With the rapid growth of technology and globalization of economic review, transfer of technological knowledge has taken place throughout the world at a very fast rate. This knowledge and its application have often led to benefits such as improved productivity and reduced physical exertion. Conversely the misapplication of such technology has given rise to hazards threatening safety and health.
Both management and organized labour have agreed that safety and health on the job is the management responsibility. The duty of an employer is to protect employees against health hazards in addition to their safety. This necessitates designing of newer policies and programmes in respect of safety, health and environment.
Decision where safety is involved often-present dilemma for planning authorities. In many cases the authorities have to weigh the advantages, which proposed development might bring against disadvantage that more people might be at some risk. The decision is less difficult when this risk is very great or very small, but many cases it falls between these two extremes.
With the increasing awareness about the environment world over, most of the countries have enacted legislations for protecting environment and establish machinery for their implementation. With a view to promote good standards on environmental practices, International Organization for Standards have developed ISO: 14000 series which specifies requirements on environmental management system.
In the emerging scenarios, industries have to effectively deal with multitude of challenge like rapidly involving new technology, shorter life circle, globalization, increased competition and the need to substantially reduce the environmental impact. A national inventory on capabilities and management of occupational safety, health and environment will be of great help for designing and implementing various instruments to protect safety, health and environment of the large workforce working in various sectors of the economy. These requires on line assessment of the present statutes on occupational safety and health in the country. Presently information in this area is not up-to-date and also not readily available for the policy makers. As such a pilot project has been taken up for the state of JHARKHAND with the objective to collect and compile various information on occupational safety and health and dissemination of information regarding the extent of compilation with the important provisions under the Factories Act, 1948 and the rules framed there under including system of notification of occupational accidents and diseases as per ILO code of practice at the unit level and state level.
India is one of the members of International Labour Organization and has ratified a number of ILO conventions and Recommendations. As a result major part of the ILO code of practices on notification of occupational accidents and diseases are being followed along with the Indian standard ISO 3786 which is on the similar lines of ILO’s code of practice. ILO-OSH 2001 provides a unique international model, compatible with other management system, standards and guides. It is not legally binding and not intended to replace national laws, regulations and accepted standards.
It reflects ILO’s values such as tripartism and relevant international standards including the Occupational Safety and Health Convention 1981 (No155), Occupational Health Services Convention 1985 (161). The ILO Guidelines encourage the integration of OSH-MS with other management system and state that OSH should be an integral part of business management. While integration is desirable, flexible arrangements are required depending on the size and type of operation. Ensuring good OSH performance is more important than formality of integration. As well as this, ILO-OSH 2001 emphasizes that OSH should be a line management responsibility at the organization.
The guidelines provide guidance for implementation at two levels – national (Chapter 2) and organizational (Chapter 3).
At the national level, they provide for the establishment of a national framework for occupational safety and health (OSH) management systems, preferably supported by national laws and regulations. Action at national level includes the nomination of (a) competent institution (s) for OSH-MS, (b) the formulation of a coherent national policy and (c) the establishment of ILO-OSH 2001, either by means of its direct implementation in organizations or its adaptation to national conditions and practice (by national guidelines) and specific needs of organizations in accordance with their size and nature of activities (by tailored guidelines).
The National Policy for OSH-MS should be formulated by competent institution(s) in consultation with employers’ and workers’ organizations, and should consider:
The functions and responsibilities of implementing institutions should be clearly defined as well. Figure 1 of the Guidelines describes the elements of the national framework for OSH managements systems. It shows the different ways in which ILO-OSH 2001 may be implemented in a member State:
The activities of this project have been divided in the following categories:
The information pertaining to various economic sectors was collected by visiting each of the departments, having detailed discussions with the respective heads and referring to the annual returns of these departments. The information related with the manufacturing sectors were collected from the annual returns submitted by the factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948. The data related to the occupational injuries and diseases were analyzed by studying the accident forms and recording them on to the data sheets specifically designed for this purpose.
For the assessment of infrastructure available and capabilities of the organizations, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health, the profile programme on the similar lines as that developed by ILO was used.
Data collection and analysis could be efficiently completed in specific time frame because of active co-operation from various people involved with the project.
Jharkhand, which came into existence on 15th November 2000, is widely acclaimed as the region of future. It has enormous potential for industrialization. Its large deposits of minerals provide a solid launching pad for all kinds of industries. The region with an area of 74677 sq km, and a population of 22 million has unlimited scope for growth and development.
Jharkhand is generously endowed with such mineral wealth, which probably no other state in the country can boast of. 33% of the country's coal reserves is in Jharkhand. Other than coal Jharkhand inherits immense reserves of various other minerals like iron ore, copper, chromites, china clay, dolomite, granite, mica, magnetite, titanium, tungsten, uranium, kyanite, gold, feldspar, quartzite just to name a few. (90% of the country’s cooking coal deposits, 40% of its copper, 22% of its iron ore, 90% of its mica and huge deposits of bauxite, quartz and ceramics). It is home to the largest steel plant in Bokaro, apart from Jamshedpur being practically the city of TISCO and TELCO.
Besides minerals, Jharkhand is gifted with adequate water resources, relatively moderate climate and a very fertile land, providing tremendous scope for hydel power generation, horticulture and floriculture. The state offers a large pool of trained manpower, good educational & technical institutions, research laboratories, a favorable industrial climate, and good rail, road & telecommunication network.
Jharkhand is a land locked territory bound by the state of Bihar on the north, West Bengal on the east, Orissa on the south, and Chattisgarh on the west.
Physiographically, Jharkhand is characterized by the Chotanagpur Plateau. The Chotanagpur Plateau consists of a series of plateau of different elevations - the most important ones being the Ranchi plateau, the Ramgarh plateau and the Hazaribag plateau. Tectonically, these regions have witnessed three organic movements, which are also responsible for the rich mineral deposits found in the state. Jharkhand has some of the richest deposits of iron and coal in the world apart from being a part of one of the most industrialized regions in the country. It is also endowed with a rich forest cover.
The radial centrifugal drainage system of Jharkhand consists of rivers like Koel, Subarnrekha, Damodar, Barakar, Ajoi, Mor, Konar and Bokaro. Most of these rivers are relatively dry during summer but exhibit torrential flow, rapids and falls during the monsoon season. Jharkhand has a vast potential for generating hydel power as is exemplified by the location of the famous Damodar Valley Corporation in the state.
The state extends between 22 degrees north and 25.50 degrees north latitudes and 83 degrees east and 87.75 degrees east latitude with an area of 74,677 sq km The new state is bordered by Bihar, MP, Orissa and West Bengal to its north, west, south and east respectively. 35% of the population of former Bihar is in the Jharkhand region.
The state comprises of eighteen districts of the erstwhile Bihar- Ranchi, Gumha, Lohardanga, East Singbhum, West Singbhum, Hazaribagh, Giridih, Kodarma, Chatra, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Palamau, Garhwa, Dumka, Deoghar, Godda, Pakure and Sahebgunj
District wise Population
Climate of the state in general is tropical with hot summers and cold winters. There are regional variations and some parts of the state like Ranchi, Netarhat, and Parasnath have pleasant climate even during the summers. Maximum rainfall takes place during the months from July to September that accounts for more than 90% of total rainfall in the state
|ST||28% of total|
|SC||12% of total|
|Per capita Income||Rs. 4161|
|Density of Population||274 persons / Sq. KM|
|No. of Districts||18 + 4|
|No. of Sub divisions||33|
|No. of Blocks||211|
|No. of Villages||32620|
|No. of Villages Electrified||14667||45 % of total|
|No. of Villages connected by roads||8484|
|National Highways||1006 KMs|
|State Highways||4662 KMs|
Incl. One deemed University
|Total Geographical Area||79.70 Lakh Hect|
|Cultivable Land||38.00 Lakh Hect|
|Net Sown Area||18.04 Lakh Hect||25% of total area|
|Net Irrigated Area||01.57 Lakh Hect||8% of net sown area|
|Forest||29% of total area|
The state has adequate infrastructure for ensuring rapid industrial growth. A good network of roads, railways, airways, telecommunication, power and water system is available in the state.
The State is well connected by roads. The National High Way is 1600 Km and the State High Way is 2711 Km.
The State Government is planning to improve and upgrade the existing road network and providing new road linkages/bypass with bridges over river to facilitate quick and efficient movement of raw materials and finished goods. The state government proposes - BOT concept for building & maintenance of roads 7 bridges by private sector participation, provide expressway along the main high-density corridors across the state and inter state & intra-state bus terminus across the state.
Jharkhand is a resource rich state with abundance of waterfalls, rivers, and huge coal beds. The state has an immense scope for mini, micro hydro power stations and non-conventional energy.
The State Government’s objective is to provide electricity to all villages and rural areas. In this process Rs.30 cores was invested in the current year 2001 - 2002.
|Installed Power Station||Capacity|
|Tenughat Thermal Power Station||420 MW|
|Patratu Thermal Power Station||840 MW|
|Sikkidiri Hydel Power||130 MW|
|DVC ( Thermal / Hydel )||1200 MW|
|Total installed capacity||2590 MW|
Power Potential in Jharkhand
|Tenughat Phase I||Thermal||630 MW|
|Tenughat Phase II||Thermal||500 MW|
|North Karanpura3||Thermal||2000 MW|
|Shankh II||Hydel||186 MW|
|Tilalya Dhadhar||Hydel||50 MW|
The objective of the Jharkhand state is to provide industries uninterrupted power of right quality and quantity with constant voltage at an economic cost. To meet this objective State Government opted privatization of power generation and distribution. The cities contemplated for privatization of power distribution are - Ranchi, Jamshedpur and Dhanbad.
An independent Electricity Regulatory Commission was set up to ensure - rationalization of power tariff, timely disposal of electricity related disputes and interaction between consumers and board.
In the area of non-conventional energy - an industry status is given to utilization of non - conventional energy sources. 67 Hydel power generation sites were identified in this area. State Government invites private sector participation to set up mini and micro Hydel power plants and to exploit and develop non-conventional sources of power.
The state has extensive and well - developed railway system providing vital links to important cities if the country.
The state Government process - new railway links to be established within the state and Inland Container Depot (ICD) at Tatanagar to facilitate export efforts.
There are three main airports in the state - Ranchi, Jamshedpur and Hazaribagh. Ranchi is well connected with Delhi, Patna and Mumbai. The state Government process - to upgrade Ranchi Airport as International Airport, to start air taxi / cargo services in major towns of the state and to set up air cargo complex at Ranchi to boost the export.
All the district headquarters of the state are connected to the main network by reliable media and STD facility. Ranchi Internet mode is upgrade to 'A' category. Optical Fibre cable media connectivity is available in all district quarter and 6 Internet nodes are available in the state. Also local dialing facility to access internet is available in all district head quarters of the state.
The State Government process - to link rural areas through WLL, to connect all telephone exchanges through OFC/OHF, to link rural areas with business centres and availability of Bharat Mobile Services in the State.
Heavy Engineering Corporation (HEC). Ranchi
Jharkhand is the country's richest state in coal reserves. At present Central Coalfields Limited (CCL),a subsidiary of Coal India Limited, with headquarters at Ranchi is engaged in the growth of coal production and development of new coal resources in the state. Central Coalfields ltd. is engaged in coal mining with scientific methods meeting the safety, quality and environmental standards.
Indian Institute of Coal Management (IICM) established by Coal India is located at Kanke near Ranchi. It helps to motivate and provide opportunity and formal training to individual and organisations engaged in coal industry or entrepreneurs.
Bharat Cooking Coal Limited - a subsidiary of Coal India is located at Koyla Bhawan, Dhanbad. It helps at mining development of quality of cooking coal in the coalfields of the state.
40 percent of country's production of Tussar, a non-mulberry silk comes from Jharkhand State alone. The state is planning to integrate horticulture, sericulture, agriculture and productions of Lac operations under its VISION 2010 plan. This will enable the state to produce 60 percent Tussar silk production. The centre Tussar Research and Training Institute is working well in this direction.
Two main species of trees- Arjuna (Terminatra- Arjuna) and Asan (Terminatia Tementosa) are found in the large spread forest of the state. These trees are the breeding ground for the moth which produces the oval cocoon, with a fine-grained, hard, non-flossy shell. The cocoons are generally yellow or grey and are hard and compact. The cocoons are boiled in chemical solution to soften. The yarn produced is reeled.
The portion of Tussar cocoons leftover after nearly 60% reel able silk is spun into katiya yarn. Ghicha yarn and Balkal yarn is also produced from pierced cocoons. Tussar silk is gaining popularity due to unique texture and color. It is also called 'wild' silk. The silk is naturally of tan, earth and brown colours. Due to its earth colour Tussar has become a hit with the fashion world. The forest department of the state is also planning to encourage the production of Arjuna trees.
Tata Steel - The Tata Iron & Steel Company Limited (TATA Steel)
Bokaro Steel Plant (BSP) is situated in the coal belt and Indian engineering and equipment suppliers have played a major role in its construction - the first indigenous public sector integrated steel.
Usha Beltron Limited (UBL) a private Jhawars-owned alloy steel manufacturing unit at Adityapur near Jamshedpur.
The state Government is fully committed to make Jharkhand an IT powerhouse and a front-runner in the information revolution. The objective of the State Government is to accelerate the drive for setting up info - infrastructure with - Fiber optic network, satellite communication network and wireless network for seamlessly interconnecting the LII, NLL and the GLL.
The State Governments' aim to create an ambience to target for a $5 billion annual export from Jharkhand IT industry by 2010. It will create a center for excellence like IIIT and regional engineering colleges through private participation. It will also support IT support services in regional languages.
0.25 percent rebate in allotted land cost per job created.
Rebate on registration charges and stamp duty for sale/lease of space for establishing IT infrastructure.
Special Rebate for IT Infrastructure :
1. Mining and Mineral Based Industries
The potential for growth in mining and mineral based industries is immense. This sector has huge potential for attracting large investments to create employment and raise resources. It would be the endeavor of the State Government to expedite the granting of mining leases and simplify the procedures with respect to the grant of mining leases. In addition, the State Government would also provide certain relief to make mining activities easier.
Concerted efforts shall be made to expedite / undertake survey / exploration of mining resources. Modern methods of exploration like remote sensing, arrow magnetic survey and other methods would be used to set up the resource inventory of various minerals in the State. The State Government would encourage participation of reputed private parties, multinationals and Central and State agencies in this exercise.
The State Government would encourage joint venture projects with State Mineral Development Corporation (SMDC) especially in the field of mining. Private sector would be encouraged to take up mining activities in the State. Mining lease applications along with project report and all relevant documents would preferably be disposed off within a period of 60 days of the filing of such application. Suitable>
2. Agro based industries
Jute, hemp, sisal and other fabrics
Tea cultivation, processing and packaging
|Districts||Units Identified||Units closed|
16 industries have been identified as major accident hazard unit as follows:
List of Major Accident Hazard Factories under Jharkhand Factories (Control of Major Accident Hazard) Rule
|Sl.No.||Name of the Factory||No. of Workers Employed|
|01)||The Tata Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Jamshedpur||32,000|
|02)||B. O. C. India Ltd., Burma Mines, Jamshedpur||N A|
|03)||Bokaro Steel Plant, Bokaro|
|04)||ANIROX Pigment Ltd., Govind Pur, Dhanbad||N A|
|05)||Jai Prabhu Jee Iron & Steel (P) Ltd., Koudra, Govind Pur||N A|
|06)||Bharat Petroleum Co. Ltd., Station Road, Chuttia, Ranchi||N A|
|07)||Bihar Caustic & Chemical Ltd, Rehla Palamu||N A|
|08)||Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Namkum, Ranchi||N A|
|09)||Usha Martine Ltd., Wair Ropes & Specialty Production Division, Tatigilwar, Ranchi|
|10)||Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. Hazaribag, (Bottling Plant)||N A|
|11)||Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Ranchi Road, Marar Hazaribagh||N A|
|12)||Patrau Thermal Power Plant, Hazaribagh||N A|
|13)||Indo Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Hazaribagh||N A|
|14)||Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd., Ranchi|
|15)||Indian Explosive Ltd., Bokaro||N A|
|16)||I. A Corporation Ltd., Dhanbad||N A|
Details of no of workers employed in these factories, name of the hazardous chemicals handled, quantity of hazardous chemicals stored/handled and the threshold quantity prescribed is not available with the Office of the Chief Inspector of Factories.
The list of hazardous industries as per 2(cb) of the Factories Act in the state of Jharkhand are given below:
LIST OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIES IN JHARKHAND (2002- 2004)
|Year||No. of Industries||No. of Workers|
Manufacturing Activities of a few large & medium industries are described below:
Jharkhand is the home to the largest steel plant in Bokaro, apart from Jamshedpur being practically the city of TISCO and TELCO.
Tata Steel - The Tata Iron & Steel Company Limited (TATA Steel) is one of the best managed steel companies in India. The patriot industrialist Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata set up the company in 1907 at Jamshedpur in Jharkhand. The company is one of the lowest cost producer of steel in the world.
Energy efficient technologies, optimum utilisation of raw materials and state-of-the-art equipment have made Tata Steel India's single largest producer of sophisticated steel. The no of workers employed in TISCO are given below:
* These figures varies as construction work requirement.
TATA Steel's all steel making facilities are located in Jamshedpur, in the state of Jharkhand. It owns several iron-ore mines, collieries and flux mines located near its plant. TATA Steel manufactures diverse range of products and offer services. The products include forging quality steel, rods, HR/CR coils and sheets, tubes, construction bars, strips and bearings, structurals, ferro alloys and other minerals, steel plant and material handling equipment, software for process control and cargo handling services.
The latest major modernisation initiatives are the reconstruction and capacity enhancement from 0.6 mtpa to 1.0 mtpa of the 43-year old "F" Blast Furnace at less than half the cost of a new blast furnace and the installation of the Submerged Entry Nozzle and Electro Magnetic Stirrer in the Biller caster # 1 of LD # 1.
A Strategic partnership has been forged with Nippon Steel Corporation and Arcelor for knowledge sharing in the Auto sector. Talks are on with Vivendi Water India Ltd. for water management, Gartner have been engaged to evolve a long term Information Technology strategy. An e-governance programme has been initiated with the help of Stern & Stewart. A new JV, TM logistics, has been formed for logistic management and port operations. The first steps in the Ferro Chrome project in South Africa have been initiated.
TATA Steel achieved its highest ever first half (April - September 2002) production by notching 1.8 MT and highest ever first half sales at Rs. 4,034.30 crores. It has also achieved highest ever first half profits after tax at Rs. 269.10 crores; an increase of 462% over last year.
TATA Steel's efforts to brand its products have reaped dividends with the sale of Tata Shaktee (GC Sheets), Tata Tiscon Rebars, Tata Bearings and Tata Pipes, growing by 15% overall. Similarly, sales to the critical Auto segment have achieved a 35% growth and the Company's market share in the Cold Rolled products was buoyant at 29%.
Lower raw material consumption by 8%, lower energy consumption by 3%, higher labour productivity by 6% and lower interest burden by 25% are some of the operational parameters that have contributed to this excellent performance.
The merger of Tata - SSL will further strengthen the Company's financial and market presence.
Bokaro Steel Plant (BSP) is situated in the coal belt and Indian engineering and equipment suppliers have played a major role in its construction - the first indigenous public sector integrated steel.
BSP has a capacity of 4 million TPA of crude steel. The quality of its products are appreciated internationally. The continuous casting facilities have been recently installed and the Hot Strip Mill have been revamped which has provided the state-of-the-art-technology to BSL for manufacturing international quality steel. Its SMS - I, SMS -II, Continuous Casting Shop, Slabbing Mill, Hot Strip Mill, Hot Rolled Coil Finishing & Cold Rolling Mill Complex have ISO : 9002 certification.
The Steel Plant had received ISO-9002 certification for most of its units.
BSP has a value added products like SAILCOR (Corrosion Resistant Steel), API Grade Steel, SAILPROP, SAILMEDS, SAILRIM, HRND, SAILMA, WTCR, BSL-46 for auto sector.
It has a capacity of 4.5 million tonnes of liquid steel & 3.78 million tonnes of saleable steel.
|HR Coils, Plates & Sheets||21.20 lac|
|CR Coils & Sheets||13.90 lac|
|GP/GC Sheets||1.70 lac|
|TOTAL SALEABLE STEEL||37.80 lac|
The main products of Bokaro Steel Plant are :
Accident Statistics of BSP during the year 2004.
|Sl. No.||Types of Accident||Regular||Contractor||Total|
a) First Aid Cases
b) Loss time injuries
|3.||Man-days lost (including fatal)||20057||86||20143|
(on the basis of 2 a+ 2 b)
|6.||Severity rate (including fatal)||292.24||16.22||272.44|
Promotional Activities during the year 2004.
Spectrum of Safety Activities of BSP during the year 2004.
|Sl.No.||Topic of the Workshop||Dept./Unit||Date||No. of Participants|
|1.||Safe Operation’ of EOT Cranes||CRM||16/03/04||35|
|2.||Safe Operation of Trippler||RMHP||17/04/04||20|
|3.||Safety in Iron Making||SAIL Plants & RINL||22-23/04/04||19|
|4.||Safety in Steel Making||- Do -||04-05/05/04||21|
|5.||5 S Concept of Housekeeping||SED & OHS||21/05/04||25|
|6.||Hazards & Risk Analysis||IMF||25/05/04||35|
|10.||Behaviour Based Safety||IMF||01/07/04||17|
|12.||Derailment Prevention & Safety||Traffic||28/07/04||62|
|13.||Accident Prevention & Stress Management||RMP & RED||06/08/04||27|
|14.||Crane Performance Improvement||SMS-1, CRM, IMF, BF, MS, SM & HSM||06-13/08/04||149|
|15.||Fire Fighting & Safety||CRM||11/09/04||45|
|17.||Derailment Prevention & Safety Road Safety||Traffic||01/12/04||60|
|18.||Road Safety||SI. Mill, SF and Stores||13/12, 22/12 & 23/12/04||95|
|19.||Safety Workshop for Contractors.||CRM||22/12/04||11|
Training Activities at BSP during the year 2004.
|Sl.||Name of the Programme||Duration||Category||Participants|
|1)||Regular Safety Management||02 Days||(E6 – E7)||2004||2005|
|2)||Safety & Accident Prevention||02 Days||(E0 – E5)||95||282|
|3)||Special Shop Floor||01 Day||(E0 – E5)||-||149|
|4)||Safety, Health & Fire Fighting||03 Days||(S1 – S10)||983||930|
|5)||Shop Floor Safety||01 Day||All Workers||11363||12066|
|6)||Road Safety||01 Day||All Workers||127||841|
|7)||Electric Safety||01 Day||Electricians||26||236|
|8)||Gas Safety||01 Day||Exe + N Exe||92||195|
|9)||First Aid||01 Day||All Workers||-||387|
|10||Contractor Safety Induction||01 Day||Contr.||17265||10193|
|11)||Shop Floor Safety||01 Day||Contr.||857||1596|
Innovation & Development
Usha Beltron Limited (UBL) a private Jhawars-owned alloy steel manufacturing unit at Adityapur near Jamshedpur. The unit produces mild/high carbon steel and low alloy steels. These steel are used for making wire rods and wire rope at its wire rope division at Ranchi.
Usha Beltron Limited produces special grades of wire such as stainless steel wires, needle wires and shaped wires for domestic markets and the customers engaged in Automobile production, Construction industry, Power industry, Railway equipments etc. Steel wires find its application in making of Auto Tyres, Springs and industrial fasteners.
Usha Beltron limited is the largest producer of wire ropes in the south and Southeast Asia. It is also among the top five manufactures of wire ropes worldwide. The wire ropes are used mainly in Mining, Oil exploration and Extraction, Bridge and other civil construction. Usha Beltron also provides the entire range of end-of-rope products like shackles and pulleys.
Heavy Engineering Corporation, Ranchi
M/s. Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd. a fully owned Government of India Undertaking was incorporated in Bihar on 31-12-1958. Foundry Forge Plant (FFP) is one of the three plants, the other two being Heavy Machine Building Plant (HMBP) and the Heavy Machine Tool Plant (HMTP), all situated at one place under this corporate sector. FFP was initially setup to produce annually around 1.3 Lakh Ton of heavy castings and forgings. These capital items were to be routed through HMBP and HMTP to their final destination of building up one steel plant every year. FFP, therefore, was envisaged to be the main feeding unit for both HMBP and HMTP.
Foundry Forge Plant is one of the biggest industry of its kind in SE Asia. It is located at latitude 23º23’ North & longitude 85º23’ East in the South West of Ranchi. The location of the site was decided after careful consideration. It is centrally located with respect to its sister units. It is situated amidst a healthy industrial belt having access and proximity to natural sources of almost all kind of raw materials that it requires. It fits naturally on the ecological balance. A generally south- westerly wind, 200 cm average rainfall every year and a vast afforested area all around takes due care of any environmental abuses that the processes of the factory may produce. The temperature varies between 5ºC in winter and 42ºC in summer. Chotonagpur belt specially Ranchi had a complete turn around in the last 30 years in terms of literacy, employment and all round development after HEC came into existence.
This factory covers around 1,316,930 Sqm. area of which 2,85,020 Sqm. Is built up. Entire plant is divided into three belts. The first belt running centrally from east to west consists of basic manufacturing units such as pattern shop, Iron & Steel Foundries, Forge shop and the Rough machine shop. This main belt is flanked on either side by parallel subsidiary area. The area on the south contains all the Power and Engineering shops and other ancillary services so that various section of works get a favourable and balanced fuel and energy supply. Officers and amenities buildings for the staff and workers occupy the northern flank. The production and services area are well connected by inplant railway tracks and is connected to the outside via inplant marshaling yard and Hatia station so as to maintain uninterrupted flow of material and finished products. The internal track line runs to the length of 33 kms. A total of 16.5 km. length of road is laid which is as per requirement of heavy and light traffic.
Water requirement in the plant is met by 17M deep dam constructed on the river Subernrekha. Inside the plant, extensive pipeline system is laid out for drinking water. Three outlet 60”Ø RCC pipes have been provided for draining out storm water of the plant area. The sewerage system involves lying of more than 22 km of concrete pipe under the ground.
Electrical distribution system consists of 132 KV double overhead line with switching station of Gola. This 132 KV is stepped down to 33 KV at the entrance switching station at FFP where it is further coupled with 33 KV distribution system of the Bihar State Electricity Board. This has been to alternate facilities as per need. There are in all 18 intermediate transformer substation situated in the whole plant for individual tapping.
The individual production unit of the plant is almost as big as many of the large factories in the country. About 60,000T of machinery are installed in the plant. Some of the shops are 40M high with 80M high chimneys. A few of these carry large cranes of 200T capacity and big steel columns weighing 140T with steel base of 29 sq.meter. A special feature of this plant is the underground soaking furnaces, big ones measuring 20X14X25m. In this plant, castings and forgings of practically any type and composition from a few kg to as heavy as 100T piece weight are produced.
FFP was built with DPR production rating of 1,30,000T of iron & steel castings and steel forgings per annum principally for the building up of steel plants in India and later on elsewhere. The infrastructure was laid but production capacity was never attained due to conceptual error. Later on, it was conceded that India being a tropical country and an average Indian being lesser capable than the Europeans due to different food habits and the stamina, the maximum achievable capacity could be around 50,000T. This was the essence of the report submitted by the Fazal Committee in 1974. The maximum that was achieved was around 38,000T in 1976. Therefore, the layout, the facilities, the amenities already established did the statutes demand far superior than those. Pollution control measures developed for the DPR production wastes were never put to 100% efficiency l. A 30% production capacity utilization also means 3 times less waste and effluent generation.
|PRODUCT mt/YEAR||DPR CAPACITY GROSS (MT)||ACHIEVABLE (FAZAL COMMITTEE)||MAXM. ACHIEVED (1975-76)||1997-98|
NOTE: Figures are in MT and Rs. Thousand
Tata Motors Ltd. is one of the pioneers in automobile sector in the country on its path to World Class Manufacturing has incorporated environmentally sound practices as one of its prime objectives- in its process, products and services. It Aims to create a seamless organization that promotes innovation, excellence, as well as the Tata core values of integrity, customer focus, corporate citizenship and a “passion for engineering” Commitment to high standards of safety ,environment and health are also espoused in the Tata Code of Conduct fully integrated into the company’s operational philosophy and culture. Tata Motors’ mission is also to upgrade the quality of life of communities in and around the company’s operations.
National environmental regulation governing the automobile manufacturing industry continued to follow the stringent trend of the past. Emission and pass-by noise norms for products and disposal of hazardous wastes from manufacturing process are two significant areas. Deadlines for complying with European legislation governing re-cyclability of products are also drawing near.
This was the first unit of the Company established in 1945 and is spread over an area of 822 acres. It consists of 3 divisions - Truck, Engine (including the Gear Box division) and Axle. The divestments in March 2000 hived off the Axle and Engine plants into independent subsidiaries. The Truck Division boasts of two assembly lines. The main assembly line, measuring 180 metres in length, has 20 stations with a vehicle rolling out every 8 minutes while the other line is dedicated to Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs). State-of-the-art facilities like a Centralized Paint and Press Shop with a set-up of a 5000 tons Siempelkamp press line and a cut-to-length line for strip preparation purchased from M/s. Kohler of Germany makes it a fairly advanced production outfit.
The number of workers employed in TATA Motors during the period 2002-04 is given below:
This is supported by a fully equipped Foundry, which supplies high-grade SG Iron castings for automobile components and excavators and is rated as one of the cleaner, better and highly automated foundries in the world. The Foundry has a sophisticated Kunkel Wagner high pressure moulding line, which has a rated production capacity of 90 pairs of moulds every hour. The Foundry has its own melting shop, core shop and sand plant.
Other advanced facilities include Channel Furnaces, Computerized Testing Equipment etc. In 1993, the Foundry was ISO 9002 certified by the Bureau Of Veritas Quality International and later followed it up with the more stringent QS 9000 certification from the BVQI in the year 2000.
The unit is also equipped with a semi-automated forging line, with 40,000 mkg Beche hammer and state-of-the art presses from Kurimoto of Japan and is one of the most modern forging set-ups in the country. It produces critical forgings like crankshafts, front axle beams and steering parts for the automobile plant. The new forging line, installed on April 20, 1984, has the capability to forge front axle beams at 90 sec per piece and crankshafts at 120 sec per piece. Mechanical presses help produce a variety of heavy forgings. The sophisticated FIDIA Digit 165 CC graphite-milling machine links shop floor machines to the design workstation. The Forge has been certified as ISO 9002 and QS 9000 by the BVQI.
The Central Tool Room at Tata Motors, Jamshedpur is one of the most modern tool rooms in India. Equipped with the latest CNC Machines, Tryout Presses and Inspection facilities, this tool room has the proven capability of developing tooling solutions for all applications.
The State of Jharkhand has 6288 number of registered factories (till 2004) covered under the Factories Act, 1948. In the year 2003 corresponding figure was 5677 Therefore there is an increase in the manufacturing activities during 2004. The distribution of new factories registered during 2004 is given below:
|Category of factories||Up to 19 workers||20 or more but less than 50 workers||50 or more but less than 100 workers||100 or more but less than 500 workers||500 or more workers||Total|
|Section 2 (m)(i)|
Of 6288 registered factories, 1855 factories are registered section 2(m)(i), 215 factories are under section 2(m)(ii) and remaining 4218 factories under section 85.
|Category of factories||2001||2002||2003||2004|
|Factories under Section 2(m)(i) (Manufacturing Process with power employing 10 or more workers).||1550||1639||1741||1855|
|Factories under Section 2(m)(ii) (Manufacturing process without power employing 20 or more workers)||73||94||145||215|
|Factories notified under Section 85||3473||3616||3791||4218|
In the year 2004, there were 218 reportable accidents in these factories. Out of which 21 were fatal and 197 non-fatal injuries. All the cases of fatal injuries were analyzed. There is a reduction of accidents in comparison to 2003 wherein 296 reportable accidents occurred. Of them 35 were fatal accidents and 261 nonfatal accidents
For classification of accidents the Indian Standards 3786-1983 titled “Method for computation of frequency and severity rates in industrial injuries” and classification of Industrial accidents along with ILO Codes of practice on recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases were used. The industries were classified according to the new industrial classification – 1987 NIC Code. The fatal and non-fatal injuries have been dealt with separately.
The fatal injuries in the State of Jharkhand as reported in the annual returns submitted by the factories for the year 2004 is 21 and in 2003. the corresponding figure is 35. 21 fatal injuries recorded are analyzed as per Indian Standard 3786 and the ILO code of practice of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases. The analysis has been done industry group-wise, cause-wise, agency-wise, nature of injury-wise, location of injury-wise, size and age-wise.
|Year||Number of accidents||Incidence rate per 1000 workers||Frequency rate per 1 million man-hours worked (%)|
|Fatal||Non-fatal||Total||Fatal (%)||Non-fatal (%)|
|Struck by falling body||46||50||36|
|Stepping on or striking against object||5||5||1|
|Handling of goods||44||48||43|
|Persons falling (PFA+PEL+PFP)||38||53||23|
|Total||Incidence rate (per 1000 workers)||Total||Incidence rate (per 1000 workers)||Total||Incidence rate (per 1000 workers)|
|Other machinery moved by mechanical power||1||2||1|
|Struck by falling bodies||7||9||5|
|Stepping on or striking against the object||-||1||-|
|Handling goods or articles||15||13||8|
|Industry||No. of fatal accidents in the year|
|Manufacture of food products||1|
|Manufacture of cotton textiles|
|Manufacture of textile products|
|Manufacture of wood and wood products, furniture and fixtures.|
|Manufacture of paper and paper products and printing, publishing and allied industries|
|Manufacture of rubber, plastics, petroleum and coal products.||2||2||-|
|Manufacture of non-metallic mineral products||2||2||-|
|Basic metal and alloy industries||16||13||13|
|Manufacture of machinery and equipment other than transport equipment including electrical machinery.||1||-||-|
|Electricity generation, transmission and distribution|
|Storage and warehousing services.||2||-||1|
Average daily number of workers employed in major industrial
groups in statutory returns furnished by the employers
|Rubber and rubber products||130||131||131|
|Chemicals and Chemical Products||1287||1291||1295|
|Glass & Glass Products||1495||1500||1500|
|Ship Building & Repairs|
A = Number of factories submitting returns;
B = Average daily number of workers employed.
|Name of the District||Average daily number of workers employed (submitting returns)|
|Employment in new factories registered||8978||4215||4998||10949|
|Employment in old factories registered||196303||205281||209495||214494|
|Total employment in factories registered||205281||209496||214494||225443|
|Year||Number of factories where women workers are employed||Average daily number of women workers employed|
|Year||Number of factories notified for employment of safety officers||Number of safety officers required||Numbers of safety officers actually employed|
ILO code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases defines occupational diseases as “ a disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activity ”. Under Section 89 of Factories Act, 1948 where any worker in a factory contracts any disease specified in the Third Schedule, the manager of the factory shall send a notice thereof to such authorities and in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.
Any Medical Practitioner attending on a person who is or has been employed in a factory and is suffering from diseases specified in the Third schedule shall also without delay send a report in writing to the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories of the respective state.
The working environment has got direct effect on the health of the person who is working in the factories. The environment may be responsible for the cause of occupational diseases or other non-occupational diseases. The Chief Inspector of Factories, JHAKHAND did not have any data regarding occupational disease in the state. However, Occupational Health Administration of some industries in the state of Jharkhand are noted during field visit for the study is given below:
|Health & Healthy Life Style||Mixed||123||2315|
|Occupational Health||Line Managers||11||305|
|First Aid & CPR|
|Health & Healthy Life Style||Mixed||102||1991|
|Occupational Health||Line Managers||6||121|
|CPR & First Aid Training||Mixed||94||2587|
|OHSAS 18001& SA 8000||Mixed||9||143|
Medicine, Surgery, Paediatrics, Orthopedics, Ophthalmology, ENT, Psychiatry, Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Medicine, Surgery, Paediatrics, Orthopedics, Ophthalmology, ENT, Psychiatry, obstetrics & Gynecology.
Routine & special biochemistry by autoanalyser, Fungus culture, ELISA for hormones, autoimmune, Infectious diseases, tumour markers.
Radiology & US Scan
Routine & special radiological testing machine, Treadmill testing machine, Holter monitoring, Bed side cardiac, Refractometer, Defibrillators, Ventilators.
|DNB / RHOT||35|
Other Infrastructure facilities
Industrial hygiene is primarily concerned with the appraisal and control of occupational health hazards that arise from various industrial processes or operations. Industrial hygiene has been defined as Science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of those environmental factors or stress arising in or from the workplace, which may cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or significant discomfort amongst the workers.
The primary responsibility of the industrial hygienist is as follows:
Basically an effective industrial hygiene programme would consist of the application of knowledge to the anticipation and recognition of health hazards arising out of work operations and process, evaluation and measurement of the magnitude of the hazard – based on experience and study and control of the hazards.
The Chief Inspector Of Factories did not have any data in regard to industrial hygiene study/report. However, some information collected during field visit is given below.
Industrial Hygiene Study (TATA MOTORS LTD)
|Sl. No.||Air emission Monitoring: Monitoring schedule as per statutory requirement||Quarterly|
|1.||i.||Ambient Air Quality Monitoring at 4 specified locations within the work premises)||2003 04 In-house||2004 – 05 In-house||2005-06 (till Jan’06)SGS (India) Pvt. Ltd.|
|* In-house Monitoring Parameters: SPM, SO2 and NOx||16 Nos.||16 Nos.||8 Nos.|
|* Monitoring Parameters by M/s. SGS (India) Pvt. Ltd., SPM, RPM, SO2 and NOx||-||-||8 Nos.|
|2.||ii.||Stack Emission: Monitoring schedule as per statutory requirement - Quarterly||2003 04 In-house||2004 – 05 In-house||2005-06 (till Jan’06)SGS (India) Pvt. Ltd.|
|a.||In-house monitoring of chimneys (Stack) Monitoring Parameters: Flue gas Temp., Gas Flow rate, Velocity, SPM, SO2, CO, CO2, O2 Combustion h||20 Nos.||20 Nos.||4|
|b.||Monitoring of chimneys (Stacks) by M/s. SGS (India) Pvt. Ltd., Monitoring Parameters: Flue gas Temp., Gas Flow rate, Velocity, SPM, SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, O2, Combustion h||-||-||30|
|3.||Work-zone environment air quality||2003 04 In-house||2004 – 05 In-house||2005-06 (till Jan’06) SGS (India) Pvt. Ltd.|
|i.||In house monitoring : Total 8 locations (Forge Factory – locations, Foundry Factory – 4 locations,|
Monitoring Parameters: SPM, SO2 and NOx
|16 Nos.||16 Nos.||-|
|ii.||Work-zone environment air quality morning by M/s. SGS (India) Pvt. Ltd., Total 16 locations: (Forge Factory – 4 locations, Foundry Factory – 4 locations, Truck – III Factory (Paint Shop): 2, Stuck – 1 Factory (Assembly Line): 6 Monitoring of 39 nos. of chimneys (stacks)
Monitoring Parameters: SPM, RPM, Silica, Pb, SO2, NOx, VOC (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, Styrene, Trichloro ethane, P-tertbuty1 Toluene)
|Sl. No.||Activities descriptions||Frequency|
|1.||Noise level monitoring|
|2.||Illumination Level check Total points||Quarterly|
This Chapter deals with the management of Occupational Safety and Health at unit level i.e. manufacturing units. The state has total number of 6288 manufacturing units, the breakup of which according to factories registered under section 2(m), section 85 of the Factories Act, 1948 is given in Chapter 4. In order to have a fair idea, about the safety and health status in these units, the following aspects on safety and health have been covered under the chapter:-
There are some statutory requirements as provided under the Factories Act, 1948 and Rules framed there under, for each of the aspects stated above. Items 7.6 to 7.7 are additional requirements exclusively applicable to MAH installations, which are covered by separate set of rules. Each of the aspect with its status has been discussed in the following paragraph.
The provisions of sections 7A(3), and 41-B(2) of The Factories Act requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by the factories meeting of the following criteria:-
In addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories of class or description of factories to comply with the above requirements of Safety Policy if in his opinion it is expedient to do so.
As per the details available 87 units employing more than 250 workers required preparation of Safety Policy, only 5 units have declared the safety policy, which is about 6% of the total. However, all major hazard units have declared safety policy
|Year||MAH Units||Factories employing 250 or more workers|
|Factories Requiring||Factories Having||Factories Requiring||Factories Having|
As per the provisions of Section 40B of the Factories Act, 1948, Safety Officer is required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria:
7.2.1. Units employing more than 1000 workers wherein any manufacturing process or operation is carried on involving any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or diseases or any hazard to health. As per the details available 179 Safety Officers were required to be appointed but 161 Safety Officers were appointed in various factories in the State.
Status of Safety Officers (SO) in factories during 2002, 2003 & 2004
|Year||Factories required SO under 40B1(i)||SO required under 40B1(i)||Factories appointing SO 40B1(i)||SO appointed under 40B1(i)||Factories requiring SO 40B1(ii)||SO required under 40B1(ii)||Factories appointing SO under 40B1(ii)||SO appointed under 40B1(ii)|
The provision of Section 41G of the Factories Act, 1948 require constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:-
As per the information 138 units required constitution of Safety Committee. However, only 83 units have constituted safety Committees.
Constitution of Safety Committee during 2002, 2003
|Year||MAH Units||Factories employing 250 or more workers|
|Factories Requiring||Factories Having||Factories Requiring||Factories Having|
Section 41-C of the Factories Act, 1948 Occupational health centers are required to be set up in the Factories carrying hazardous process as described under section 2(cb) of the Act .No information is available with the Chief Inspector of Factories in respect of Occupational Health Centres in factories However some industries like Heavy Engineering Corporation at Ranchi, TISCO & TATA MOTORS in Jamshedpur, Bokaro Steel Plant in Bokaro have occupational health centers in the factory.
62 Full time medical officers and 76 retainership or part time medical officers have been appointed in factories. 31 factories have ambulance van and 93 factories have ambulance rooms (As per 2003).
|Year||Full time MO Appointed||Retainership or part-time MO Appointed||Factories having Ambulance Van||Factories having Ambulance Rooms|
For the welfare of workers employed in factories Chapter V of the Factories Act, 1948, the following welfare measures are required.
Table - 26 shows the employment position of Welfare Officers in factories during the last 3 years from 2002 to 2004.
Welfare Officer 2002, 2003 & 2004
|Year||Factories Requiring||Factories Having||Officers Required||Officers Appointed|
Hazardous Factories during the year 2002, 2003 & 2004
|Year||No. of Hazardous Factories||No. of Workers|
Inspectors of Factories and Certifying Surgeons during the year 2002, 2003 & 2004
|Year||Inspectors||Specialist Inspector||Certifying surgeon|
Inspectors of Factories and Certifying Surgeons during the year 2002, 2003 & 2004
|Year||Inspectors||Specialist Inspector||Certifying surgeon|
Annual return submitted by the industries during the period from 2002 to 2004 are given below.
TABLE – 30
Annual Return during the year 2002, 2003 & 2004
|Year||No. of Industries required to submit annual return||No. of Industries submitted annual return|
CANTEEN, SHELTERS, REST ROOMS AND CRÈCHES
|Year||Canteen||Shelter, Rest Room,||Crèche|
|Factories Requiring||Factories Having||Factories Requiring||Factories Having||Factories Requiring||Factories Having|
7.5.3 ONSITE EMERGENCY PLAN
As per the provisions of Rule 13 of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard Rules, 1989” an occupier who has the control of the industrial activity as described under the Rule shall prepare an on-site emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on site on which industrial activity is carried on.
As per the information available 17 nos. of MAH installations are required to prepare the on-site emergency plan. However, 17 MAH installations have prepared the plans and submitted to the Director of Factories.
On-site Emergency Plan (In respect of MAH Units) as on 2002, 2003 & 2004
|Year||Factories required to draw||Factories having drawn|
7.5.4 SAFETY REPORTS
As per the provision of rule 10 of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard Rules, 1989” it is mandatory for an occupier to prepare and submit to the Chief Inspector before the commencement of an industrial activity, the Safety Report of the industrial activity to which these rules apply. The Safety Report is to be submitted in prescribed format. Further, it is advisable that all the units after the commencement of the industrial activity shall carry out an independent Safety Audit of the respective industrial activities with the help of an expert not associated with such industrial activities. This will help the management to know the weak points in their system and to take suitable>
7.5.5 RISK ASSESSMENT STUDIES
The HAZOP study (Hazard and operability studies) are carried out in advance on any plant to examine the process or at least the relevant parts of the process to discover how deviation from the intention of design can occur and to decide whether such deviations can give rise to hazardous conditions.
The technique aims to simulate the imagination in a systematic way and is useful in identifying potential hazards in advance and allows the user to take corrective measures.
|Year||Safety Audit Report||Risk Analysis||HAZOP Study|
After the creation of the State of Jharkhand on the15th November 2000, to optimally utilize the available resources of the State in a planned manner and to accelerate the industrial development of the State, an Industrial Policy has been formulated. To achieve expected industrial growth, the districts of the State have been categorized into three categories, so as to capitalize the industrial potential through planned utilization and development of natural and human resources and to gradually increase the employment opportunities. The State has at present three Industrial Area Development Authorities with Head Quarters at Adityapur, Bokaro and Ranchi
Administration and enforcement of Occupational Safety Health Act primarily vested with the State Government because the instruments like policies, legislation etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues. Apart from the Factories Act 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities.
The Act grants OSH authority, among other things, (a) to promulgate, modify and revoke safety and health standards, (b) to conduct inspections and investigations and to issue citations including proposed penalties (c) to require employees to keep records of safety and health data (d) to petition the courts to restrain imminent danger situations and (e) to approve or reject state plans for programme under the Act.
The safety and health at workplace is governed by various statutes in the state depending on the nature of workplace, manufacturing activity and specific aspect of safety and health. Some of the important statutes are given below:-
The Directorate of Factories is under the administrative control of the Department of Labour, Government of Jharkhand. The Directorate of Factories is headed by the Chief Inspector of Factories and responsible for the enforcement of different statutes to ensure safety, health & welfare of workers engaged in manufacturing activities. The different activities undertaken by the department are given below:-
The Directorate enforces provisions contained in the following statutes:-
Activities of the Directorate of Factories are primarily aimed at establishing a safe and healthy work environment in factories with the elimination of every possible accident, Occupational diseases and industrial disasters in and around the factory premise. Ensuring welfare of the workers in factories is also a major concern of this Directorate.
Officer’s strength in the Directorate is given in Table - 34
|Year||Inspectors||Specialist Inspector||Certifying surgeon|
Prosecution launched due to violations of various provisions as observed by officers of the Directorate of Factories during the year 2002-04 are shown below.
Prosecutions and Convictions under Section 92
|Year||Pending from previous year||Launched during the year||Decided during the year||Conviction||Imprisonment||Total fine imposed|
Number of visits to factories by the Inspectors
|Year||Registered factories||Unregistered factories||Non-amenable factories||Total|
|U/S 2 (m)||U/S 85||U/S 2(m)||U/S 85|
|Year||New construction||Additional installation of plans/ machinery||Extension||Others||Total|
Besides Directorate of Factories, following government and non-government organizations have contributions on occupational safety and health of industrial workers in the state.
Jharkhand State Pollution Control Board has come into existence on 14th Dec. 2001 after separation of Jharkhand state from Bihar state. The Organization is a regulatory body dealing with Air Act' 1981, Water Act' 1974, Water Cess Act' 1977, E.P. Act' 1986,Hazardous waste (management and handling)
Rules 1989 and amended in 2000 and other Environmental Acts.
Coal based Thermal Power has emerged as the principal source of power in India and contributes to 70 percent of the total power generation. The anticipated power requirement till 2012 is 1,07,000 MW which would mean about 12,000 MW capacity addition every year. The coal reserves of the country are predominately of lower grades of non-coking and as a result Thermal power stations use high ash, inferior quality non-coking coal. Country's thermal installed capacity as on 31st March 2004 is 77968.53 MW. The coal consumption for thermal power generation is about 300 million tonnes in 2003-04. Use of coal brings in its own share of problems, primarily due to huge amount of ash, which is produced as a by-product of the process of power generation. With the increase in thermal generation, the concern for environmental safeguard is inevitable>
Fly Ash Scenario
In Jharkhand about 9,000 tones of fly ash is being generated everyday from the coal based thermal power plants with present generation of about 1500 MW. Fortunately, the state is utilizing over fifty percent of the fly ash through environmentally sound techniques such as abandoned mine reclamation, Cement Manufacturing, Brick manufacturing etc. Damodar valley Corporation is reclaiming Central Coalfield Limited (CCL) abandoned mine using its pond ash, Tata Power at Jhamshedpur is feeding all its fly ash to Lafarge Cement, ACC and other cement plants. JharkhandState Pollution Control Board has taken a lead in the utilization of fly ash in the Sate with the co-operation of Thermal Power Plants, Mining Industries, Cement Industries, Brick manufacture etc.
Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India has issued notification dated 14th Sept. 1999 for the utilization of 100 percent fly ash in phased manner by 2010. Following broad areas have been identified and specific time frame has been provided for the disposal of fly ash in environmentally sound techniques: -
Use of fly ash and bottom ashin manufacturing of bricksand other construction activities.
Thermal Power Plants are given responsibility to utilize 100 percent fly ash by 2010.
Fly ash can be used for the reclamation of abandoned mines, low-lying area, sea.
Fly Ash Mission, a technology Project in mission Mode is being implemented with participation and close association ofMinistry of Environment and Forest, Ministry of Power, Thermal Power Stations, NTPC, R&D Organization and Industry.
Brick Manufacturing: Demand of building bricks has increased many folds during the past 2-3 decades in almost all parts of the country. In recent times excessive use of argillaceous mass by construction section is posing serious threat to the environmental and ecological balance in many part of the country on one hand while generationof huge quantities of industrial wastes has further worsened the state affairs.
Advantage of making clay fly ash bricks:
Fuel saving during burning operation of bricks.
Reduction in drying/firing losses of bricks.
Improvement of strength of bricks in black/red soils.
Better Thermal insulation property.
Reduction in dead load of brick masonry structure.
Substantial saving of clay.
Indian Road Congress has issued guidelines/ specification for the unitization of fly ash for the construction of roads or flyover embankments through IRC specification No. SP: 58 of 2001.
Use of Fly Ash in construction of embankment and highways
Reclamation of open cast mines and stowing of underground mines using fly ash is a major area for the utilization of fly ash. Thermal Power Plants located nearer to the mine pit head are having advantages of using there empty trucks or wagons for the transportation of fly ash back to the mine voidhave exploited this opportunity inJharkhand and else where.
Activities of Confederation of Indian Industries in the State of Jharkhand on Occupational Safety and Health are given below:
Joint committee on Safety, Health & Environment in the Steel Industry (JCSSI) was formed in 1973 with a prime objective of safeguarding our valuable human resource against possible hazards in the industry. This is a unique forum at Industry level, consisting members from National Trade Union (From Steel Plant/Units), Management Representative & Experts from related areas like NSC, RLI, Environment etc.
Presently SAIL, TISCO, RINL, Essar Steel, Ispat Industries & NINL are corporate members of this committee.
At present there are 50 members in the committee, which includes 4 committee Executives, 3 Expert Members, 20 Trade Union representative (Including Vice-Chairman, TU) & 28 Management Representative.
Shri K. K. Dhanna, Director (Tech & Com.) SAIL is the Chairman of the committee & Shri Shashikant, Executive Director (Safety) SAIL & Dr. M. K. Pandhe, President CITU is the Vice-Chairman representing Management & Trade Union respectively. Shri V. K. Jain, GM (Safety), SSO is the Member Secretary & it’s office is situated at SAIL Safety Organisation, 2nd floor Ispat Bhavan, P.O. Doranda, Ranchi – 834 002.
Activities of Joint Committee on Safety in Steel Industry on Occupational Safety & Health are given below:
During the study, the team visited a few organizations like Tata Steel, Tata Motors, Waxpol, Usha Martin, Garden Reach Ship Builders & Engineers dealing with occupational safety and health in the manufacturing sector with a view to establish inventory of occupational safety and health information in the state of Jharkhand. The activities of the departments, and resources available at their disposal were examined to determine the problems faced by the organizations in the matters of occupational safety and health and further resources needed in order to effectively manage occupational safety and health at the state level.
The scope of the study was limited to cover the organizations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident forms. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, Site appraisal Committee, details of safety reports, crèches, etc. as per the provisions of the Factories Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was outside the defined scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, the more elaborate in-depth study is required to be taken up to get comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.
This may lead to better status of safety and health management in factories. It is also recommended that there should be better interaction between Factory Inspectors and Safety Officers through discussions on the ways and means for improving the safety, health and working conditions in their factories.
|1.||Infectious and parastic diseases contracted in an occupation where there is a particular risk of contamination.|
|2.||Diseases caused by work in compressed air.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|3.||Diseases caused by lead or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|4.||Poisoning by nitrous fumes.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|5.||Poisoning by organphosphorus compound||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|1.||Diseases caused by phosphorus or toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|2.||Diseases caused by mercury or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|3.||Diseases caused by benzene or its toxic homologues.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|4.||Diseases caused by nitro and amino derivatives of benzene or its homologues.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|5.||Diseases caused by chromium or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|6.||Diseases caused by arsenic or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|7.||Diseases caused by radioactive substances and ionising radiations.||All work involving exposure to the reaction of radioactive substances or ionising radiations.|
|8.||Primary epithelomatous cancer of the skin caused by tar, pitch bitumen, mineral oil, anthracene or the compounds, products or residues of these substances||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|9.||Diseases caused toxic halogen derivatives by hydrocarbons (of the aliphatic and aromatic series).||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|10.||Diseases caused by carbon disulphide.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|11.||Occupational cataract due to infra-red radiations.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|12.||Diseases caused by manganese or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|13.||Skin diseases caused by physical, chemical or biological agents not include in other items.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|14.||Hearing impairment caused by noise.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|15.||Poisoning by dinitrophenol or a homologue or by substituted dinitrophenol or by the salts of such substances.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|16.||Diseases caused by beryllium or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|17.||Diseases caused by cadmium or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|18.||Occupational asthma caused by recognised sensitising agents inherent to the work process.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|19.||Diseases caused by fluorine or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|20.||Diseases caused by nitroglycerine or other nitroacid esters.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|21.||Diseases caused by alcohols and ketones.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|22.||Diseases caused by asphyxiants; carbon monoxide, and its toxic derivatives, hydrogen sulphide.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|23.||Lung cancer and mesotheliomas caused by asbestos.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|24.||Primary neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder or the kidneys or the ureter.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|1.||Pneumoconiosis caused by sclerogenic mineral dust (silicosis, anthraoosilicosis asbestosis) and silico-tuberculosis provided that silicosis is an essential factor in causing the resultant incapacity or death.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|2.||Bagassosis||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|3.||Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by cotton, flax hemp and sisal dust (Byssinosis)||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|4.||Extrinsic allergic alvoelities caused by the inhalation of organic dusts.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|
|5.||Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by hard metals.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned|