidents followed by 15.67 % of total accidents accounted for " Handling goods " reason. The analysis is indicative of the fact that more enforcement and training efforts are required in the above mentioned >

Organising Seminars, Workshops, etc.

In addition to what is being done by the non-governmental organization such as the National Safety Council, Karnataka Chapter, the Loss Prevention Association of India may also take up similar activities in the field of Occupational Safety and Health on a large scale. This should include organizing Seminars, Workshops on the issues arising out of liberalization, privatization and globalization, modern manufacturing techniques, technological developments in the field of manufacturing etc. vis-a-vis their impact on the safety, health and welfare of the workers.

Training for Trade Union Officials

In order to promote safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories, training programmes, seminars and workshops should be organized to increase the awareness of the Trade Union Officials in the field of occupational safety and health. The Unit level Trade Union Officials should be involved in training and education of workers in the field of Occupational Safety and Health. In such programmes, more emphasis should be given on the role of Union Leaders in the field of Safety and Health at the workplace.

Collection and Dissemination of Data on Occupational Safety and Health in the State

While collecting the statistics regarding the factories as well as the accidents, it was found by the study team that although the factories were submitting the annual returns in the prescribed format to the local offices as well as to the Regional Offices and Headquarters, the information was not being compiled and sent to the Headquarters in time. As a result the collected information could not be processed and the trends regarding various parameters on occupational safety and health could not be established. A closer examination of the issue reveals that the information at the field level could not be compiled or is taking time for compilation because of manpower shortage. It is, therefore, suggested that all field level offices should be equipped with suitable> This arrangement will also improve the communication among the offices under the Directorate of Factories leading to effective implementation of the orders issued under the provisions of the Factories Act eliminating the delays.

Constitution of State Level Tripartite Committee

In order to review the status of safety, health and welfare in the factories and formulate an action plan on the basis of findings from time to time, a state level tripartite committee on occupational safety and health should be constituted under the Chairmanship of the Labour Minister. In this committee representatives of government departments connected with factories and labour, representatives of employers’ and employees’ may be included. This is also in line with the recommendations made by Standing Labour Committee to the Indian Labour Conference.

nteraction between DGFASLI and CIF Office

For better interaction between DGFASLI, RLI and CIF Office and for exchange of information relating to Occupational Safety and Health frequent interaction among the officers DGFASLI and the CIF Office is necessary. It is therefore recommended that suitable>

References

  • The Factories Act, 1948 and Karnataka State Rules
  • ILO Code of Practice for Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and diseases
  • Karnataka at a Glance 2003-2004, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Karnataka
  • Report from Karnataka Employers’ Association, Bangalore.
  • Report from the Karnataka State Polluti0on Control Board
  • Report from the Regional Occupational Health Centre(Southern),Bangalore
  • Annual Report (2003-04) from the Directorate of Factories, Karnataka.

Annexures

ANNEXURE - I

THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 ( AMENDED 1987 ), 1948
THE THIRD SCHEDULE
(See section 89 and 90)

List of notifiable diseases

  • Lead poisoning including poisoning by any preparation or compound of lead or their sequelae.
  • Lead tetra-ethyl poisoning.
  • Phosphorous poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Mercury poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Manganese poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Arsenic poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Poisoning by nitrous fumes.
  • Carbon bisulphide poisoning.
  • Benzene poisoning, including poisoning by any of its homologues, their nitro or amido derivatives or its sequelae.
  • Chrome ulceration or its sequelae.
  • Anthrax.
  • Silicosis.
  • Poisoning by halogens or halogen derivatives of the hydrocarbons, of the aliphatic series.
  • Pathological manifestation due to : -
    • radium or other radioactive substances.
    • X-rays.
  • Primary epitheliomatous cancer of the skin.
  • Toxic anaemia.
  • Toxic jaundice due to poisonous substances.
  • Oil acne or dermatitis due to mineral oils and compounds containing mineral oil base.
  • Byssionosis.
  • Asbestosis.
  • Occupational or contact dermatitis caused by direct contract with chemical and paints. These are of types, that is, primary irritants and allergic sensitizers.
  • Noise induced hearing loss (exposure to high noise levels).
  • Beryllium poisoning.
  • Carbon monoxide.
  • Coal miners' pneumoconiosis.
  • Phosgene poisoning.
  • Occupational cancer.
  • Isocyanides poisoning.
  • Toxic nephritis.

ANNEXURE - II

EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE ACT, 1948
THE THIRD SCHEDULE
LIST OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES

PART A

Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Infectious and parastic diseases contracted in an occupation where there is a particular risk of contamination.
  • All work involving exposure to health or laboratory work;
  • All work involving exposure to veterinary work;
  • Work relating to handling animals, animals carcasses, part of such carcasses, or merchandise which may have been contaminated by animals or animal carcasses;
  • Other work carrying a particular risk of contamination.
2.Diseases caused by work in compressed air.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
3.Diseases caused by lead or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Poisoning by nitrous fumes.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Poisoning by organphosphorus compoundAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned

PART B

Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Diseases caused by phosphorus or toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.Diseases caused by mercury or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Diseases caused by benzene or its toxic homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Diseases caused by nitro and amino derivatives of benzene or its homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Diseases caused by chromium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
6.Diseases caused by arsenic or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
7.Diseases caused by radioactive substances and ionising radiations.All work involving exposure to the reaction of radioactive substances or ionising radiations.
8.Primary epithelomatous cancer of the skin caused by tar, pitch bitumen, mineral oil, anthracene or the compounds, products or residues of these substancesAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
9.Diseases caused toxic halogen derivatives by hydrocarbons (of the aliphatic and aromatic series).All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
10.Diseases caused by carbon disulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
11.Occupational cataract due to infra-red radiations.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
12.Diseases caused by manganese or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
13.Skin diseases caused by physical, chemical or biological agents not include in other items.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
14.Hearing impairment caused by noise.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
15.Poisoning by dinitrophenol or a homologue or by substituted dinitrophenol or by the salts of such substances.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
16.Diseases caused by beryllium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
17.Diseases caused by cadmium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
18.Occupational asthma caused by recognised sensitising agents inherent to the work process.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
19.Diseases caused by fluorine or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
20.Diseases caused by nitroglycerine or other nitroacid esters.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
21.Diseases caused by alcohols and ketones.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
22.Diseases caused by asphyxiants; carbon monoxide, and its toxic derivatives, hydrogen sulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
23.Lung cancer and mesotheliomas caused by asbestos.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
24.Primary neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder or the kidneys or the ureter.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned

PART C

Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Pneumoconiosis caused by sclerogenic mineral dust (silicosis, anthraoosilicosis asbestosis) and silico-tuberculosis provided that silicosis is an essential factor in causing the resultant incapacity or death.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.BagassosisAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by cotton, flax hemp and sisal dust (Byssinosis)All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Extrinsic allergic alvoelities caused by the inhalation of organic dusts.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by hard metals.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned