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Introduction

INTRODUCTION

With the rapid growth of technology and globalization of economic review, transfer of technological knowledge has taken place throughout the world at a very fast rate. This knowledge and its application have often led to benefits such as improved productivity and reduced physical exertion. Conversely the misapplication of such technology has given rise to hazards threatening safety and health.

Both management and organized labour have agreed that safety and health on the job is the management responsibility. The duty of an employer is to protect employees against health hazards in addition to their safety. This necessitates designing of newer policies and programmes in respect of safety, health and environment.

Decision where safety is involved often-present dilemma for planning authorities. In many cases the authorities have to weigh the advantages, which proposed development might bring against disadvantage that more people might be at some risk. The decision is less difficult when this risk is very great or very small, but many cases it falls between these two extremes.

With the increasing awareness about the environment world over, most of the countries have enacted legislations for protecting environment and establish machinery for their implementation. With a view to promote good standards on environmental practices, International Organization for Standards have developed ISO: 14000 series which specifies requirements on environmental management system.

In the emerging scenarios, industries have to effectively deal with multitude of challenge like rapidly involving new technology, shorter life circle, globalization, increased competition and the need to substantially reduce the environmental impact. A national inventory on capabilities and management of occupational safety, health and environment will be of great help for designing and implementing various instruments to protect safety, health and environment of the large workforce working in various sectors of the economy. These requires on line assessment of the present statutes on occupational safety and health in the country. Presently information in this area is not up-to-date and also not readily available for the policy makers. As such a pilot project has been taken up for the state of JHARKHAND with the objective to collect and compile various information on occupational safety and health and dissemination of information regarding the extent of compilation with the important provisions under the Factories Act, 1948 and the rules framed there under including system of notification of occupational accidents and diseases as per ILO code of practice at the unit level and state level.

1.1. ROLE OF ILO & ITS GUIDANCE

India is one of the members of International Labour Organization and has ratified a number of ILO conventions and Recommendations. As a result major part of the ILO code of practices on notification of occupational accidents and diseases are being followed along with the Indian standard ISO 3786 which is on the similar lines of ILO’s code of practice. ILO-OSH 2001 provides a unique international model, compatible with other management system, standards and guides. It is not legally binding and not intended to replace national laws, regulations and accepted standards.

It reflects ILO’s values such as tripartism and relevant international standards including the Occupational Safety and Health Convention 1981 (No155), Occupational Health Services Convention 1985 (161). The ILO Guidelines encourage the integration of OSH-MS with other management system and state that OSH should be an integral part of business management. While integration is desirable, flexible arrangements are required depending on the size and type of operation. Ensuring good OSH performance is more important than formality of integration. As well as this, ILO-OSH 2001 emphasizes that OSH should be a line management responsibility at the organization.

The guidelines provide guidance for implementation at two levels – national (Chapter 2) and organizational (Chapter 3).

1.2. NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FRAMEWORK

At the national level, they provide for the establishment of a national framework for occupational safety and health (OSH) management systems, preferably supported by national laws and regulations. Action at national level includes the nomination of (a) competent institution (s) for OSH-MS, (b) the formulation of a coherent national policy and (c) the establishment of ILO-OSH 2001, either by means of its direct implementation in organizations or its adaptation to national conditions and practice (by national guidelines) and specific needs of organizations in accordance with their size and nature of activities (by tailored guidelines).

The National Policy for OSH-MS should be formulated by competent institution(s) in consultation with employers’ and workers’ organizations, and should consider:

  • Promotion of OSH-MS as a part of overall management
  • Promote voluntary arrangements for systematic OSH improvement
  • Avoid unnecessary bureaucracy, administration and costs
  • Support by labour inspectorate, safety and health and other services

The functions and responsibilities of implementing institutions should be clearly defined as well. Figure 1 of the Guidelines describes the elements of the national framework for OSH managements systems. It shows the different ways in which ILO-OSH 2001 may be implemented in a member State:

1.3 ACTIVITIES COVERED

The activities of this project have been divided in the following categories:

  • Background information about the state of JHARKHAND –
    Deals with the demographic and geographic characteristic of the state of JHARKHAND, population in different districts and major occupations of the people.
  • Economic activities
    Deals with the various aspects of economic sectors in the state, their value of production, employment generated and contribution to the GDP.
  • Activities in manufacturing sector
    Deals with the different activities carried out in the manufacturing sector as per the National Industries Code, value of production, employment generation, etc.
  • Occupational injuries and diseases
    Deals with the analysis of the occupational injuries – fatal and non-fatal and cases of occupational diseases in the manufacturing sector.
  • Management of occupational safety and health
    Deals with the infrastructure and resources available at the unit level and the state level for managing the crucial issue of occupational safety and health.
  • Resources available and needed for the management of occupational safety and health
    Based on the analysis of occupational injuries, diseases and the capabilities available in the state of JHARKHAND for the management of occupational safety and health, an attempt is made to assess the resources required for the better management of occupational safety and health.

The information pertaining to various economic sectors was collected by visiting each of the departments, having detailed discussions with the respective heads and referring to the annual returns of these departments. The information related with the manufacturing sectors were collected from the annual returns submitted by the factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948. The data related to the occupational injuries and diseases were analyzed by studying the accident forms and recording them on to the data sheets specifically designed for this purpose.

For the assessment of infrastructure available and capabilities of the organizations, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health, the profile programme on the similar lines as that developed by ILO was used.

Data collection and analysis could be efficiently completed in specific time frame because of active co-operation from various people involved with the project.

Background information

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

About the Mineral Rich State of Jharkhand

Jharkhand, which came into existence on 15th November 2000, is widely acclaimed as the region of future. It has enormous potential for industrialization. Its large deposits of minerals provide a solid launching pad for all kinds of industries. The region with an area of 74677 sq km, and a population of 22 million has unlimited scope for growth and development.

Jharkhand is generously endowed with such mineral wealth, which probably no other state in the country can boast of. 33% of the country's coal reserves is in Jharkhand. Other than coal Jharkhand inherits immense reserves of various other minerals like iron ore, copper, chromites, china clay, dolomite, granite, mica, magnetite, titanium, tungsten, uranium, kyanite, gold, feldspar, quartzite just to name a few. (90% of the country’s cooking coal deposits, 40% of its copper, 22% of its iron ore, 90% of its mica and huge deposits of bauxite, quartz and ceramics). It is home to the largest steel plant in Bokaro, apart from Jamshedpur being practically the city of TISCO and TELCO.

Besides minerals, Jharkhand is gifted with adequate water resources, relatively moderate climate and a very fertile land, providing tremendous scope for hydel power generation, horticulture and floriculture. The state offers a large pool of trained manpower, good educational & technical institutions, research laboratories, a favorable industrial climate, and good rail, road & telecommunication network.

Jharkhand is a land locked territory bound by the state of Bihar on the north, West Bengal on the east, Orissa on the south, and Chattisgarh on the west.

Physiographically, Jharkhand is characterized by the Chotanagpur Plateau. The Chotanagpur Plateau consists of a series of plateau of different elevations - the most important ones being the Ranchi plateau, the Ramgarh plateau and the Hazaribag plateau. Tectonically, these regions have witnessed three organic movements, which are also responsible for the rich mineral deposits found in the state. Jharkhand has some of the richest deposits of iron and coal in the world apart from being a part of one of the most industrialized regions in the country. It is also endowed with a rich forest cover.

The radial centrifugal drainage system of Jharkhand consists of rivers like Koel, Subarnrekha, Damodar, Barakar, Ajoi, Mor, Konar and Bokaro. Most of these rivers are relatively dry during summer but exhibit torrential flow, rapids and falls during the monsoon season. Jharkhand has a vast potential for generating hydel power as is exemplified by the location of the famous Damodar Valley Corporation in the state.

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

The state extends between 22 degrees north and 25.50 degrees north latitudes and 83 degrees east and 87.75 degrees east latitude with an area of 74,677 sq km The new state is bordered by Bihar, MP, Orissa and West Bengal to its north, west, south and east respectively. 35% of the population of former Bihar is in the Jharkhand region.

The state comprises of eighteen districts of the erstwhile Bihar- Ranchi, Gumha, Lohardanga, East Singbhum, West Singbhum, Hazaribagh, Giridih, Kodarma, Chatra, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Palamau, Garhwa, Dumka, Deoghar, Godda, Pakure and Sahebgunj

District wise Population

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Climate

Climate of the state in general is tropical with hot summers and cold winters. There are regional variations and some parts of the state like Ranchi, Netarhat, and Parasnath have pleasant climate even during the summers. Maximum rainfall takes place during the months from July to September that accounts for more than 90% of total rainfall in the state

A Profile

Population21843911 
ST 28% of total
SC 12% of total
Per capita IncomeRs. 4161 
Density of Population274 persons / Sq. KM 
No. of Districts18 + 4 
No. of Sub divisions33 
No. of Blocks211 
No. of Villages32620 
No. of Villages Electrified1466745 % of total
No. of Villages connected by roads8484 
National Highways1006 KMs 
State Highways4662 KMs 
Health centers506 
Schools21386 
Universities5

Incl. One deemed University

Total Geographical Area79.70 Lakh Hect 
Cultivable Land38.00 Lakh Hect 
Net Sown Area18.04 Lakh Hect25% of total area
Net Irrigated Area01.57 Lakh Hect8% of net sown area
Forest 29% of total area

The state has adequate infrastructure for ensuring rapid industrial growth. A good network of roads, railways, airways, telecommunication, power and water system is available in the state.

Road

The State is well connected by roads. The National High Way is 1600 Km and the State High Way is 2711 Km.

The State Government is planning to improve and upgrade the existing road network and providing new road linkages/bypass with bridges over river to facilitate quick and efficient movement of raw materials and finished goods. The state government proposes - BOT concept for building & maintenance of roads 7 bridges by private sector participation, provide expressway along the main high-density corridors across the state and inter state & intra-state bus terminus across the state.

Power

Jharkhand is a resource rich state with abundance of waterfalls, rivers, and huge coal beds. The state has an immense scope for mini, micro hydro power stations and non-conventional energy.

The State Government’s objective is to provide electricity to all villages and rural areas. In this process Rs.30 cores was invested in the current year 2001 - 2002.

Installed Power StationCapacity
Tenughat Thermal Power Station420 MW
Patratu Thermal Power Station840 MW
Sikkidiri Hydel Power130 MW
DVC ( Thermal / Hydel )1200 MW
Total installed capacity2590 MW

Power Potential in Jharkhand

PatratuThermal420 MW
Tenughat Phase IThermal630 MW
Tenughat Phase IIThermal500 MW
ChandilThermal1200 MW
North Karanpura3Thermal2000 MW
Shankh IIHydel186 MW
Tilalya DhadharHydel50 MW
KanharHydel450 MW
MaithanThermal1000 MW
 Total5736 MW

The objective of the Jharkhand state is to provide industries uninterrupted power of right quality and quantity with constant voltage at an economic cost. To meet this objective State Government opted privatization of power generation and distribution. The cities contemplated for privatization of power distribution are - Ranchi, Jamshedpur and Dhanbad.

An independent Electricity Regulatory Commission was set up to ensure - rationalization of power tariff, timely disposal of electricity related disputes and interaction between consumers and board.

In the area of non-conventional energy - an industry status is given to utilization of non - conventional energy sources. 67 Hydel power generation sites were identified in this area. State Government invites private sector participation to set up mini and micro Hydel power plants and to exploit and develop non-conventional sources of power.

Railway

The state has extensive and well - developed railway system providing vital links to important cities if the country.

The state Government process - new railway links to be established within the state and Inland Container Depot (ICD) at Tatanagar to facilitate export efforts.

Airports

There are three main airports in the state - Ranchi, Jamshedpur and Hazaribagh. Ranchi is well connected with Delhi, Patna and Mumbai. The state Government process - to upgrade Ranchi Airport as International Airport, to start air taxi / cargo services in major towns of the state and to set up air cargo complex at Ranchi to boost the export.

Telecommunication

All the district headquarters of the state are connected to the main network by reliable media and STD facility. Ranchi Internet mode is upgrade to 'A' category. Optical Fibre cable media connectivity is available in all district quarter and 6 Internet nodes are available in the state. Also local dialing facility to access internet is available in all district head quarters of the state.

The State Government process - to link rural areas through WLL, to connect all telephone exchanges through OFC/OHF, to link rural areas with business centres and availability of Bharat Mobile Services in the State.

MAJOR INDUSTRIES

Heavy Engineering

Heavy Engineering Corporation (HEC). Ranchi

Coal Mining

Jharkhand is the country's richest state in coal reserves. At present Central Coalfields Limited (CCL),a subsidiary of Coal India Limited, with headquarters at Ranchi is engaged in the growth of coal production and development of new coal resources in the state. Central Coalfields ltd. is engaged in coal mining with scientific methods meeting the safety, quality and environmental standards.

Indian Institute of Coal Management (IICM) established by Coal India is located at Kanke near Ranchi. It helps to motivate and provide opportunity and formal training to individual and organisations engaged in coal industry or entrepreneurs.

Bharat Cooking Coal Limited - a subsidiary of Coal India is located at Koyla Bhawan, Dhanbad. It helps at mining development of quality of cooking coal in the coalfields of the state.

Tussar Silk

40 percent of country's production of Tussar, a non-mulberry silk comes from Jharkhand State alone. The state is planning to integrate horticulture, sericulture, agriculture and productions of Lac operations under its VISION 2010 plan. This will enable the state to produce 60 percent Tussar silk production. The centre Tussar Research and Training Institute is working well in this direction.

Two main species of trees- Arjuna (Terminatra- Arjuna) and Asan (Terminatia Tementosa) are found in the large spread forest of the state. These trees are the breeding ground for the moth which produces the oval cocoon, with a fine-grained, hard, non-flossy shell. The cocoons are generally yellow or grey and are hard and compact. The cocoons are boiled in chemical solution to soften. The yarn produced is reeled.

The portion of Tussar cocoons leftover after nearly 60% reel able silk is spun into katiya yarn. Ghicha yarn and Balkal yarn is also produced from pierced cocoons. Tussar silk is gaining popularity due to unique texture and color. It is also called 'wild' silk. The silk is naturally of tan, earth and brown colours. Due to its earth colour Tussar has become a hit with the fashion world. The forest department of the state is also planning to encourage the production of Arjuna trees.

Steel Industry

Tata Steel - The Tata Iron & Steel Company Limited (TATA Steel)

Bokaro Steel Plant

Bokaro Steel Plant (BSP) is situated in the coal belt and Indian engineering and equipment suppliers have played a major role in its construction - the first indigenous public sector integrated steel.

Usha Beltron Limited

Usha Beltron Limited (UBL) a private Jhawars-owned alloy steel manufacturing unit at Adityapur near Jamshedpur.

Information Technology

The state Government is fully committed to make Jharkhand an IT powerhouse and a front-runner in the information revolution. The objective of the State Government is to accelerate the drive for setting up info - infrastructure with - Fiber optic network, satellite communication network and wireless network for seamlessly interconnecting the LII, NLL and the GLL.

The State Governments' aim to create an ambience to target for a $5 billion annual export from Jharkhand IT industry by 2010. It will create a center for excellence like IIIT and regional engineering colleges through private participation. It will also support IT support services in regional languages.

0.25 percent rebate in allotted land cost per job created.

Rebate on registration charges and stamp duty for sale/lease of space for establishing IT infrastructure.

Special Rebate for IT Infrastructure :

  • 90 percent rebate for facilities established and sale/leased during 2001 - 2003.
  • 70 percent rebate during 2003 - 2004
  • 50 percent rebate during 2004 – 2005

Manufacturing Sector

MANUFACTURING SECTOR

IDENTIFICATION OF THRUST AREAS
  • The State of Jharkhand is blessed with huge natural resources such as minerals, forests, water resources, energy sources, fertile land, etc. which can place the State amongst one of the top most prosperous and developed states of the country.
  • Besides, the State is also gifted with relatively moderate climate, good rainfall, good rail and road communication, technical educational facilities, research laboratories, management institutes, etc.
  • With a view to inculcate rapid growth in industrial sector, such industries which aim to utilize natural resources available in Jharkhand and which can generate employment for local inhabitants are being classified as thrust area industries.
  • It is also intended to give boost to those industries, which propose to add value to the minerals, forest produce and agro based products available in the State. Important criteria for determining suitability of thrust industries for accelerated development in the states are:
    • Availability of raw material
    • Market
    • Manpower resources
    • Linkage with larger units
    • Sustainability aspects
  • The following industries have been identified as thrust areas for focused industrial development in the State:

    1. Mining and Mineral Based Industries

    The potential for growth in mining and mineral based industries is immense. This sector has huge potential for attracting large investments to create employment and raise resources. It would be the endeavor of the State Government to expedite the granting of mining leases and simplify the procedures with respect to the grant of mining leases. In addition, the State Government would also provide certain relief to make mining activities easier.

    Concerted efforts shall be made to expedite / undertake survey / exploration of mining resources. Modern methods of exploration like remote sensing, arrow magnetic survey and other methods would be used to set up the resource inventory of various minerals in the State. The State Government would encourage participation of reputed private parties, multinationals and Central and State agencies in this exercise.

    The State Government would encourage joint venture projects with State Mineral Development Corporation (SMDC) especially in the field of mining. Private sector would be encouraged to take up mining activities in the State. Mining lease applications along with project report and all relevant documents would preferably be disposed off within a period of 60 days of the filing of such application. Suitable>

    2. Agro based industries

    Cattle feed

    Jute, hemp, sisal and other fabrics

    Tea cultivation, processing and packaging

    Paper

  • Industries based on medicinal and aromatic plants
  • Sericulture / Tasar
  • Forest basedindustry, like Shellac, Bamboo, etc.
  • Engineering, auto component, iron & steel and steel based down stream industries.
  • Chemical based industries
  • Power generating and allied industries
  • Electronic and computers and IT based industries
  • Industries based on non-conventional energy
  • Live stock based industries, such as dairy, poultry, piggery, aquaculture, meat processing, etc.
  • Industries based on recycling of wastes, eco friendly raw materials and processes.
  • Super specialty Health services
  • Telecommunications and related products
  • Food processing industry
    • Tissue culture products
    • Seeds and planting materials
    • Foods and Vegetable processing
    • Bio-technological processes and products
    • Post Harvest technologies
  • Plastic and plastic based industries.
  • Pharmaceutical / drugs based industries.
  • Leather based industries.
  • Ceramics
  • Sports goods
  • Packaging
  • Metallurgical Industries including power intensive units like induction furnaces, arc furnaces, Ferro alloys, oxygen plants, graphite & gas plants and calcium carbide plants.
  • Textile, hosiery, knitwear
  • Handicrafts / Khadi / Handloom based industries
  • Natural Gas Based Industries

REGION-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRIES IN JHARKHAND

DistrictsUnits IdentifiedUnits closed
Ranchi1209277
Hazaribagh494144
Daltanganj29281
Chaibasa46563
Jamshedpur1459132
Bokaro50582
Deoghar34258
Sahebganj41161
Janntara1086
Dhanbad817130
Giridih29423

Manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948

16 industries have been identified as major accident hazard unit as follows:

List of Major Accident Hazard Factories under Jharkhand Factories (Control of Major Accident Hazard) Rule

TABLE - 1

Sl.No.Name of the FactoryNo. of Workers Employed
01)The Tata Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Jamshedpur32,000
02)B. O. C. India Ltd., Burma Mines, JamshedpurN A
03)Bokaro Steel Plant, Bokaro 
04)ANIROX Pigment Ltd., Govind Pur, DhanbadN A
05)Jai Prabhu Jee Iron & Steel (P) Ltd., Koudra, Govind PurN A
06)Bharat Petroleum Co. Ltd., Station Road, Chuttia, RanchiN A
07)Bihar Caustic & Chemical Ltd, Rehla PalamuN A
08)Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Namkum, RanchiN A
09)Usha Martine Ltd., Wair Ropes & Specialty Production Division, Tatigilwar, Ranchi 
10)Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. Hazaribag, (Bottling Plant)N A
11)Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Ranchi Road, Marar HazaribaghN A
12)Patrau Thermal Power Plant, HazaribaghN A
13)Indo Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., HazaribaghN A
14)Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd., Ranchi 
15)Indian Explosive Ltd., BokaroN A
16)I. A Corporation Ltd., DhanbadN A

Details of no of workers employed in these factories, name of the hazardous chemicals handled, quantity of hazardous chemicals stored/handled and the threshold quantity prescribed is not available with the Office of the Chief Inspector of Factories.

The list of hazardous industries as per 2(cb) of the Factories Act in the state of Jharkhand are given below:

TABLE – 2

LIST OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIES IN JHARKHAND (2002- 2004)

YearNo. of IndustriesNo. of Workers
20027426367
20037826510
20048026619

Manufacturing Activities of a few large & medium industries are described below:

Jharkhand is the home to the largest steel plant in Bokaro, apart from Jamshedpur being practically the city of TISCO and TELCO.

Steel Industry

Tata Steel - The Tata Iron & Steel Company Limited (TATA Steel) is one of the best managed steel companies in India. The patriot industrialist Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata set up the company in 1907 at Jamshedpur in Jharkhand. The company is one of the lowest cost producer of steel in the world.

Energy efficient technologies, optimum utilisation of raw materials and state-of-the-art equipment have made Tata Steel India's single largest producer of sophisticated steel. The no of workers employed in TISCO are given below:

Table - 3

No of workers employed
 Year
2002200320042005
Regular Employees16934160851703915670
Contract Labour12706*13643*15342*17070*

* These figures varies as construction work requirement.

TATA Steel's all steel making facilities are located in Jamshedpur, in the state of Jharkhand. It owns several iron-ore mines, collieries and flux mines located near its plant. TATA Steel manufactures diverse range of products and offer services. The products include forging quality steel, rods, HR/CR coils and sheets, tubes, construction bars, strips and bearings, structurals, ferro alloys and other minerals, steel plant and material handling equipment, software for process control and cargo handling services.

The latest major modernisation initiatives are the reconstruction and capacity enhancement from 0.6 mtpa to 1.0 mtpa of the 43-year old "F" Blast Furnace at less than half the cost of a new blast furnace and the installation of the Submerged Entry Nozzle and Electro Magnetic Stirrer in the Biller caster # 1 of LD # 1.

A Strategic partnership has been forged with Nippon Steel Corporation and Arcelor for knowledge sharing in the Auto sector. Talks are on with Vivendi Water India Ltd. for water management, Gartner have been engaged to evolve a long term Information Technology strategy. An e-governance programme has been initiated with the help of Stern & Stewart. A new JV, TM logistics, has been formed for logistic management and port operations. The first steps in the Ferro Chrome project in South Africa have been initiated.

TATA Steel achieved its highest ever first half (April - September 2002) production by notching 1.8 MT and highest ever first half sales at Rs. 4,034.30 crores. It has also achieved highest ever first half profits after tax at Rs. 269.10 crores; an increase of 462% over last year.

TATA Steel's efforts to brand its products have reaped dividends with the sale of Tata Shaktee (GC Sheets), Tata Tiscon Rebars, Tata Bearings and Tata Pipes, growing by 15% overall. Similarly, sales to the critical Auto segment have achieved a 35% growth and the Company's market share in the Cold Rolled products was buoyant at 29%.

Lower raw material consumption by 8%, lower energy consumption by 3%, higher labour productivity by 6% and lower interest burden by 25% are some of the operational parameters that have contributed to this excellent performance.

The merger of Tata - SSL will further strengthen the Company's financial and market presence.

Bokaro Steel Plant

Bokaro Steel Plant (BSP) is situated in the coal belt and Indian engineering and equipment suppliers have played a major role in its construction - the first indigenous public sector integrated steel.

BSP has a capacity of 4 million TPA of crude steel. The quality of its products are appreciated internationally. The continuous casting facilities have been recently installed and the Hot Strip Mill have been revamped which has provided the state-of-the-art-technology to BSL for manufacturing international quality steel. Its SMS - I, SMS -II, Continuous Casting Shop, Slabbing Mill, Hot Strip Mill, Hot Rolled Coil Finishing & Cold Rolling Mill Complex have ISO : 9002 certification.

The Steel Plant had received ISO-9002 certification for most of its units.

BSP has a value added products like SAILCOR (Corrosion Resistant Steel), API Grade Steel, SAILPROP, SAILMEDS, SAILRIM, HRND, SAILMA, WTCR, BSL-46 for auto sector.

It has a capacity of 4.5 million tonnes of liquid steel & 3.78 million tonnes of saleable steel.

Product MixTones/Annum
HR Coils, Plates & Sheets21.20 lac
CR Coils & Sheets13.90 lac
GP/GC Sheets1.70 lac
TMBP1.00 lac
TOTAL SALEABLE STEEL37.80 lac

The main products of Bokaro Steel Plant are :

  • Basic Grade Pig Iron.
  • Mild Steel Hot Rolled Sheets in Coils and Plates.
  • Concast Mild Steel Slabs.
  • Mild Sheet Cold Rolled Sheets in coils.
  • Prime Hot Dip Galvanised plane sheets and coils.
  • Prime Hot Dip Galvanised corrugated sheets.
  • Tin Mill Black Plates.

Accident Statistics of BSP during the year 2004.

Sl. No.Types of AccidentRegularContractorTotal
1.Non-Reportable
a) First Aid Cases
b) Loss time injuries

749
169

11
08

760
177
2.Reportable>
a) Reportable>
b) Fatal

23
03

02
00

25
03
3.Man-days lost (including fatal)200578620143
4.Man-hours worked68632800530160073934400
5.Frequency rate
(on the basis of 2 a+ 2 b)
0.380.380.38
6.Severity rate (including fatal)292.2416.22272.44

Promotional Activities during the year 2004.

  • Saturday Awareness Workshops (SAW) were organized with Union/Worker’s representatives on every Saturday.
  • Safety Tableau was presented for mass awareness on 26/01/04 at Kumarmangalam Stadium during the Republic Day Parade.
  • Safety Exhibition stalls was put up during Swadeshi Mela & Basant Mela. Safety appliances/Models were displayed, Safety Literature/Pamphlets distributed and Video Films on Industrial Safety shown. Safety Quiz competition was organized among visitors of Swadeshi Mela. The winners were given prizes on the occasion of National Safety Day-2004.
  • National Safety Day was celebrated on 4th March, 2004. As a part of it awards were given for following competitions to various deptts and individuals concerned:-
    • Safety & Housekeeping (15 depts.).
    • Territory Upkeep (10 deptts.).
    • Zero Accident during last 3 years (2 deptts.).
    • Most Safety Conscious Workers (69 workers.).
    • Safety Quiz (3 citizens).
  • Road Safety Awareness Seminar was inaugurated by MD on 05/07/04 at Kala Kendra, Sector-2, Several safety activities were carried out during Road Safety Campaign like Motorcycle rally through township roads, Traffic regulation by NCC Cadets & Security personnel at vulnerable road crossings, Placards on road safety were displayed and pamphlets on road safety were distributed. ED (P&A) distributed prizes to schoolchildren for elocution & drawing competition in the concluding function on 09/07/04.

Spectrum of Safety Activities of BSP during the year 2004.

  • All accidents and dangerous occurrences were investigated. Corrective measures were recommended and implemented status was regularly monitored. These measures resulted in reduction in number of accidents.
  • Cost of accidents were calculated on regular basis and discussed at various levels. Evaluated figure is Rs. 1.42 crores during 2004 against Rs. 1.52 crores during 2003.
  • 19 Nos. Workshops were organized during the year 2004 and participated by 840 employees.
Sl.No.Topic of the WorkshopDept./UnitDateNo. of Participants
1.Safe Operation’ of EOT CranesCRM16/03/0435
2.Safe Operation of TripplerRMHP17/04/0420
3.Safety in Iron MakingSAIL Plants & RINL22-23/04/0419
4.Safety in Steel Making- Do -04-05/05/0421
5.5 S Concept of HousekeepingSED & OHS21/05/0425
6.Hazards & Risk AnalysisIMF25/05/0435
7.Safety AwarenessTraffic03/06/0485
8.Aids PreventionTraffic03/06/0475
9.Material HandlingSMS-122/06/0424
10.Behaviour Based SafetyIMF01/07/0417
11.Safety CommunicationIMF23/07/0423
12.Derailment Prevention & SafetyTraffic28/07/0462
13.Accident Prevention & Stress ManagementRMP & RED06/08/0427
14.Crane Performance ImprovementSMS-1, CRM, IMF, BF, MS, SM & HSM06-13/08/04149
15.Fire Fighting & SafetyCRM11/09/0445
16.Safety AwarenessDNW07/10/0412
17.Derailment Prevention & Safety Road SafetyTraffic01/12/0460
18.Road SafetySI. Mill, SF and Stores13/12, 22/12 & 23/12/0495
19.Safety Workshop for Contractors.CRM22/12/0411

Training Activities at BSP during the year 2004.

  • Safety Steward Training was organized during Jan.-Apr. 04 and 113 persons attended the programme. Live demonstration on Rescue operation was organized by WMD Team.
  • Training on ‘Conveyor belt Safety’ was imparted to 15 workers of RMHP on 26/10/04.
Sl.Name of the ProgrammeDurationCategoryParticipants
1)Regular Safety Management02 Days(E6 – E7)20042005
9990
2)Safety & Accident Prevention02 Days(E0 – E5)95282
3)Special Shop Floor01 Day(E0 – E5)-149
4)Safety, Health & Fire Fighting03 Days(S1 – S10)983930
5)Shop Floor Safety01 DayAll Workers1136312066
6)Road Safety01 DayAll Workers127841
7)Electric Safety01 DayElectricians26236
8)Gas Safety01 DayExe + N Exe92195
9)First Aid01 DayAll Workers-387
10Contractor Safety Induction01 DayContr.1726510193
11)Shop Floor Safety01 DayContr.8571596

Innovation & Development

  • Regular monitoring of 5-minutes safety briefing by the Shift I/c of Opn. & Maint. Of Major Shops in the beginning of each shift to arouse awareness among the employees.
  • Flying squad checking for use of PPEs by the employees at the workplace and Memos issued to the defaulters.
  • High-level inspection/Joint Committee inspection
  • Video-graphy of Unsafe Conditions/Practices in vulnerable areas.

Future Thrust Areas

  • Shop floor inspection by Apex Team – monthly One Dept.
  • Group inspection by members from other shops – weekly.
  • Stopping work in case of unsafe act/non-use of PPEs.
  • Letters to spouses for safety violations.
  • Strictness on safety clearance/permission to contractors.
Usha Beltron Limited

Usha Beltron Limited (UBL) a private Jhawars-owned alloy steel manufacturing unit at Adityapur near Jamshedpur. The unit produces mild/high carbon steel and low alloy steels. These steel are used for making wire rods and wire rope at its wire rope division at Ranchi.

Usha Beltron Limited produces special grades of wire such as stainless steel wires, needle wires and shaped wires for domestic markets and the customers engaged in Automobile production, Construction industry, Power industry, Railway equipments etc. Steel wires find its application in making of Auto Tyres, Springs and industrial fasteners.

Usha Beltron limited is the largest producer of wire ropes in the south and Southeast Asia. It is also among the top five manufactures of wire ropes worldwide. The wire ropes are used mainly in Mining, Oil exploration and Extraction, Bridge and other civil construction. Usha Beltron also provides the entire range of end-of-rope products like shackles and pulleys.

ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES

Heavy Engineering Corporation, Ranchi

M/s. Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd. a fully owned Government of India Undertaking was incorporated in Bihar on 31-12-1958. Foundry Forge Plant (FFP) is one of the three plants, the other two being Heavy Machine Building Plant (HMBP) and the Heavy Machine Tool Plant (HMTP), all situated at one place under this corporate sector. FFP was initially setup to produce annually around 1.3 Lakh Ton of heavy castings and forgings. These capital items were to be routed through HMBP and HMTP to their final destination of building up one steel plant every year. FFP, therefore, was envisaged to be the main feeding unit for both HMBP and HMTP.

Foundry Forge Plant is one of the biggest industry of its kind in SE Asia. It is located at latitude 23º23’ North & longitude 85º23’ East in the South West of Ranchi. The location of the site was decided after careful consideration. It is centrally located with respect to its sister units. It is situated amidst a healthy industrial belt having access and proximity to natural sources of almost all kind of raw materials that it requires. It fits naturally on the ecological balance. A generally south- westerly wind, 200 cm average rainfall every year and a vast afforested area all around takes due care of any environmental abuses that the processes of the factory may produce. The temperature varies between 5ºC in winter and 42ºC in summer. Chotonagpur belt specially Ranchi had a complete turn around in the last 30 years in terms of literacy, employment and all round development after HEC came into existence.

This factory covers around 1,316,930 Sqm. area of which 2,85,020 Sqm. Is built up. Entire plant is divided into three belts. The first belt running centrally from east to west consists of basic manufacturing units such as pattern shop, Iron & Steel Foundries, Forge shop and the Rough machine shop. This main belt is flanked on either side by parallel subsidiary area. The area on the south contains all the Power and Engineering shops and other ancillary services so that various section of works get a favourable and balanced fuel and energy supply. Officers and amenities buildings for the staff and workers occupy the northern flank. The production and services area are well connected by inplant railway tracks and is connected to the outside via inplant marshaling yard and Hatia station so as to maintain uninterrupted flow of material and finished products. The internal track line runs to the length of 33 kms. A total of 16.5 km. length of road is laid which is as per requirement of heavy and light traffic.

Water requirement in the plant is met by 17M deep dam constructed on the river Subernrekha. Inside the plant, extensive pipeline system is laid out for drinking water. Three outlet 60ӯ RCC pipes have been provided for draining out storm water of the plant area. The sewerage system involves lying of more than 22 km of concrete pipe under the ground.

Electrical distribution system consists of 132 KV double overhead line with switching station of Gola. This 132 KV is stepped down to 33 KV at the entrance switching station at FFP where it is further coupled with 33 KV distribution system of the Bihar State Electricity Board. This has been to alternate facilities as per need. There are in all 18 intermediate transformer substation situated in the whole plant for individual tapping.

The individual production unit of the plant is almost as big as many of the large factories in the country. About 60,000T of machinery are installed in the plant. Some of the shops are 40M high with 80M high chimneys. A few of these carry large cranes of 200T capacity and big steel columns weighing 140T with steel base of 29 sq.meter. A special feature of this plant is the underground soaking furnaces, big ones measuring 20X14X25m. In this plant, castings and forgings of practically any type and composition from a few kg to as heavy as 100T piece weight are produced.

FFP was built with DPR production rating of 1,30,000T of iron & steel castings and steel forgings per annum principally for the building up of steel plants in India and later on elsewhere. The infrastructure was laid but production capacity was never attained due to conceptual error. Later on, it was conceded that India being a tropical country and an average Indian being lesser capable than the Europeans due to different food habits and the stamina, the maximum achievable capacity could be around 50,000T. This was the essence of the report submitted by the Fazal Committee in 1974. The maximum that was achieved was around 38,000T in 1976. Therefore, the layout, the facilities, the amenities already established did the statutes demand far superior than those. Pollution control measures developed for the DPR production wastes were never put to 100% efficiency l. A 30% production capacity utilization also means 3 times less waste and effluent generation.

PRODUCT mt/YEARDPR CAPACITY GROSS (MT)ACHIEVABLE (FAZAL COMMITTEE)MAXM. ACHIEVED (1975-76)1997-98
GROSSSSALEGROSSSALEDESPATCHSALE
IRON45995150001408014125127259920500
STEEL4638216200154651001790763111175700
FORGING129834512154458037915317103994245800
TOTAL129834512154458037915317103994245800

NOTE: Figures are in MT and Rs. Thousand

Table - 4

No. of workers employed during the year 2002-2005
 Year
2002200320042005
Regular Employees2457160514381361
Contract Labour232290450570
TATA MOTORS LTD, JAMSHEDPUR

Tata Motors Ltd. is one of the pioneers in automobile sector in the country on its path to World Class Manufacturing has incorporated environmentally sound practices as one of its prime objectives- in its process, products and services. It Aims to create a seamless organization that promotes innovation, excellence, as well as the Tata core values of integrity, customer focus, corporate citizenship and a “passion for engineering” Commitment to high standards of safety ,environment and health are also espoused in the Tata Code of Conduct fully integrated into the company’s operational philosophy and culture. Tata Motors’ mission is also to upgrade the quality of life of communities in and around the company’s operations.

National environmental regulation governing the automobile manufacturing industry continued to follow the stringent trend of the past. Emission and pass-by noise norms for products and disposal of hazardous wastes from manufacturing process are two significant areas. Deadlines for complying with European legislation governing re-cyclability of products are also drawing near.

This was the first unit of the Company established in 1945 and is spread over an area of 822 acres. It consists of 3 divisions - Truck, Engine (including the Gear Box division) and Axle. The divestments in March 2000 hived off the Axle and Engine plants into independent subsidiaries. The Truck Division boasts of two assembly lines. The main assembly line, measuring 180 metres in length, has 20 stations with a vehicle rolling out every 8 minutes while the other line is dedicated to Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs). State-of-the-art facilities like a Centralized Paint and Press Shop with a set-up of a 5000 tons Siempelkamp press line and a cut-to-length line for strip preparation purchased from M/s. Kohler of Germany makes it a fairly advanced production outfit.

The number of workers employed in TATA Motors during the period 2002-04 is given below:

Table - 5

No. of workers employed
 Year
200220032004
Regular Employees99861110710008
Contract Labour500500500

This is supported by a fully equipped Foundry, which supplies high-grade SG Iron castings for automobile components and excavators and is rated as one of the cleaner, better and highly automated foundries in the world. The Foundry has a sophisticated Kunkel Wagner high pressure moulding line, which has a rated production capacity of 90 pairs of moulds every hour. The Foundry has its own melting shop, core shop and sand plant.

Other advanced facilities include Channel Furnaces, Computerized Testing Equipment etc. In 1993, the Foundry was ISO 9002 certified by the Bureau Of Veritas Quality International and later followed it up with the more stringent QS 9000 certification from the BVQI in the year 2000.

The unit is also equipped with a semi-automated forging line, with 40,000 mkg Beche hammer and state-of-the art presses from Kurimoto of Japan and is one of the most modern forging set-ups in the country. It produces critical forgings like crankshafts, front axle beams and steering parts for the automobile plant. The new forging line, installed on April 20, 1984, has the capability to forge front axle beams at 90 sec per piece and crankshafts at 120 sec per piece. Mechanical presses help produce a variety of heavy forgings. The sophisticated FIDIA Digit 165 CC graphite-milling machine links shop floor machines to the design workstation. The Forge has been certified as ISO 9002 and QS 9000 by the BVQI.

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Central Tool Room, Jamshedpur

The Central Tool Room at Tata Motors, Jamshedpur is one of the most modern tool rooms in India. Equipped with the latest CNC Machines, Tryout Presses and Inspection facilities, this tool room has the proven capability of developing tooling solutions for all applications.

Occupational injuries in manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES (COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948)

PRESENT STATUS

The State of Jharkhand has 6288 number of registered factories (till 2004) covered under the Factories Act, 1948. In the year 2003 corresponding figure was 5677 Therefore there is an increase in the manufacturing activities during 2004. The distribution of new factories registered during 2004 is given below:

Table – 6

Distribution of new factories registered during 2004 (A = Number of factories; B = Number workers)
Category of factoriesUp to 19 workers20 or more but less than 50 workers50 or more but less than 100 workers100 or more but less than 500 workers500 or more workersTotal
ABABABABABAB
233285213462815958935--1114204
Section 2 (m)(i)            

Of 6288 registered factories, 1855 factories are registered section 2(m)(i), 215 factories are under section 2(m)(ii) and remaining 4218 factories under section 85.

TABLE - 7

Number of registered factories
Category of factories2001200220032004
Factories under Section 2(m)(i) (Manufacturing Process with power employing 10 or more workers).1550163917411855
Factories under Section 2(m)(ii) (Manufacturing process without power employing 20 or more workers)7394145215
Factories notified under Section 853473361637914218
Total5096534956776288

In the year 2004, there were 218 reportable accidents in these factories. Out of which 21 were fatal and 197 non-fatal injuries. All the cases of fatal injuries were analyzed. There is a reduction of accidents in comparison to 2003 wherein 296 reportable accidents occurred. Of them 35 were fatal accidents and 261 nonfatal accidents

For classification of accidents the Indian Standards 3786-1983 titled “Method for computation of frequency and severity rates in industrial injuries” and classification of Industrial accidents along with ILO Codes of practice on recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases were used. The industries were classified according to the new industrial classification – 1987 NIC Code. The fatal and non-fatal injuries have been dealt with separately.

FATAL INJURIES

The fatal injuries in the State of Jharkhand as reported in the annual returns submitted by the factories for the year 2004 is 21 and in 2003. the corresponding figure is 35. 21 fatal injuries recorded are analyzed as per Indian Standard 3786 and the ILO code of practice of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases. The analysis has been done industry group-wise, cause-wise, agency-wise, nature of injury-wise, location of injury-wise, size and age-wise.

Table- 8

Reportable and Non-reportable Accidents in Factories
YearNumber of accidentsIncidence rate per 1000 workersFrequency rate per 1 million man-hours worked (%)
 FatalNon-fatalTotalFatal (%)Non-fatal (%) 
200232242274NANANA
200335264296NANANA
200421197218NANANA

Table – 9

Cause-wise distribution of accidents
Causes200220032004
Machinery242619
Struck by falling body465036
Stepping on or striking against object551
Handling of goods444843
Persons falling (PFA+PEL+PFP)385323
Hand tools294523
Fires, Gassing6113
Others825870

TABLE – 10

Industry -wise Accidents
YearEngineeringCottonChemical
 TotalIncidence rate (per 1000 workers)TotalIncidence rate (per 1000 workers)TotalIncidence rate (per 1000 workers)
2002100NA9NA2NA
200378NA7NA2NA
200448NA-NA1NA

Table – 11

Agency-wise distribution of fatal accidents
Agencies200220032004
Other machinery moved by mechanical power121
Other vehicles   
Electricity12-
Fires1-2
Struck by falling bodies795
Persons falling675
Stepping on or striking against the object-1-
Handling goods or articles15138
Others11-
Total323521

Table – 12

Industry-wise distribution of fatal accidents
IndustryNo. of fatal accidents in the year
200220032004
Manufacture of food products1  
Manufacture of cotton textiles   
Manufacture of textile products   
Manufacture of wood and wood products, furniture and fixtures.   
Manufacture of paper and paper products and printing, publishing and allied industries   
Manufacture of rubber, plastics, petroleum and coal products.22-
Manufacture of non-metallic mineral products22-
Basic metal and alloy industries161313
Manufacture of machinery and equipment other than transport equipment including electrical machinery.1--
Electricity generation, transmission and distribution   
Storage and warehousing services.2-1
Others8187
Total323521

TABLE – 13

Average daily number of workers employed in major industrial

groups in statutory returns furnished by the employers

Item200220032004
Rubber and rubber products130131131
Chemicals and Chemical Products128712911295
Glass & Glass Products149515001500
Engineering769177692176928
Ship Building & Repairs   
Electricity670167176722
Other industries   

TABLE – 14

District-wise average daily number of workers employed in factories (Submitting returns)

A = Number of factories submitting returns;

B = Average daily number of workers employed.

Name of the DistrictAverage daily number of workers employed (submitting returns)
200220032004
ABABAB
Ranchi101530127104030335109430718
Lohardagga      
Gumla      
Simdega      
Palamu215228523023622482415
Latehar      
Garhwa      
West Singhbhum380108253951097040511105
Saraikela kharsawan      
East Singhbhum100270142101070258102970281
Dumka      
Jamtara767128074782734
Sahebganj322335833034823383445
Pakur      
Godda      
Hazaribagh363168263701701539017265
Chatra      
Koderma      
Giridih200443220545432154810
Dhanbad602222246102233460523377
Bokaro395650154186518145265715
Deoghar280389029439392703904

Table – 15

Total employment
ITEM2001200220032004
Total employment    
Employment in new factories registered89784215499810949
Employment in old factories registered196303205281209495214494
Total employment in factories registered205281209496214494225443

Table – 16

Employment of women in factories
YearNumber of factories where women workers are employedAverage daily number of women workers employed
200131319012
200231439043
200331519068
200431619088

Table – 17

Employment position of safety officers in factories
YearNumber of factories notified for employment of safety officersNumber of safety officers requiredNumbers of safety officers actually employed
2002179179161
2003179179161
2004179179161

Industrial Hygiene,Occupational diseases and poisoning in manufacturing activities

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE, OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES & POISONING IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

ILO code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases defines occupational diseases as “ a disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activity ”. Under Section 89 of Factories Act, 1948 where any worker in a factory contracts any disease specified in the Third Schedule, the manager of the factory shall send a notice thereof to such authorities and in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.

Any Medical Practitioner attending on a person who is or has been employed in a factory and is suffering from diseases specified in the Third schedule shall also without delay send a report in writing to the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories of the respective state.

The working environment has got direct effect on the health of the person who is working in the factories. The environment may be responsible for the cause of occupational diseases or other non-occupational diseases. The Chief Inspector of Factories, JHAKHAND did not have any data regarding occupational disease in the state. However, Occupational Health Administration of some industries in the state of Jharkhand are noted during field visit for the study is given below:

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ACTIVITIES (TATA STEEL)

  • Round The Clock Health Care
  • Tetanus Toxoid Immunisation
  • Pre-Empl. Medical Exam. & Blood
  • Grouping
  • Statutory Medical Examination
  • Audiometric Examination
  • Vision Conservation Programme
  • Health Check-Ups & Health Education
  • Training On First Aid/CPR
  • Research
  • Ergonomics

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Table - 18

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH EDUCATION & TRAINING
(Numbers)02-0303-0404-05
Sessions/Participants292 /6641486/15146490/15230*
SubjectCategorySessionsParticipant s
Health & Healthy Life StyleMixed1232315
Aids AwarenessMixed621286
Stress ManagementOfficers10317
Occupational HealthLine Managers11305
ErgonomicsSupervisors10362
Noise HazardsMixed272
Counseling SessionsMixed6128
Gas HazardsSupervisors383
SA 8000Supervisors260
OHSAS 18001 5157
First Aid & CPR   
 Contractors1487453
 Employees1222692
Total Trained 50415230

Table - 19

Occupational Health Education & Training 2005-06 (Till January 06)
SubjectCategorySessionsParticipant s
Health & Healthy Life StyleMixed1021991
Aids AwarenessMixed40806
Stress ManagementOfficers11213
Occupational HealthLine Managers6121
ErgonomicsSupervisors114
CPR & First Aid TrainingMixed942587
OHSAS 18001& SA 8000Mixed9143
CounsellingMixed16347
Total2796222

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

Road Ahead
  • Counseling and EAP (Employees Assistance Program)
  • Advance Training of Doctors/Para-Medical Staff in OH
  • Special Health Care & Health Education Program for working women
  • A Cadre of CPR trained personnel in each dept.
  • Intensive Assessment of Risk of Cardiac diseases and Stroke in our work
  • Force and Risk reduction Programme for Prevention of Heart Diseases and stroke.
  • OH activities in line with Du Pont guidelines to create and sustain a Preventive Safety and Health Culture

Occupational Health Service ( TATA MOTORS LTD

First-aid Centres:

  • 2 Nos. situated inside works complex.
  • Caters service to TML, HVAL, HVTAL, Telcon & TTL.
  • A trained dresser mans each First-aid center 24 hours backed by ambulance 24 hours on all working days.
  • Anyone sustaining injury inside works if reports to First-aid center: Dresser gives First-aid & refer to IOW Clinic OF works hospital or directly to Tata Motors Hospital emergency as per the severity after informing the IOW clinic doctor.

Works Hospital

  • Situated in front of Tata Motors Limited main gate.
  • Sr. Registrar (Industrial Health), AFIH qualified is administrative in-charge of First-aid centers, IOW clinic, 2 Peripheral dispensaries and reports to Chief Consultant (Paed & Admn.).
  • IOW clinic – 24 hours coverage, total 4 doctors.
  • Persons coming from inside Works, are taken care by doctors in IOW clinic and managed at Works Hospital or referred to Tata Motors Hospital as per severity.
Activities of Sr. Registrar (Industrial Health)
  • Pre-employment medical examination for TML, HVAL, HVTL, Telcon & TTL.

    2002-2003
    _____________
    1587

    2003-2004
    _____________
    1082

    2004-2005
    _____________
    2705

  • Periodic Health check-ups.
    Limited to TML employees only.
    Forge, Foundry Divisions, Works Canteen & Hospital Canteen Staff – done once a year.
    Investigations advised for Forge & Foundry:
    Haemogram; Urine – Alb & Sugar;
    Chest X-ray; Lung Function Tests.
    Investigations advised for Works Canteen & Hospital Canteen;
    Haemogram, Urine – R&D, Stool – Routine,
    Chest X-ray.

    2002-2003
    _____________
    374

    2003-2004
    _____________
    545

    2004-2005
    _____________
    778

  • Health education sessions.
    2005 – 2006 (till to date) – 6 Nos.
  • Detection of Occupational diseases.

     

    2002-2003
    _____________
    NIL

    2003-2004
    _____________
    NIL

    2004-2005
    _____________
    NIL

Other Activities

  • Curative service for employees & their family members.
  • Dermatology, STD & anti-rabies clinic.
  • Centralized dental referral to panel dentists & dental clinic TMH.

TATA MOTORS HOSPITAL

  • Situated approximately 2 kms. away from the TML main gate.
  • Caters medical service to employees and their family members as well as non-employees.
  • 450 bedded hospital.

Facilities

  • 24 hours accident & emergency services backed by ambulance and blood bank facility.
  • 8 bedded Intensive Care Unit (ICU).
  • 5 major & minor OTS.
  • Specialties:- Curative

Medicine, Surgery, Paediatrics, Orthopedics, Ophthalmology, ENT, Psychiatry, Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Diagnostic

Medicine, Surgery, Paediatrics, Orthopedics, Ophthalmology, ENT, Psychiatry, obstetrics & Gynecology.

Pathology

Routine & special biochemistry by autoanalyser, Fungus culture, ELISA for hormones, autoimmune, Infectious diseases, tumour markers.

Radiology & US Scan

Routine & special radiological testing machine, Treadmill testing machine, Holter monitoring, Bed side cardiac, Refractometer, Defibrillators, Ventilators.

Staff
Doctors53
DNB / RHOT35
Nursing Sisters:99
Interns:55
Paramedics121
Ministerial Staff:28
Others162
Total :553

Salient Features

  • Upper and lower GI Endoscopy (av. 1000 cases per annum).
  • Laparoscopy & TURP surgeries.
  • Total joint replacement of hip, knee, elbow & Hi-tech arthroscopic surgeries.
  • Dies clinic & counseling.
  • Well-equipped Physiotherapy unit

Other Infrastructure facilities

  • 24 hours emergency & cash counter.
  • 24 hours uninterrupted power supply.
  • Library – approx 2200 books & journals.
  • Nursing school – 60 students intake/year.
  • Incinerator.

Preventive Services

  • Community Health Service.
  • Well Baby clinic.
  • School Health service
  • Family planning.

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE

Industrial hygiene is primarily concerned with the appraisal and control of occupational health hazards that arise from various industrial processes or operations. Industrial hygiene has been defined as Science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of those environmental factors or stress arising in or from the workplace, which may cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or significant discomfort amongst the workers.

The primary responsibility of the industrial hygienist is as follows:

  • To protect the health of employees,
  • To maintain an objective/attitude towards the recognition, evaluation and control of industrial health hazard,
  • To counsel employees regarding the health hazards and necessary precautions to be taken to avoid adverse health effects.

Basically an effective industrial hygiene programme would consist of the application of knowledge to the anticipation and recognition of health hazards arising out of work operations and process, evaluation and measurement of the magnitude of the hazard – based on experience and study and control of the hazards.

The Chief Inspector Of Factories did not have any data in regard to industrial hygiene study/report. However, some information collected during field visit is given below.

Industrial Hygiene Study (TATA MOTORS LTD)

Table - 20

Sl. No.Air emission Monitoring: Monitoring schedule as per statutory requirementQuarterly
1.i.Ambient Air Quality Monitoring at 4 specified locations within the work premises)2003 04 In-house2004 – 05 In-house2005-06 (till Jan’06)SGS (India) Pvt. Ltd.
  * In-house Monitoring Parameters: SPM, SO2 and NOx16 Nos.16 Nos.8 Nos.
  * Monitoring Parameters by M/s. SGS (India) Pvt. Ltd., SPM, RPM, SO2 and NOx--8 Nos.
2.ii.Stack Emission: Monitoring schedule as per statutory requirement - Quarterly2003 04 In-house2004 – 05 In-house2005-06 (till Jan’06)SGS (India) Pvt. Ltd.
 a.In-house monitoring of chimneys (Stack) Monitoring Parameters: Flue gas Temp., Gas Flow rate, Velocity, SPM, SO2, CO, CO2, O2 Combustion h20 Nos.20 Nos.4
 b.Monitoring of chimneys (Stacks) by M/s. SGS (India) Pvt. Ltd., Monitoring Parameters: Flue gas Temp., Gas Flow rate, Velocity, SPM, SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, O2, Combustion h--30
3. Work-zone environment air quality2003 04 In-house2004 – 05 In-house2005-06 (till Jan’06) SGS (India) Pvt. Ltd.
i.In house monitoring : Total 8 locations (Forge Factory – locations, Foundry Factory – 4 locations,
Monitoring Parameters: SPM, SO2 and NOx
16 Nos.16 Nos.-
 ii.Work-zone environment air quality morning by M/s. SGS (India) Pvt. Ltd., Total 16 locations: (Forge Factory – 4 locations, Foundry Factory – 4 locations, Truck – III Factory (Paint Shop): 2, Stuck – 1 Factory (Assembly Line): 6 Monitoring of 39 nos. of chimneys (stacks)

 

Monitoring Parameters: SPM, RPM, Silica, Pb, SO2, NOx, VOC (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, Styrene, Trichloro ethane, P-tertbuty1 Toluene)
--16 Nos.

Table – 21

Sl. No.Activities descriptionsFrequency
1.Noise level monitoring
Works
Ambient
Quarterly
2.Illumination Level check Total pointsQuarterly

Management of occupational safety and health at unit level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT UNIT LEVEL

This Chapter deals with the management of Occupational Safety and Health at unit level i.e. manufacturing units. The state has total number of 6288 manufacturing units, the breakup of which according to factories registered under section 2(m), section 85 of the Factories Act, 1948 is given in Chapter 4. In order to have a fair idea, about the safety and health status in these units, the following aspects on safety and health have been covered under the chapter:-

  • 7.1 Safety Policy
  • 7.2 Appointment of safety officers
  • 7.3 Safety Committee
  • 7.4 Occupational Health Center
  • 7.5 Welfare
  • 7.6 On-site emergency plans
  • 7.7 Safety reports

There are some statutory requirements as provided under the Factories Act, 1948 and Rules framed there under, for each of the aspects stated above. Items 7.6 to 7.7 are additional requirements exclusively applicable to MAH installations, which are covered by separate set of rules. Each of the aspect with its status has been discussed in the following paragraph.

7.1. SAFETY POLICY

The provisions of sections 7A(3), and 41-B(2) of The Factories Act requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by the factories meeting of the following criteria:-

  • Units covered under Section 2(m) (i) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.
  • Units covered under section 2(m) (ii) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 100 workers.
  • Units covered under Section 87 of Factories Act, 1948.
  • Units covered under section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948.

In addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories of class or description of factories to comply with the above requirements of Safety Policy if in his opinion it is expedient to do so.

As per the details available 87 units employing more than 250 workers required preparation of Safety Policy, only 5 units have declared the safety policy, which is about 6% of the total. However, all major hazard units have declared safety policy

TABLE – 22

Declaration of Safety Policy during 2002, 2003 & 2004
YearMAH UnitsFactories employing 250 or more workers
Factories RequiringFactories HavingFactories RequiringFactories Having
20021212NANA
20031414NANA
20041717875

7.2. APPOINTMENT OF SAFETY OFFICERS

As per the provisions of Section 40B of the Factories Act, 1948, Safety Officer is required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria:

7.2.1. Units employing more than 1000 workers wherein any manufacturing process or operation is carried on involving any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or diseases or any hazard to health. As per the details available 179 Safety Officers were required to be appointed but 161 Safety Officers were appointed in various factories in the State.

TABLE – 23

Status of Safety Officers (SO) in factories during 2002, 2003 & 2004

YearFactories required SO under 40B1(i)SO required under 40B1(i)Factories appointing SO 40B1(i)SO appointed under 40B1(i)Factories requiring SO 40B1(ii)SO required under 40B1(ii)Factories appointing SO under 40B1(ii)SO appointed under 40B1(ii)
2002179NANA161NANANANA
2003179NANA161NANANANA
2004179NANA161NANANANA

7.3. SAFETY COMMITTEE

The provision of Section 41G of the Factories Act, 1948 require constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:-

  • Units employing 250 or more workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.
  • Units the covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.

As per the information 138 units required constitution of Safety Committee. However, only 83 units have constituted safety Committees.

TABLE – 24

Constitution of Safety Committee during 2002, 2003

YearMAH UnitsFactories employing 250 or more workers
Factories RequiringFactories HavingFactories RequiringFactories Having
20021212NANA
2003141413883

7.4 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH CENTRES & MEDICAL FACILITIES

Section 41-C of the Factories Act, 1948 Occupational health centers are required to be set up in the Factories carrying hazardous process as described under section 2(cb) of the Act .No information is available with the Chief Inspector of Factories in respect of Occupational Health Centres in factories However some industries like Heavy Engineering Corporation at Ranchi, TISCO & TATA MOTORS in Jamshedpur, Bokaro Steel Plant in Bokaro have occupational health centers in the factory.

62 Full time medical officers and 76 retainership or part time medical officers have been appointed in factories. 31 factories have ambulance van and 93 factories have ambulance rooms (As per 2003).

TABLE- 25

MEDICAL FACILITIES IN FACTORIES
YearFull time MO AppointedRetainership or part-time MO AppointedFactories having Ambulance VanFactories having Ambulance Rooms
200362763193

7.5 WELFARE

For the welfare of workers employed in factories Chapter V of the Factories Act, 1948, the following welfare measures are required.

  • Washing facilities
  • Facilities for storing and drying cloths
  • Facilities for sitting
  • First aid appliances
  • Shelters, rest room and lunch room (if more than 150 workers are ordinarily employed)
  • Canteen (if more than 250 workers are ordinarily employed)
  • Crèche (if more than 300 women workers are ordinarily employed)
  • Ambulance room (if more than 500 workers are ordinarily employed).
  • Welfare officers (if more than 500 workers are ordinarily employed).

Table - 26 shows the employment position of Welfare Officers in factories during the last 3 years from 2002 to 2004.

TABLE – 26

Welfare Officer 2002, 2003 & 2004

YearFactories RequiringFactories HavingOfficers RequiredOfficers Appointed
200210010010297
20031001010297
200410010010297

TABLE – 27

Hazardous Factories during the year 2002, 2003 & 2004

YearNo. of Hazardous FactoriesNo. of Workers
20027426367
20037826510
20048026619

TABLE – 28

Inspectors of Factories and Certifying Surgeons during the year 2002, 2003 & 2004

YearInspectorsSpecialist InspectorCertifying surgeon
SanctionedIn-positionSanctionedIn-position
20021912--NA
2003191121NA
2004191121NA

TABLE – 29

Inspectors of Factories and Certifying Surgeons during the year 2002, 2003 & 2004

YearInspectorsSpecialist InspectorCertifying surgeon
SanctionedIn-positionSanctionedIn-position
20021912--NA
2003191121NA
2004191121NA

Annual return submitted by the industries during the period from 2002 to 2004 are given below.

TABLE – 30

Annual Return during the year 2002, 2003 & 2004

YearNo. of Industries required to submit annual returnNo. of Industries submitted annual return
200253493753
200356774546
200462885423

TABLE – 31

CANTEEN, SHELTERS, REST ROOMS AND CRÈCHES

YearCanteenShelter, Rest Room,Crèche
Factories RequiringFactories HavingFactories RequiringFactories HavingFactories RequiringFactories Having
20031328616714232

7.5.3 ONSITE EMERGENCY PLAN

As per the provisions of Rule 13 of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard Rules, 1989” an occupier who has the control of the industrial activity as described under the Rule shall prepare an on-site emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on site on which industrial activity is carried on.

As per the information available 17 nos. of MAH installations are required to prepare the on-site emergency plan. However, 17 MAH installations have prepared the plans and submitted to the Director of Factories.

TABLE – 32

On-site Emergency Plan (In respect of MAH Units) as on 2002, 2003 & 2004

YearFactories required to drawFactories having drawn
20021212
20031414
20041717

7.5.4 SAFETY REPORTS

As per the provision of rule 10 of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard Rules, 1989” it is mandatory for an occupier to prepare and submit to the Chief Inspector before the commencement of an industrial activity, the Safety Report of the industrial activity to which these rules apply. The Safety Report is to be submitted in prescribed format. Further, it is advisable that all the units after the commencement of the industrial activity shall carry out an independent Safety Audit of the respective industrial activities with the help of an expert not associated with such industrial activities. This will help the management to know the weak points in their system and to take suitable>

7.5.5 RISK ASSESSMENT STUDIES

The HAZOP study (Hazard and operability studies) are carried out in advance on any plant to examine the process or at least the relevant parts of the process to discover how deviation from the intention of design can occur and to decide whether such deviations can give rise to hazardous conditions.

The technique aims to simulate the imagination in a systematic way and is useful in identifying potential hazards in advance and allows the user to take corrective measures.

Table - 33

REPORT/Study
YearSafety Audit ReportRisk AnalysisHAZOP Study
RequiredSubmittedRequiredSubmittedRequiredSubmitted
200212121212NANA
200314141414NANA
200417171717NANA

Management of occupational safety and health at state level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AHD HEALTH AT STATE LEVEL

After the creation of the State of Jharkhand on the15th November 2000, to optimally utilize the available resources of the State in a planned manner and to accelerate the industrial development of the State, an Industrial Policy has been formulated. To achieve expected industrial growth, the districts of the State have been categorized into three categories, so as to capitalize the industrial potential through planned utilization and development of natural and human resources and to gradually increase the employment opportunities. The State has at present three Industrial Area Development Authorities with Head Quarters at Adityapur, Bokaro and Ranchi

Administration and enforcement of Occupational Safety Health Act primarily vested with the State Government because the instruments like policies, legislation etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues. Apart from the Factories Act 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities.

The Act grants OSH authority, among other things, (a) to promulgate, modify and revoke safety and health standards, (b) to conduct inspections and investigations and to issue citations including proposed penalties (c) to require employees to keep records of safety and health data (d) to petition the courts to restrain imminent danger situations and (e) to approve or reject state plans for programme under the Act.

The safety and health at workplace is governed by various statutes in the state depending on the nature of workplace, manufacturing activity and specific aspect of safety and health. Some of the important statutes are given below:-

  • The Factories Act, 1948 and the Rules framed there under.
  • Indian Boilers Act 1923 and Rules framed there under.
    The Indian Boilers Act, 1923 (Amended 1960) – An act to consolidate and amend the law relating to steam boilers and the Indian Boilers Regulations 1950 (Amended 1997).
  • The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation Act, 1986
  • The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989.
  • Indian Electricity Act and Rules Framed there under.
    The Electricity Act, 2003 (replaces The Indian Electricity Act, 1910) – An Act to consolidate the laws relating to generation, transmission, distribution, trading and use of electricity and generally for taking measures conducive to development of electricity industry, promoting competition therein, protecting interest of consumers and supply of electricity to all areas, rationalization of electricity tariff, ensuring transparent policies regarding subsidies, promoting of efficient and environmentally benign policies, constitution of Central Electricity Authority, Regulatory Commissions and establishment of Appellate Tribunal and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • Dangerous machines (Regulations) Act.
    • To provide for regulation of trade and Commerce in production supply, distribution and use of product of any industry manufacturing dangerous Machine.
    • To the welfare of the labourers operating any such machine and for payment of compensation for death or bodily injury suffered by any labourer operating such a machine.
  • Indian Explosive Act.
    The Explosives Act, 1884, (Amended 1983) – An Act to regulate the manufacture, possession, use, sale, transport, import and export of Explosives
  • The petroleum Act and Rules.
    The Petroleum Rules, 2002 (replaces the Petroleum Rules, 1976).
  • Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels Rules.
  • The Environment Protection Act, 1986 ) Amended 1991) – An Act to provide for the protection and improvement of environment and matters connected therewith. The Environment Protection Rules, 1986 (Amended 2004).
  • The Environment (sitting for Industrial Projects) Rules, 1999.
  • The Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2000 (Amended 2002).
  • The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management & Handing) Rules, 2000.
  • The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (Amended 1998) – An Act to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water, for the establishment, with a view to carry out the purposes aforesaid, of Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution, for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith.
  • The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Rules, 1975.
  • The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 (Amended 2003) – An Act t provide for the levy and collected of a cess on water consumed by persons carrying on certain industries and by local authorities, with a view to augment the resources of the Central Board and the State Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution constituted under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
  • The Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 (Amended 1987) – An Act to provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution, for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the aforesaid purposes, of Boards, for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith.
  • The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (Amended 1994) – An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to motor vehicles. The Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989 (Amended 2001) and Motor Vehicles Rules of respective States.
    There are different departments of Central Government and State Government entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes. The other organization such as training and research institution (Regional Labour Institute, Kolkata), employers associations (Confederation of Indian Industries), employees organization (Trade Unions) etc. also supplement the efforts of enforcement agencies to promoting occupational safety and health in the state.
  • The Calcium Carbide Rules, 1987
  • The Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment & Conditions of Service) Act, 1996 – An Act to regulate the employment and conditions of service of building and other construction workers and to provide for their safety, health and welfare measures and for other matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • The Insecticides Act, 1968 (Amended 2000) – An Act to regulate the import, manufacture, sale, transport, distribution and use of insecticides with a view to prevent risk to human beings or animals, and for matters connected therewith.
  • The Energy Conservation Act, 2001 – An Act to provide for efficient use of energy and its conservation and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

DIRECTORATE OF FACTORIES

The Directorate of Factories is under the administrative control of the Department of Labour, Government of Jharkhand. The Directorate of Factories is headed by the Chief Inspector of Factories and responsible for the enforcement of different statutes to ensure safety, health & welfare of workers engaged in manufacturing activities. The different activities undertaken by the department are given below:-

ENFORCEMENT

The Directorate enforces provisions contained in the following statutes:-

  • The Factories Act, 1948 and Rules Framed there under
  • The payment of Wage Act 1936
  • The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989.
  • The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986

Activities of the Directorate of Factories are primarily aimed at establishing a safe and healthy work environment in factories with the elimination of every possible accident, Occupational diseases and industrial disasters in and around the factory premise. Ensuring welfare of the workers in factories is also a major concern of this Directorate.

Officer’s strength in the Directorate is given in Table - 34

Table – 34

Inspectors of Factories and Certifying Surgeons during the year 2002, 2003 & 2004
YearInspectorsSpecialist InspectorCertifying surgeon
SanctionedIn-positionSanctionedIn-position
20021912--NA
2003191121NA
2004191121NA

ACTIVITIES

Prosecution launched due to violations of various provisions as observed by officers of the Directorate of Factories during the year 2002-04 are shown below.

Table - 35

Prosecutions and Convictions under Section 92

YearPending from previous yearLaunched during the yearDecided during the yearConvictionImprisonmentTotal fine imposed
2002176311---
200320610--- 
200421617----

Table - 36

Number of visits to factories by the Inspectors

YearRegistered factoriesUnregistered factoriesNon-amenable factoriesTotal
U/S 2 (m)U/S 85U/S 2(m)U/S 85
20022370184013999 4448
200325701970151108 4799
200425052146238196 5085

Table – 37

Approval of Plans
YearNew constructionAdditional installation of plans/ machineryExtensionOthersTotal
1999208-51-259
2000234-58-292
2001158-39-197
2002123-30-153
2003168-41-209
2004149-37-186

Besides Directorate of Factories, following government and non-government organizations have contributions on occupational safety and health of industrial workers in the state.

  • Jharkhand State Pollution Control Board
  • Confederation of Indian Industries
  • Joint Committee on Safety in Steel Industry
  • National Safety Council
  • Controller of Explosive
  • Directorate of Boilers

1)JHARKHAND STATE POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD

Jharkhand State Pollution Control Board has come into existence on 14th Dec. 2001 after separation of Jharkhand state from Bihar state. The Organization is a regulatory body dealing with Air Act' 1981, Water Act' 1974, Water Cess Act' 1977, E.P. Act' 1986,Hazardous waste (management and handling)
Rules 1989 and amended in 2000 and other Environmental Acts.

Overview

Coal based Thermal Power has emerged as the principal source of power in India and contributes to 70 percent of the total power generation. The anticipated power requirement till 2012 is 1,07,000 MW which would mean about 12,000 MW capacity addition every year. The coal reserves of the country are predominately of lower grades of non-coking and as a result Thermal power stations use high ash, inferior quality non-coking coal. Country's thermal installed capacity as on 31st March 2004 is 77968.53 MW. The coal consumption for thermal power generation is about 300 million tonnes in 2003-04. Use of coal brings in its own share of problems, primarily due to huge amount of ash, which is produced as a by-product of the process of power generation. With the increase in thermal generation, the concern for environmental safeguard is inevitable>

Fly Ash Scenario

In Jharkhand about 9,000 tones of fly ash is being generated everyday from the coal based thermal power plants with present generation of about 1500 MW. Fortunately, the state is utilizing over fifty percent of the fly ash through environmentally sound techniques such as abandoned mine reclamation, Cement Manufacturing, Brick manufacturing etc. Damodar valley Corporation is reclaiming Central Coalfield Limited (CCL) abandoned mine using its pond ash, Tata Power at Jhamshedpur is feeding all its fly ash to Lafarge Cement, ACC and other cement plants. JharkhandState Pollution Control Board has taken a lead in the utilization of fly ash in the Sate with the co-operation of Thermal Power Plants, Mining Industries, Cement Industries, Brick manufacture etc.

Government of India Notification

Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India has issued notification dated 14th Sept. 1999 for the utilization of 100 percent fly ash in phased manner by 2010. Following broad areas have been identified and specific time frame has been provided for the disposal of fly ash in environmentally sound techniques: -

Use of fly ash and bottom ashin manufacturing of bricksand other construction activities.

Thermal Power Plants are given responsibility to utilize 100 percent fly ash by 2010.

Fly ash can be used for the reclamation of abandoned mines, low-lying area, sea.

Fly Ash Mission

Fly Ash Mission, a technology Project in mission Mode is being implemented with participation and close association ofMinistry of Environment and Forest, Ministry of Power, Thermal Power Stations, NTPC, R&D Organization and Industry.

Fly Ash Utilization

Brick Manufacturing: Demand of building bricks has increased many folds during the past 2-3 decades in almost all parts of the country. In recent times excessive use of argillaceous mass by construction section is posing serious threat to the environmental and ecological balance in many part of the country on one hand while generationof huge quantities of industrial wastes has further worsened the state affairs.

Advantage of making clay fly ash bricks:

Fuel saving during burning operation of bricks.

Reduction in drying/firing losses of bricks.

Improvement of strength of bricks in black/red soils.

Better Thermal insulation property.

Reduction in dead load of brick masonry structure.

Substantial saving of clay.

Use of Fly ash in highway

hig

Indian Road Congress has issued guidelines/ specification for the unitization of fly ash for the construction of roads or flyover embankments through IRC specification No. SP: 58 of 2001.

Use of Fly Ash in construction of embankment and highways

Use of Fly Ash in Reclamation of Abandoned Mines

img

Reclamation of open cast mines and stowing of underground mines using fly ash is a major area for the utilization of fly ash. Thermal Power Plants located nearer to the mine pit head are having advantages of using there empty trucks or wagons for the transportation of fly ash back to the mine voidhave exploited this opportunity inJharkhand and else where.

2) CONFEDERATION OF INDIAN INDUSTRIES

Activities of Confederation of Indian Industries in the State of Jharkhand on Occupational Safety and Health are given below:

  • The CII – ER Industrial Safety Sub-Committee has constituted in 1990.
  • Currently the total number of members present at CII – ER Industrial Safety Sub-Committee 2005-2006 is 35.
  • The CII – ER Industrial Safety Sub-Committee 2005-2006 is headed by the Chief – Safety & Ergonomics, Tata Steel.
  • In the past few years the Sub-Committee organized workshops on “Safety in Construction Industry” Awareness session on “The Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS)”, Interactive Sessions with Dupont Safety Resources on “Achieving Operational Excellence through Safety”, 2 days “Symposium & Exposition on Industrial Safety & Ergonomics” etc..
  • To acknowledge the vision and exemplary commitment the CEO and his team has for maintaining the Safety practices, the Sub-Committee deliver the “Safety Award” every year to CII Members.

3) JOINT COMMITTEE ON SAFETY IN STEEL INDUSTRY

Joint committee on Safety, Health & Environment in the Steel Industry (JCSSI) was formed in 1973 with a prime objective of safeguarding our valuable human resource against possible hazards in the industry. This is a unique forum at Industry level, consisting members from National Trade Union (From Steel Plant/Units), Management Representative & Experts from related areas like NSC, RLI, Environment etc.

Presently SAIL, TISCO, RINL, Essar Steel, Ispat Industries & NINL are corporate members of this committee.

At present there are 50 members in the committee, which includes 4 committee Executives, 3 Expert Members, 20 Trade Union representative (Including Vice-Chairman, TU) & 28 Management Representative.

Shri K. K. Dhanna, Director (Tech & Com.) SAIL is the Chairman of the committee & Shri Shashikant, Executive Director (Safety) SAIL & Dr. M. K. Pandhe, President CITU is the Vice-Chairman representing Management & Trade Union respectively. Shri V. K. Jain, GM (Safety), SSO is the Member Secretary & it’s office is situated at SAIL Safety Organisation, 2nd floor Ispat Bhavan, P.O. Doranda, Ranchi – 834 002.

Activities of Joint Committee on Safety in Steel Industry on Occupational Safety & Health are given below:

  • Regular Interaction meeting between management representative, Experts & Trade Union representative.
  • Organizing Interplant/Mines Competition named “Ispat Suraksha Puraskar (Plants)” & “Ispat Suraksha Puraskar (Mines)” respectively. In addition Safety Poster & Calendar designs, Essay writing & Quiz competition are also organized among employees of member units.
  • Publication of selected Poster & Calendar and distribution to all members units.
  • Organizing workshops on specialized topic with participation from member units.
  • Sharing/dissemination of technical information including causes & remedies for elimination of accident.
  • Audit of Occupational Health Centre & formulation of requirement for an ideal health Centre.
  • Coordinating with manufacturers/supplier of PPE for display & training to member units.
  • Organizing Annual Award function.
  • Publication of booklet for different topic related to occupational safety, health & environment.
  • Arranging presentation/lecture by experts in the field of occupational safety, health & environment.
  • Publication of annual report covering activities on safety, occupational health services & fire services undertaken by different member organizations during the year.

Resources available and needed

RESOURCES AVAILABLE AND NEEDED FOR MANAGEMENT OF OSH

During the study, the team visited a few organizations like Tata Steel, Tata Motors, Waxpol, Usha Martin, Garden Reach Ship Builders & Engineers dealing with occupational safety and health in the manufacturing sector with a view to establish inventory of occupational safety and health information in the state of Jharkhand. The activities of the departments, and resources available at their disposal were examined to determine the problems faced by the organizations in the matters of occupational safety and health and further resources needed in order to effectively manage occupational safety and health at the state level.

The scope of the study was limited to cover the organizations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident forms. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, Site appraisal Committee, details of safety reports, crèches, etc. as per the provisions of the Factories Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was outside the defined scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, the more elaborate in-depth study is required to be taken up to get comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  • In the State of Jharkhand, there are 1855 factories registered under Section 2(m)(i) and 215 factories under section 2 (m)(ii) of the Factories Act. In addition 4218 factories are notified under Section 85, which are essentially employing less than 10/20 workers. Out of 6288 industries required to submit annual return, 5423 factories have submitted annual returns, half yearly returns etc. as required under section 110 of Factories Act The Annual Returns contains basic information such as employment, man hours employed, accidents, man-hours lost due to accidents, provision of welfare facilities, appointment of welfare officers and safety officers, occupational health facilities, etc. which are essential for compilation of state level data on occupational safety and health, therefore it is desirable that submission of Annual Returns should be insisted upon all the factories.
    It is recommended that efforts should be made to ensure compliance with the requirement of submission of annual returns in prescribed format by registered factories. It is also recommended that the occupier/manager of the factories should be advised to submit complete details in the annual returns. Non-compliance with such provisions can be brought to the notice of the occupier by issuing notice by the inspecting officials.
  • 21 Nos. of fatal accidents occurred during the year 2004. Of them 5 accidents occurred due to falling from height (Persons falling).5 accidents occurred due to struck by falling bodies and 8 accidents occurred while handling goods or articles. Therefore, during the inspection, care should be taken by the Factory Inspector to ensure that the workers are provided with suitable personal protective equipment while working at height. Further, Occupiers should be advised to train the workers in safe material handling manually and mechanically.
  • 43 accidents occurred under the causation of handling of goods. Occupiers should be asked to handle goods mechanically as far as reasonably practical, and to train the workers. Further, the occupiers may be directed to introduce some motivational scheme to promoting safety at work place. Specific hazards while working in the factories could be identified and the precautions to be taken could be disseminated through various modes such as training programmes, leaflets, booklets, lectures, etc.
  • 48 accidents occurred in engineering industry and 1 accident occurred in chemical industry. Material handling; tools, implements, appliances used on the shop floor; machines and indoor, and unsafe work practices are the major agencies of causing accidents.
    It is therefore suggested that the occupiers/ managers of the factories should be advised on:
    • Design, maintenance and proper use of material handling equipment
    • Safe use of tools, appliances and equipment
    • Adequate guarding of machinery, and
    • Proper house keeping.
  • 179 factories were required to appoint qualified safety officer, of them 169 factories appointed qualified safety officer. Therefore, the level of compliance is not satisfactory as far as the appointment of safety officer in factories is concerned. The reports of accidents in Form 24, furnishing details of the accidents, causes of accidents and agencies involved therein, non use of personal protective equipment etc. indicate that the safety officers have not been effective in discharging their duties. It is therefore suggested that safety officers in all the factories should be trained and retrained through refresher courses on:
    • Technique of safety audit
    • Establishment of safety management system
    • Costing of accidents, and
    • Leadership for safety and health

    This may lead to better status of safety and health management in factories. It is also recommended that there should be better interaction between Factory Inspectors and Safety Officers through discussions on the ways and means for improving the safety, health and working conditions in their factories.

  • The provisions under the Factories Act 1948 and Rules provides for medical examination of workers employed in certain categories of factories by certifying surgeon. It is practically impossible to cover these factories only by a Medical inspector of factories employed in the Directorate of Factories. Therefore, it is suggested that on the lines of what is being done in other states such as Maharashtra, private Medical Practitioner could be appointed as certifying surgeon for particular areas, in order to conduct medical examination of workers and issue certificate of fitness as required under the Factories Act and the Rules.
  • As regards to preparation of safety policy, 17 MAH factories were required to prepare safety policy. All factories prepared safety policy. Therefore the level of compliance is satisfactory. 34 factories were required to constitute safety committees. All of them constituted safety committee; the level of compliance with the provision is also satisfactory.
  • Statistics regarding number of visits to factories by the Inspectors during 2004 reveals that 2505 nos of visits in factories notified under section 2(m) and 2146 nos of visits in factories notified under section (85) were made by Inspector of Factories. Total no. of registered factories in Jharkhand during 2004 was 6288. Nearly 75% factories are inspected by the officers of the Directorate of Factories, therefore no of visits may be increased.
  • Almost all the factories in the state are employing labour on contract basis. The contract worker is to be provided adequate safety and health in the factory premises. It is often observed that the occupier/manager of the factory tend to ignore this responsibility. The office of the Labour Commissioner in the State enforces the Contract Labour Act. It is also seen that many contract workers try to ignore the safety aspects/instructions issued to them by the managements. In order to ensure that adequate attention given to safety, health and welfare by workers & by the occupiers, a programme for enforcement of safety and health provisions for the benefit of contract labour employed in the factory can be jointly undertaken by Directorate of Factories and Office of the Labour Commissioner and trade unions. This programme can also include awareness improvement and training and education in the area of safety and health.
  • The Directorate of Factories approved 149 new plans during the year 2004. Department of Environment among other things is also responsible for clearing industrial projects from environmental angle. There is a provision for Site Appraisal Committee under the Section 41-A of the Factories Act. These two committees are having similar objectives i.e., clearing the location of industry from safety, health and environment angle. It is therefore suggested that these two committees should work in close coordination with each other in order to avoid duplication of efforts to facilitate faster clearance of industrial projects and to reduce the inconvenience to the industries and promote economic growth. These committees shall also invite experts from organizations like RLI etc
  • There are good numbers of small-scale industrial units in the state. These units are registered with Department of Industries. The licensing, development, training, marketing and financial aspects in respect of these units are looked after by different govt., semi govt. & non-govt. agencies. However, they do not adequately cover the safety, health and welfare of workers. For this purpose, the training module developed by DGFASLI in collaboration with ILO could be used which is aimed not only to enhance productivity but also takes care of safety and health aspects like handling of hazardous chemicals, productive machine safety, material handling & storage lighting, ventilation. Layout, welfare measures etc. This module ensures the participation of both owners/managers and workers.
  • The programme on control of major hazard could be strengthened further. This programme should include effective formulation and use of mutual-aid scheme and establishments of emergency response centers in various industrial pockets of the states. These centers can also take care of transport accidents involving chemicals.
  • The non-government organizations & various employers association in the state should also take up the activities in the field of safety and health on a large scale to ensure basic training course on safety and health through DGFASLI (RLI/CLI) &, State Labour Department (Who look after vocational training) for the teaching members of polytechnics and ITI in the state. This will help the prospective technical persons to be safety cultured leading to reduction of loss in the industrial economy.
  • In order to promote safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories, special training courses are organized for increasing the awareness level of union leaders in the field OSH through DGFASLI, RLI/CLI. The unit level union leaders should be able to function as faculty since workers will readily accept safety measures/techniques by union leaders. Therefore, the existing 3 days training programme module by RLI/CLI, may be used.
  • For compilation of the statistics, the information was not being collected and sent to the Headquarters in time due to many reasons like shortage of time, manpower etc. As a result the collected information could not be processed and the trends regarding various parameters on occupational safety and health could not be established. It is therefore suggested that all field level offices should be equipped with suitable> Close co-ordination between various statutory, non-statutory, and other organizations who are connected with Occupational Safety & Health requires to be monitored through Ministry of Labour preferably through DGFASLI who has network of field offices as well as expertise. This arrangement will also improve the communication among the offices leading to effective implementation of the orders issued under the provisions of the Factories Act and various other Acts.
    All the occupiers may be directed to send a copy of these statistics to all RLI (where computer and communication facilities are available) for quick compilation and analysis to feed the Ministry of Labour to enable them to take decisions at national and international levels.
  • All industries should have their own Safety Bench Marking standards.
  • Each Industry should establish one OSH (Occupational Safety and Health) information center equipped with computerized data bank on hazardous substances, major accident hazard installation and gas dispersion characteristics etc.
  • Industries in Jharkhand may consider for installation of OSHMS (Occupational Safety & Health Management System) for the industries as existing in other states i.e. West Bengal, Goa, Karnataka etc.
  • Regular health check up of all employees should be carried out in all industries, especially at the chemical/hazardous plants. However, periodicity may vary from industry to industry.
  • Communication system to be strengthened to effectively monitor the disaster control measures.
  • Annual ‘Safety Audit’ should be conducted by external recognized agencies, particularly in the hazardous or hazard prone industries.
  • Computerization of Health data should be made mandatory for all organizations.
  • Chemical and poison information centers should be established in each hazardous industry/plant.
  • Plant Medical Officers of Hazardous Industries should attend three months post graduate Certificate Course on “Occupational Health”.
  • All the First-aid boxes should contain DGFASLI’s First Aid leaflets along with other essential tools.
  • All the food-handlers should be examined annually with some essential pathological examination as per Rules.
  • It is suggested that Chief Inspector Factories should develop their own Industrial Hygiene Laboratory facilities.
  • All hazardous industries should arrange for industrial hygiene study in respect of Work Environment Monitoring, Air Sampling, Analysis and Interpretation. Further, regular training programme should be arranged or employees may be sent to Regional Labour Institute, Kolkata/Central Labour Institute, Mumbai to attending programme on Industrial Hygiene.

Sources of Information

SOURCE OF INFORMATION

  • Guidelines on Occupational safety and health management systems (ILO/OSH 2001) (Geneva, 2001).
  • Directorate of Factories, Jharkhand.
  • Jharkhand State Pollution Control Board.
  • Directorate of Factories and Boiler, Government of Jharkhand.
  • Study Reports : Regional Labour Institute, Kolkata
  • Proceeding of National Seminar on Management of Hazardous Chemical : Safety, Health & Environment – 2000.
  • Official website of Jharkhand State Pollution Control Board.
  • Confederation of Indian Industries, Jharkhand Region.
  • Chief Inspector of Factories, Jharkhand.
  • Joint Committee On Safety In Steel Industry, Ranchi, Jharkhand.
  • The Tata Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Motors
  • Usha Martine Ltd., Wair Ropes & Specialty Production Division, Tatigilwar, Ranchi.
  • Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd., Ranchi
  • Bokaro Steel Plant.
  • Garden Reach Ship Builders & Engineers Ltd.,

Annexures

ANNEXURE - I

THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 ( AMENDED 1987 ), 1948
THE THIRD SCHEDULE
(See section 89 and 90)

List of notifiable diseases

  • Lead poisoning including poisoning by any preparation or compound of lead or their sequelae.
  • Lead tetra-ethyl poisoning.
  • Phosphorous poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Mercury poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Manganese poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Arsenic poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Poisoning by nitrous fumes.
  • Carbon bisulphide poisoning.
  • Benzene poisoning, including poisoning by any of its homologues, their nitro or amido derivatives or its sequelae.
  • Chrome ulceration or its sequelae.
  • Anthrax.
  • Silicosis.
  • Poisoning by halogens or halogen derivatives of the hydrocarbons, of the aliphatic series.
  • Pathological manifestation due to : -
    • radium or other radioactive substances.
    • X-rays.
  • Primary epitheliomatous cancer of the skin.
  • Toxic anaemia.
  • Toxic jaundice due to poisonous substances.
  • Oil acne or dermatitis due to mineral oils and compounds containing mineral oil base.
  • Byssionosis.
  • Asbestosis.
  • Occupational or contact dermatitis caused by direct contract with chemical and paints. These are of types, that is, primary irritants and allergic sensitizers.
  • Noise induced hearing loss (exposure to high noise levels).
  • Beryllium poisoning.
  • Carbon monoxide.
  • Coal miners' pneumoconiosis.
  • Phosgene poisoning.
  • Occupational cancer.
  • Isocyanides poisoning.
  • Toxic nephritis.

ANNEXURE - II

EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE ACT, 1948
THE THIRD SCHEDULE
LIST OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES

PART A

Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Infectious and parastic diseases contracted in an occupation where there is a particular risk of contamination.
  • All work involving exposure to health or laboratory work;
  • All work involving exposure to veterinary work;
  • Work relating to handling animals, animals carcasses, part of such carcasses, or merchandise which may have been contaminated by animals or animal carcasses;
  • Other work carrying a particular risk of contamination.
2.Diseases caused by work in compressed air.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
3.Diseases caused by lead or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Poisoning by nitrous fumes.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Poisoning by organphosphorus compoundAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned

PART B

Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Diseases caused by phosphorus or toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.Diseases caused by mercury or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Diseases caused by benzene or its toxic homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Diseases caused by nitro and amino derivatives of benzene or its homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Diseases caused by chromium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
6.Diseases caused by arsenic or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
7.Diseases caused by radioactive substances and ionising radiations.All work involving exposure to the reaction of radioactive substances or ionising radiations.
8.Primary epithelomatous cancer of the skin caused by tar, pitch bitumen, mineral oil, anthracene or the compounds, products or residues of these substancesAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
9.Diseases caused toxic halogen derivatives by hydrocarbons (of the aliphatic and aromatic series).All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
10.Diseases caused by carbon disulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
11.Occupational cataract due to infra-red radiations.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
12.Diseases caused by manganese or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
13.Skin diseases caused by physical, chemical or biological agents not include in other items.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
14.Hearing impairment caused by noise.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
15.Poisoning by dinitrophenol or a homologue or by substituted dinitrophenol or by the salts of such substances.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
16.Diseases caused by beryllium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
17.Diseases caused by cadmium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
18.Occupational asthma caused by recognised sensitising agents inherent to the work process.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
19.Diseases caused by fluorine or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
20.Diseases caused by nitroglycerine or other nitroacid esters.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
21.Diseases caused by alcohols and ketones.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
22.Diseases caused by asphyxiants; carbon monoxide, and its toxic derivatives, hydrogen sulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
23.Lung cancer and mesotheliomas caused by asbestos.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
24.Primary neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder or the kidneys or the ureter.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned

PART C

Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Pneumoconiosis caused by sclerogenic mineral dust (silicosis, anthraoosilicosis asbestosis) and silico-tuberculosis provided that silicosis is an essential factor in causing the resultant incapacity or death.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.BagassosisAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by cotton, flax hemp and sisal dust (Byssinosis)All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Extrinsic allergic alvoelities caused by the inhalation of organic dusts.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by hard metals.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned