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Introduction

INTRODUCTION

In the present era of globalization and opening up of the Indian economy, there is a flow of new technology, products and resources to India. This influx with the modem technology is also bringing with it associated problems. The problems are more complex when the issue of management of safety, health and environment is concerned. This necessitates designing of newer policies and programmes. For the management of occupational safety and health through various instruments, such as, policies and programmes, it becomes essential to base these instruments on sound footing. This requires an assessment of the present status of occupational safety and health in the country. Presently information in this area is not up-to-date and readily available for the policy makers. A national inventory on capabilities and management of occupational safety and health will be of great help for designing and implementing various instruments to protect the safety and health of the large work force working in various sectors of the economy. India is a large country and building up such an inventory would be a monumental task and therefore needs to be done in a phased manner keeping in mind the various constraints.

India is a member of the International Labour Organisation and has ratified a number of ILO conventions. As a result, major part of the ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases is being followed along with the Indian Standard IS-3786, which is on the similar lines of the ILO Code of Practice. However, there is a delay at the unit level as well as at the district level on the part of the industrial organizations and enforcing agencies in collection, processing and dissemination of the information

As such a pilot project was taken up for the state of Kerala with the objective to collect and compile various information on occupational safety and health and dissemination of information regarding extent of compliance with the important provisions under the Factories Act, 1948 and the rules framed there under including system of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases as per the ILO Code of Practice at the unit and the state level.

Maharashtra is one of the state of the project. This is the most industrially advanced state. This project work has been conducted by the Safety Division of Central Labour Institute, Mumbai under the guidance of the Director General, DGFASLI and the assistance £Tom the Directorate of Industrial Safety and Health, Maharashtra. The activities of the project have been divided in the following categories:

  • Background information about the State of Maharashtra : Deals with the demographic and geographic characteristics of the State of Maharashtra, population in different districts and major occupations of the people.
  • Economic Activities: Deals with the various aspects of economic sectors in the state, their value of production, employment generated and contribution to the GDP.
  • Activities in manufacturing sector: Deals with the different activities carried out in the manufacturing sector as per the National Industrial Code, value of production, employment generation, etc.
  • Occupational injuries and diseases: Deals with the analysis of the occupational injuries - fatal and non-fatal and cases of occupational diseases in the manufacturing sector.
  • Management of occupational Safety and Health: Deals with the infrastructure and resources available in the unit level and at the state level for managing the crucial issue of occupational safety and health.
  • Resources available and needed for the management of occupational safety and health: Based on the analysis of occupational injuries and diseases and the capabilities available in the state of Maharashtra for the management of occupational safety and health, an attempt is made to assess the resources required for the better management of occupational safety and health.

For the data collection, the task force made field visit of the state capital Mumbai and the industrial area around it during January 2004 to September, 2004. The information pertaining to various economic sectors was collected by visiting each of the departments, having detailed discussions with the respective heads and referring to the annual returns available for the year 2001 of these departments. The information related with the manufacturing sectors were collected from the annual returns submitted by the factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948. The data related to the occupational injuries and diseases were analyzed by studying the accident forms and recording them on to the data sheets specifically designed for this purpose. The industry-wise, cause-wise details of accidents were obtained by developing suitable>

For the assessment of infrastructure available and capabilities of the organizations institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health, the profile programme on the similar lines as that developed by ILO was used

Data collection and analysis was completed in specific time frame because of active co-operation from various people involved with the project.

Background information

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

1. INTRODUCTION

Under the Bombay Re-organization Act, 1960, Maharashtra came into existence on May 1, 1960 with the predominant Marathi speaking areas of Hyderabad (Marathawada) and Madhya Pradesh (Vidarbha) constituting the new State.

The state is surrounded by the Arabian sea in the west, by Gujarat in the north­east, Madhya Pradesh in the north, Andhra Pradesh in the south-east, and Karnataka and Goa in the south.

2. DEMOGRAPHIC CONTEXT

The total population of Maharashtra is 9.67 crores (as per Census 2001), out of which 5.03 crores are males and 4.64 crores are females. The sex ratio (number of females per 1000 males) is 922. Maharashtra is the second highest literate major state in India having a literacy rate of 77.3%.

2.2.1 Towns and Villages:

The State of Maharashtra has a total number of 43722 villages, which includes all the districts in the state. The total number of towns is 378 in the state. It is shown in the table>

TABLE – 1

1Revenue Divisions06
2Districts35
3Tahsils353
4Inhabited villages43722
5Towns378

Source Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2001-02

Reference Period : 2001

2.2.2 Area and Population

The total area of the state is about 308000 sq. km. and has a population of about 96812000, as per the 2001 census. The density of population is 315 per sq. km. with male population of 50334000 and female 46478000. The rural population is 55778000, which is more than the urban population of 41101000 (which is 36.87% of the total population). Number of main workers was found to be 3 1006000. The Birth Rate (per thousand) was 20.7, Death Rate 7.5 (per thousand) and Infant Mortality Rate was 45.00 in the year 200] (per thousand of live birth) as revealed in the table below:

TABLE-2

1Area (in lakh Sq. Km) 3.08
2Population (in crores) 9.68
3Density (per Sq. Km) 314
4Male Population (in crores) 5.03
5Female Population (in crores) 4.64
6Rural Population (in crores) 5.57
7Urban Population (in crores) 4.11
8No. of main workers (thousand) 31006
9Birth Rate (Per thousand) 20.70
10Death Rate (Per thousand) 7.50
11Infant Mort. Rate (Per thousand live birth) 45.00

Source : Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2003-04

Reference Period : 2001

2.2.3 Agriculture

The State has a total reporting area of 307583 hundred hectares. The area under forest was 52176 hundred hectares. The net area for cultivation comes to 176310 hundred hectares. It is shown in Table-3.

TABLE- 3

Area in Hundred Hectares

1Total Reporting Area307583
2Area Under Forest52176
3Land not available for cultivation17222
4Permanent pastures and other grazing land13410
5Land under miscellaneous tree crops and groves not included in the net area sowed2454
6Net area sown176310
7Area sown more than once47621
8Gross cropped area224047
9Gross Area irrigated (thousand hectares)3647
10% of Gross irrigated to gross cropped area16.4

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2003-04 Commissioner of Agriculture, Maharashtra State

Reference Period : 2001-02

2.24 Manufacturing Industries

28324 Factories were registered under the Factories Act, 1948 as on 31 December, 2001 with 1201000 workers employed. The total number of Small Scale Units in the year 2001 was 138000.

TABLE- 4

1No. of Factories Registered under Factories Act28324
2Estimated average No. of daily workers employed in regd. Factories1201000
3NO.of S.S.Ind.Regd. with Ind. Deptt.13 8000

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2001-02

Reference Period 2001

2.2.5 Power Generation

Electricity is one of the crucial inputs in the process of economic development. The performance of all important sectors in the economy, ranging from agriculture to commerce and industry, depends vitally on the availability, cost and quality of power. Since Maharashtra is highly industrialized and urbanized state in the country, the demand for electricity in the state is very high.

In Maharashtra, power is supplied by various agencies. Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB) plays the most significant role in the generation and distribution of power in the state. Apart from MSE, licensees like, Tata Electric and Bombay Suburban Electric Supply (BSES) Companies have been permitted to generate and distribute electricity in certain areas. Besides, the state also receives power from Central Government Power Projects as its share.

The installed capacity of electricity generation in 2001-02 was 12963 MW.

TABLE - 5A

Installed Capacity of Electricity Generation
Type of Generation(MW)
AIn the State 
IThennal8075
11Hydro2875
IIINatural gas1820
IVNuclear (State's share)190
  12963
BState's share in NTPC/NPC2185
Total (A + B)15148

Source :Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2002-03

Reference Period: As on 31-3-2002

TABLE - 5 – B

Generation of Electricity

Million (KWH)

 Type2000-012001-02
1Thermal4937752647
2Hydro48894979
3Natural Gas69435235
4Nuclear10971138
5Othersll139
 Total62,31764,138

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2002-03

TABLE-5- C

Consumption of Electricity
 Type2000-012001-02% Change
1Domestic11172119016.53
2Commercial410543936.99
3Industrial1836317435(-)5.05
4Agriculture99408730(-)12.17
5Public Lighting55164817.54
6Railways158116403.73
7Public Water Works119912242.11
8Miscellaneous378367(-)2.94
 Total47,28946,338(-)2.01

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2001-02

Reference Period: 2001

MSEB received total revenue (excluding subsidy) of Rs.12702 crore during 2001­02 and the total expenditure during this period was Rs.13241 crore.

2.2.6 Literacy and Education

The literacy rate. in the state was 77.3 % which stands as second major literate state in the country. The males were 86.3% and females 67.5% in the total literacy rate.

TABLE - 6A

AreaCensus 2001
PersonsMalesFemales
Total77.386.367.5
Rural70.882.259.1
Urban85.891.479.3

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2001-02

Reference Period :2001

Education plays an important role in the economic development of the national as well as the state.

Below mentioned Table 6-B reflects the increasing number of students and teachers in different levels of education

TABLE - 6B

Number of Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools and Enrolment in Maharashtra

(Teachers and Enrolment in thousand)

 Type of Educational InstitutionsNumber (2001-02)
1Primary
 1Schools66369
2Enrolment12065 I
3Teachers314
2Secondary
 1Schools15070
2Enrolment8145
3Teachers226
3Higher Secondary (Std. XI & XII)
 1Schools I Jr. Colleges3981
2Enrolment1485
3Teachers32

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2001-02

Reference Period: 2001

TABLE -6C

Number of Technical Colleges/Institutions in the State and
their In Capacity for the year 2001-02
 InstitutionCapacity
Engineering
Diploma18433270
Graduate14041000
Post Graduate322076
Architecture
Graduate311277
Post Graduate232
Management Science845960
Hotel Management & Catering Technology8420
Pharmaceutical Science
Diploma683920
Graduate512500
Post Graduate9148
Industrial Training Institutes61392384

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2001-02

2.2.7 Public Health

The emphasis of the Public Health Sector is on the consolidation of infra-structural facilities such as sub-centers, primary health centers and community health care centers, so as to reach health are services to all corners of the state. The problem of malaria, gastro enteritis and other water born diseases are prevalent during monsoon season. To control these and other diseases various health care programmes are being implemented. By the end of the year 2001, there were Public and Government aided 1102 Hospitals, 1544 dispensaries, 1768 primary health care centers and 9725 sub-centers in the state implementing these programmes which has reduced death rates and infant mortality rate considerably since the year 1999.

2.2.8 Transport and Communication

The transport sector covers roads, road transport, motor vehicles, railways, ports, civil aviation and the communication. Communication sector covers port and telecommunication.

The total road length in the state by the end of March, 2002 was 2.66 lakh km. This total length is maintained by various agencies, viz. Public Works Department (PWD), Zilla Parishad (ZP), Municipal Corporation (BMC), etc. The total length maintained in the year 2001 was 2.23 lakh km. The number of motor vehicles on road as on 31st March, 2002 was 74.13 lakh and the number of motor vehicles per lakh population is 7506.

TABLE – 8

Motor Vehicles in Maharashtra and India as on 31-3-2000

 ItemMaharashtraIndia
1No.of Motor vehicles on road (in lakh)61.14483.93
2No.of vehicles as per lakh population64294790

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2002-03

Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC)

The total traffic receipt by MSRTC during the year 2001-02 were Rs.2589 crore registering an increase of 4.38% over the previous year. During the year 2001-02 the revenue receipt of the state from taxation on motor vehicles has increased by 13.97% to Rs.995 crore from Rs.873 crores in the previous year.

2.2.8.1 Ports

The state has 720 Km. of coastal line. Along this coast line, there are two major ports, namely, Mumbai and Nhawa-Sheva (JNPT) and 48 notified minor ports. The Mumbai Port Trust handling passenger as well as cargo traffic at Mumbai Port. The Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) is handling cargo traffic at Nhawa­ Sheva Port. In order to develop multi-user port facilities capable of handling all types of cargo like bulk and break bulk, petroleum and chemical containers, the state Government decided to develop the ports, viz. Anganvel, Jaygod Ganesh Gule, etc. through Maharashtra Maritime Board (established in 1996). Out of above 7 ports, state Government has decided to develop Rewas-Aware and Dighi ports in the first phase.

The Mumbai Port Trust has handled 247 lakh tones of cargo comprising of 81.3 lakh tones of coastal and 165.6 lakh tones of overseas cargo during 2001-02. Out of total cargo handled in 2001-02, 158.0 lakh tones related to imports and 88.8 lakh tones related to exports. During 2001.02 the passenger traffic at Mumbai Port was 8.3 thousands of which 0.3 thousand were coastal and 8 thousand were overseas passengers. JNPT handled 225 lakh tones of cargo during 2001-02. The 48 minor ports together handled 131.91 lakh passenger traffic during 2001.02, of which 112.47 lakh was by mechanized vessels and 19.44 lakh tones was by non­-mechanized vessels. The cargo handled by 48 minor ports during 2001-02 was 49.77 lakh tones out of which 44.82 lakh pertained to imports and 4.95 lakh tones pertained to exports.

There were 40 reportable accidents occurred in 2001 out of which 5 were fatal cases at Mumbai Port.

2.2.8.2Communication

At the end of March, 2002, the number of Post Offices in the rural areas of the state was 11,355 and in the urban areas, it was 1478. BSNL and MTNL have provided 60.741akh telephone connections in the state by March, 2002. Out of the above figure, 17.6% were in rural areas and 82.4% in urban areas. Out of 60.74 lakh, 40% were in Mumbai alone and are managed by MTNL

2.3 ECONOMIC SCENARIO

2.3.1 Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP)

The preliminary estimate of GSDP of Maharashtra in 2001-02 at constant prices (1993-94) was Rs.1.66,516 crore against Rs.l,55,895 crore in 2000-01. It has reflected an impressive growth of 6.8% over that of 2000-01. At current prices, GSDP in 2001-02 is estimated at Rs.2,71,406 crores as against Rs.2,38,875 crore in 2000-01, showing an increase of 13.6% during the year.

TABLE - 9

Sectoral Growth Rates of GSDP for Maharashtra at Constant (1993-94) prices

 SectorPercentage Change over previous year
  2000-012001-02
Primary Sector(- )5.63.0
1Agriculture(-)6.83.3
2Forestry and logging6.2(- )4.9
3Fishing(-)6.29.2
4Mining and Quarrying6.72.4
Secondary Sector(-)11.24.0
1Manufacturing (a) Registered
(b) Un-registered
(-)14.5
17.1
3.1
3.0
2Construction8.611.1
3Electricity, Gas & Water Supply(- )2.0(-)1.1
Tertiary Sector2.39.6
1Railways4.35.9
2Transport and storage5.14.7
3Communications10.912.5
4Trade Hotels and Restaurants2.68.8
5Banking and insurance(- )2.16.8
6Real state, Ownership of dwelling and business services4.64.4
7Public Administration( - )0.94.2
8Other services5.927.1
Total(-)3.46.8

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2002-03

Reference Period: 2001

The preliminary estimate of Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) of Maharashtra at Constant (1993-94) prices for 2001-02 was Rs.147359 crore, showing an increase of 7.0% over that of Rs.137690 crore in 2000-01. The state income at current price for 2001-02 was Rs.241877 crore which was more than 13.5% than that of Rs.213040 crore for 2000-01. During 2001-02, income from primary, secondary and tertiary sectors increased by Rs.1922 crore, RS.7707 crore and Rs.19208 crore, respectively. This in turn resulted in an increase of Rs.2993 crore in state income.

The per capita state income (per capita NSDP) at constant (1993-94) prices is estimated at Rs.15070 crore for 2001-02 as against Rs.14335 crore for 2000-01, registering a growth of 5.1% during the year. The per capita state income at current prices is estimated at Rs. 24736 crore in 2001.02 against Rs.22179 crore for the previous year, showing an increase of 11.5% during the year.

The sectoral composition of the state income has undergone considerable changes during 1960-61 to 2001-02. During this period the share of primary sector has declined from 34.4% to 16%. The share of tertiary sector has increased from 39.9% to 58.3%.

2.3.2 AGRICULTURE

Contribution to State Income: Agriculture and allied activities are important in state economy as about 65% of the population in the state is dependent on agriculture for livelihood.

Area Under Cultivation : The geographical area of the state is 3.08 lakh sq. lan. out of which the net area under cultivation is about 1.79 lakh sq. km., i.e. 57.5%. This proportion in the national level is less at 43.4%. However, the proportion of gross irrigated area to gross cropped area at national level is 35.7% when the same ratio at Maharashtra is 16.4%. Thus 83.6% of the agricultural area is directly dependent upon rail water. The net area sown was 1 7.619 thousand hectares in 2001. The gross cropped area was 22381 thousand hectares. Gross irrigated area was 3667 thousand hectares.

Major Crops:

Table-10

Agricultural Area and Areas for Major Crops in 2001- 02
AgricultureArea(thousand hectares)Year 2001-02
 17619Production Thousand Tonnes
Gross Cropped Area­22381
Gross Irrigated Area3667
Rice15142651
Wheat7761077
Jowar51373910
Bajri1399831
All Cereals94119305
All Pulses33881880
All food grains1279811185
Sugarcane area Sugarcane harvested area664
578
45140
Cotton3105457
Ground Nut429492

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2002-03

Reference Period :2001

Table - II

Area and Production of Some Main Horticulture Crops in the State

Name of the Fruit Crop2001-02Area in 00 Hectares Production in '00' Tonnes
Banana72143313
Orange1542
8331
Grapes324
9370
Mango4095
5590
Cashew Nut1533
1252

Source : Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2002-03

Period :2001

State Income: Conventional food grain crop yield only Rs.4 thousand to RS.12 thousand per hectare. As against this the yield values per hectare for some main fruit crops based on data of 2001-02 were as follows:

GrapesRs.2.59 Iakh
Sweet orangeRs.3.63 Iakh
BananaRs.l.20 lakh
MangoRs.1.19 lakh

2.3.3 FORESTS

The area under forest in the state at the end of 2001-02 was 62.9 thousand sq. km. which accounted for 20.1 % of the geographical area of the state. Of this, 55.9 thousand sq. km. area was managed by Forest Department, 2.4 thousand sq. km. by Revenue Department and 3.3 thousand sq. km. by Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra (FDCM). As per the seventh assessment of forest cover 4sm (1999), 57% of the total forest area was under dense forest, 42.8% (classified as open forest) was comparatively less dense cover due to degradation and 0.2% as mangrove.

Forest Produce: The expected production of timber in 2001-02 is about 1.21 lakh cubic meters valued at Rs.67 crore as compared to 1.67 lakh cubic meters in 2000-01 valued at Rs.84.7 crore. The expected production of fire - wood in 2001­02 is 4. 17 cubic meters, valued at Rs. 13.3 crore as compared to 2.48 lakh cubic meters produced in 2000-01 valued at Rs.13. 7 crore. The estimated value of minor forest produce in 2001-02 is Rs.66.8 crore in which tendu leaves and bamboo accounts for Rs.38.8 crore and 26.4 crore, respectively.

2.3.4 FISHERIES

Maharashtra has a coastal line of about 720 km, rivers of about 3.2 thousand km. and canals of about 12.8 thousand Ian. length. The area suitable for exploitation of marine fish is 1.12 lakh sq. km., for inland fisheries it is 3.20 thousand sq. km. (i.e. 3.20 lakh hectares (Government land 10 thousand hectares and private land 8.6 thousand hectares). The potentials offish catch has been estimated at 6.3 lakh tones from marine area per year.

The number of boats used in the state for marine fishing was 21,539 in 2001-02 as compared to 20,240 in 2000-01. The estimated marine fish catch was 4.14 lakh tones in 2001-02. Out of this 2.82 lakh tones were used in fresh form, 0.07 lakh tones was sent for salting and 1.25 lakh tones for sun drying. In 2001-02 fish to the tune of 97 thousand tones, valued at Rs.785 crore was exported. In marine area, construction of 6 jetties is in progress.

The approximate gross value of the marine and inland fish catch taken together in the state as per current price during 2001-02 was Rs. 1266 crore.

2.3.5 MINERALS

The potential mineral bearing area in the state is about 58 thousand sq. km. (i.e. about 19% of total geographical area of the state) which is mainly concentrated in the districts of Bhandara, Chandrapur, Sindhudurg, Thane, Kolhapur, Nagpur, etc. The major minerals found in the state according to their production are coal, limestone, bauxite, manganese ore, silica sand and laterite. The details are given in the following table-l 2.

Sr.No.Major MineralsProduction in lakh tonnes% Increase or Decrease over the previous year 2000-01
1Coal308.30(+)7.2
2Laterite1.1741.0
3Manganese Ore3.886.9
4Bauxite10.785.0
5Silica Sand1.25(-)25.6
6Lime Stone62.493.0
2.3.6 MANUFACTURING SECTOR

Maharashtra has succeeded in achieving high levels of industrialization and the state has been identified as the country's industrial power=house. With less than 10% of population of the country, the state accounts for nearly 20% of the gross value added by India's industrial sector. The manufacturing sector is the major constituent in the industrial sector. The share of this sector in the state domestic product is about 20% which is the second highest after agriculture as per ASI 2001-02

The Index number of Industrial Production (IIP) that covers mining, manufacturing and electricity sector is a means of industrial growth in the country. IIP for the 2001-02 was 180.5 as compared to the base year (1993-94) of 79%. As per ASI (Annual Survey of Industries) 2001-02 results, the per capita net value added in the state (Rs.3005) was 2.2 times that of All India Per Capita Net Value Added (Rs.1.379). The net value added by all industries covered under ASI in the state during 2001-02 was Its. 29,901 crore which was lower than 2.1 % than that of the year 2000-01.

TABLE - 13

Some Economic Indicators Relating to Industries
 Indicator2000-012001-02
1Labour Productivity Ratio
Maharashtra5.245.39
India4.934.95
2Output per worker (Rs. 10 lakh)
Maharashtra22.0225.16
India15.1316.15
3Annual wages per worker (in Rs.)
Maharashtra6875867360
India4783548691

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2003-04

2.3.7 TOURISM SECTOR

2.3.7.1 Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) functions in tourism sector is the third largest economic sector in the Maharashtra State. The main function of the sector are infrastructure development pertaining to tourism, promotion of tourism by way of advertising in tourism related magazines, through T. V. channels, Website, participating in national and international programs and presentations and events.

As its name suggests, Maharashtra-the Great Land, has a great diversity of riches to offer the tourists. Whether it is Kolhapuri Chappals or the Paithani silk sari bordered with opulent zari or its coastal gourmetics, handicrafts, culture and cuisine have won aficionados from allover the world. To those who come to India, often it is BOMBAY (Mumbai), the "New York of the East" and the "Gate way of India" that offers a cosmopolitan bhelpuri of elements. Mumbai prepares you for the esoteric pleasures of Maharashtra - long stretches of coastal line and treks in rugged fort.

2.3.7.2 Contribution to State Income: The foreign exchange coming from tourism sector was around Rs. 1037.27 crore for the year 2000-01.

2.3.7.3 Employment: Tourism is highly labour intensive as compared to any other industry in the state. !n the state of Maharashtra around 5% people of total population are employed in tourism sector. The total number of employees in MTDC are, however, 476 as per official records.

2.3.7.4 Area Covered: The whole state of Maharashtra

2.3.7.5 Accident Occurred: Only a few drowning cases of tourists while bathing in the sea and some deaths due to road accidents happened during the year 2001.

2.3.8 ROAD TRANSPORT SECTOR

2.3.8.1 In the state of Maharashtra, the Directorate of Transport is the regulatory authority for Road Transport in accordance with the provisions of Motor Vehicle Act, 1988 and Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989. Maharashtra has a network of roads having a total length of 13.44 lakh kilometer as on 31st March, 2002. The roads are maintained by various agencies like PWD, Panchayats, Municipalities, Forest Department. However, the major function in road sector is done by Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC).

Table-14 reveals the functions of MSRTC including the tariff of Rs 2589.31 crores which goes toward state income.

TABLE – 14

Operational Statistics of Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation
 ItemUnitYearPercentage change over 2000-01
2000-012001-02
1Routes operated at the end of the yearNumber1967919I20(-)1.27
2Route length at the end of the yearLakh km13.5713.44(-)0.96
3Average effective kms operated per dayLakh49.1648.84(-)0.65
4Average number of passengers carried per dayLakh65.1162.17(-)4.52
5Average number of buses owned by the CorporationNumber16916]6794(-)0.72
6Average no. of buses on road per dayNumber1599015805(-)0.72 I
7Average fleet utilizationPer cent94.1194.11--
8Average seat capacity utilization of buses on roadPer cent59.7560.050.30
9Total traffic receipts during the yearCrore Rs2,480.612,589.314.38

2.3.8.2 Employment: Besides the staff employed for administration work in the department and its sub-offices, executive staff also are involved in maintaining discipline on road by checking traffic violation, etc. and evasion of motor vehicle taxes by enforcing various provisions of the M.V. Act, 1988, Central Motor Vehicle Rules, 1989. Due to liberalization of grant of various types of permits, lot of staff employment has been generated as the unemployed have been encouraged to buy vehicles to ply as public service vehicles which are being driven by owners themselves.

2.3.8.3 Area Covered: Mostly the urban area of the state is covered. All the cities, townships and Municipal Corporations are covered by D. of T.

2.3.8.4 Contribution to State Income: The revenue collected by MSRTC was Rs.2589.31 crores. In addition to this the Toll Tax collected by BMC authorities for plying the vehicles through flyovers/bridges was to the tune of few thousand cores of rupees for the for the same year.

2.3.8.5 Accident Occurred: The number of accident occurred on road in the state of Maharashtra in 2001 is given in Table - 15.

Table – 15

FatalNon-FatalTotal
104223588746309

Source: National Crime Bureau

The above figure is the highest in comparison to Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.

Manufacturing Sector

MANUFACTURING SECTOR

3.1 MAJOR INDUSTRIES

In the State of Maharashtra there were 28,324 working factories registered under the Factories Act, 1948 in the year 2001. The total employment was 1201000. The above figure is inclusive of large and medium industries as on 31-12-2001. Important characteristics of Industries in Maharashtra for the year 2001-02 are given in table>

(Rs. In crore)

Industry GroupYearFixed CapitalWorking CapitalWages to WorkersOutput Value
Food products, beverages and tobacco products2000-017129244181031445
2001-027019170382129067
Textiles, wearing apparels, etc.2000-017350(-)52790015137
2001-026386(-)32872912011
Leather and leather products2000-0137619150
2001-0217356143
Wood and wood products2000-012545]16289
2001-021074814272
Paper and paper products,publishing, printing, etc.2000-01352810402976249
2001-02338711062085860
Refined petroleum, rubber,plastic products2000-017280210237629450
2001-026610152735427069
Chemicals and chemical products2000-0112858456492432876
2001-0214043474089932519
Non-metallic mineral products2000-0127447381423348
2001-0228905941463285
Basic metals, recycling2000-017836(-)80227910761
2001-028792(-)131327811307
Fabricated metal products2000-01188510572565321
2001-022356792495184
Machinery and equipment2000-017827471996426500
2001-026476332289421624
Medical, precision and optical instruments, etc.2000-0120617043836
2001-02433338421180
Motor vehicles, trailers and other transport equipment2000-017848109165513720
2001-027049103163815266
Furniture2000-0168115582146132
2001-022563326621813163
Others2000-0159863364581
2001-02775288524495
TOTAL2000-0168063183275832186795
2001-0268903164375548182533

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2003-04

Percentage Distribution of Factories by size class of employment in selected industry groups in Maharashtra 2001-02 is given in the table.

TABLE - 1

Size class of employmentFood, bewerage & tobacco productsTextiles & wearing apparels, etc.Paper & paper products, publishing, printing, etcChemicals & chemical productsRefined petroleum, rubber, plastic productsBasic metal, recyclingFabricated metal productsMachinery & equipmentsMotor, vehicles, trailers & other transportAll industries
Below 2052.548.753.644.965.047.474.652.549.155.1
20-4922.924.131.926.219.035.015.328.725.124.2
50-997.613.16.914.19.67.75.47.914.09.7
100-1996.06.65.28.32.65.22.26.15.65.5
200-4994.64.82.04.42.93.31.73.64.33.4
500 & above6.32.60.52.20.91.40.81.31.92.0
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Source : Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2003-04

Factory employment in Major Industry Divisions in Maharashtra has been shown in the table>

 Industry DivisionAverage daily employment(No.) 2001Percentage to Total (2001)
AConsumer Goods Industries4,53,42037.8
1Food products, beverages and tobacco products1,66,23513.8
2Textiles (including wearing apparels)2,16,69918.0
3Wood and wood products15,4421.3
4Paper and paper products, publishing, printing, etc.52,5044.4
5Tanning and dressing of leather and leather products2,5400.2
BIntermediate Goods Industries3,46,20828.8
6Chemicals and chemical products1,29,93810.8
7Petroleum, rubber, plastic products53,5144.5
8Non-metallic mineral products31,7052.6
9Basic metal and metal products1,31,05110.9
CCapital Goods Industries3,14,05126.2
10Machinery and equipments (other than transport equipments)1,724.314.3
11Transport equipments1,02,5148.5
12Other manufacturing industries39,5243.3
DOthers  
13Others86,96272
 Total12,00,641100.0

Source : Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2003-04

3.2 INDUSTRIAL UNREST, STRIKES, LOCKOUTS AND MANDAYS LOST

(Workers affected and mandays lost - in hundred)

 ItemsYears
200020012002
1Number of strikes and lock-outs855943
2Workers affected51023779
3Mandays Lost46,04252,30941,788

Source: Commissioner of Labour, Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai

Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2003-04.

Manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948

Manufacturing. is the largest economic sector in the State of Maharashtra. It covers units those registered under the Factories Act, 1948 as well as those not registered. As per the provisions of the Act, a manufacturing unit is to be registered if manufacturing process is carried on with the aid of power and 10 or more persons are employed or manufacturing process is carried on without the aid of power and 20 or more persons are employed.

4.1 As on 31-12-2001, there were 33396 registered factories

4.1.1 Out of the 33396 factories registered under the Factories Act 1948, 28324 factories were working. The table>

TABLE –1

Categories of factoriesNo. of factories on register at the beginning of the periodNo. of factories newly licensed & registeredNo. of factories removed during the periodNo. of factories on register at the end of the periodNo. of working factoriesNo. of factories submitting returnsAverage daily no. of workers in factories submitting returnsNo. of factories not submitting returnsAverage daily employment in factories not submitting returnsTotal estimated average no. of workers (8+10)
1234567891011
Factories under Sec. 2m(i)221271469119822398199069002747082109044096441156726
Factories under Sec. 2m(ii)282162227620477219012729135103
Factories under Sec. 8512194960243210722821439281850942862030338812
Total3460324453652333962832413007767781153174328601200641

Out of 28,324 working factories, 13007 factories submitted annual returns while 15,317 factories did not submit the same during the year 2001.

4.1.2 Employment in Registered Factories: The details of employment of Male and Female workers engaged in major manufacturing industries registered under the Factories Act, 1948 during the year under assessment are given in the following table:

TABLE- 2

Sl.No.NIC CodeIndustryAverage number of persons employed
MaleFemaleTotal
120-21Food products19823106820891
222Beverages, tobacco, etc.1588367716560
323Cotton textiles61561576313
424Wool, silk and man-made fiber84932597590897
525Jute and other Vegetable>26489154428033
626Textile products20731187222603
727Wood and wood products3944862640074
828Paper and paper products and printing, publishing and allied industries45140154846688
929Leather and products of leather71213259473807
1030Basic chemicals and chemical products24379943231
1131Rubber, plastic, petroleum and coal products28624355732181
1232Non-metallic mineral products9024351612540
1333Basic metal and alloys43486324980
1434Metal products and parts, except machinery and equipment35434112136555
1535-36Machinery and equipment, other than transport equipment52392413456526
1640-41Electricity, gas and water1188228112163
1750Construction3001067030680

Industries manufacturing wool, silk and man-made fiber textiles employed the largest number of workers 90897 which included 5975 female workers. The figure represents the factories submitting returns.

Manufacturing of leather and products of leather, fur & substitutes of leather had the second highest employment of workers, 73807 which included 2594 female workers.

Manufacturing of machineries and equipment other than transport equipment had the third highest employment of workers - 56526 out of which 4134 were female workers.

4.1.3 Man-days Worked: In the State of Maharashtra, the total man-days worked in the factories submitting annual returns during 2001 and the major industry-wise break-up of total man-days worked is given in the following table>

TABLE - 3

Sl.No.NIC CodeIndustryMan-days worked in million
120-21Food products6.52
222Beverages, tobacco, etc.5.11
323Cotton textiles1.98
424Wool, silk and man-made fiber29.20
525Jute and other Vegetable>8.60
626Textile products7.08
727Wood and wood products12.38
828Paper and paper products and printing, publishing and llied industries14.08
929Leather and products of leather22.12
1030Basic chemicals and chemical products'0.98
1131Rubber, plastic, petroleum and coal products9.68
1232Non-metallic mineral products3.75
1333Basic metal and alloys1.42
1434Metal products and parts, except machinery and equipment11.14
1535-36Machinery and equipment, other than transport equipment16.53
1640-41Electricity, gas and water4.32
1750Construction9.90

Manufacture of wool, silk and man-made fiber textiles accounts for highest number of the total man-days worked in the factories submitting returns. Manufacture of leather and products of leather, fur and substitutes of leather stands at the second highest industry. Followed by machinery and equipment, other than transport equipment, paper and paper products and printing, publishing and allied industries, wood and wood products; furniture and fixtures were the industries where employment was significantly higher in the state during the year.

Man-hours Worked: The total man-hours worked in the major industries of the state, submitting returns during 200], are given in the following table:

TABLE - 4

Sl.No.NIC CodeIndustryMan-hours worked in million
MaleFemaleTotal
120-21Food products50.612.6153.28
222Beverages, tobacco, etc.39.951.6641.6]
323Cotton textiles5.600.406.00
424Wool, silk and man-made fiber221.0014.22235.22
525Jute and other Vegetable>64.813.8068.70
626Textile products53.004.2057.20
727Wood and wood products99.001.52100.5 2
828Paper and paper products and printing, publishing and allied industries122.403.70126.10
929Leather and products of leather111.356.10117.45
1030Basic chemicals and chemical products5.971.917.88
1131Rubber, plastic, petroleum and coal products39.708.5148.20
1232Non-metallic mineral products21.968.4630.43
1333Basic metal and alloys9.971.5111.48
1434Metal products and parts, except machinery and equipment88.842.6091.44
1535-36Machinery and equipment, other than transport equipment128.229.80138.02
1640-41Electricity, gas and water33.660.9334.59
1750Construction17.411.5979.00

Manufacturing of wool, silk and man-made fiber textiles accounts for the highest of the total man-hours worked in the industries submitting the annual returns. More than 90% of the man-hours are contributed by male workers.

Leather and products of leather, fur & substitutes of leather accounts for next highest man-hours, out of which more than 95% is covered by male workers. This was followed by manufacture of machineries and equipment other than transport equipment and manufacture of paper and paper products and printing, publishing & allied industries occupied a greater portion of total man-hour worked in the state during the period.

4.2 HAZARDOUS UNITS

As per the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948, any unit carrying on manufacturing process, which has potential to cause material impairment to the health of the workers or pollution of the general environment, is termed as unit carrying on hazardous process. Similarly, the State Government is also empowered to declare any operation or process as dangerous, if in its opinion the process or operation has a potential to cause a serious bodily injury, poisoning or diseases to persons exposed to such operation or processes.

Some of the factories get classified in Section 2(cb) as well as Section 87 of the Factories Act 1948. The categorization is a complex process which involves consideration of criteria defined under Section 2(cb), Sec 87 wherein the criteria adopted is with reference to hazardous substances handled, nature of manufacturing process and again specific reference to specific type of industries.

The Major Accident Hazard factories have been identified in accordance with the Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989. Accordingly, the total number of MAH factories in the State of Maharashtra is 327

Occupational injuries in manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES (COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948)

The State of Maharashtra has 28324 working factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948. In the year 2001, there were 9336 reportable accidents in these factories resulting in 177 fatal and 9159 non- fatal injuries.

For classification of accidents, the Indian Standard 3786: 1983, titled "Methods for computation of Frequency and Severity Rates in Industrial Injuries" and classification of industrial accidents along the ILO Code of Practice on recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases were used. The industries were classified according to the new industrial classification - 1987 NIC Code. The fatal and non-fatal accidents have been dealt with separately and a number of injuries have been taken for a group of industries. The accidents in MAH installations have been taken separately.

5.1 FATAL INJURIES

The fatal injuries in the State of Maharashtra as reported in the Annual Returns submitted by the factories for the year 2001 are 177. These 177 fatal accidents were analyzed as per IS 3786 : 1983 and the ILO Code of Practice of Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases. The analysis has been done industry group-wise, cause wise, agency wise, nature of injury wise, location of injury wise, sex and age wise respectively.

5.1.1 Industry wise:

Of the total 177 fatal injuries analyzed, 48 injuries were in the units manufacturing Basic Chemicals and Chemical Products. The industry wise analysis revealed that about 27.07% of fatal injuries occurred in the aforesaid industries. 23.16% occurred in Food Products industries and 9.60% of total injuries occurred in the Basic Metals and Alloyed industries. 7.90% of the total fatalities occurred in the Non-metallic Mineral Production industries. These were the major areas where number of fatal injuries are significant. The industry wise fatal injuries are given in Table-I.

TABLE -1

INDUSTRY WISE FATAL INJURIES
Sl.No.IndustryNo. of injuriesPercentage
1Manufacturing of Food Products4123.16
2Manufacture of Beverages, Tobacco & Related Products21.30
3Manufacture of Cotton Textiles31.69
4Manufacture of Wool, Silk & Man-made Fiber Textiles31.69
5Manufacture of Jute and other vegetable>0--
6Manufacture of textile products (including wearing apparel)0--
7Manufacture of Wood and Wood Products42.25
8Manufacture of Paper and Paper Products And Printing, Publishing & Allied Industries.84.51
9Manufacture of Leather & Products of Leather, Fur & Substitutes of Leather0 
10Manufacture of basic Chemicals & Chemical Products4827.07
11Manufacture of Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum & Coal Products; Processing Nuclear Fuels.42.25
12Manufacture of Non-metallic Mineral Products147.90
13Basic metal and alloyed industries179.60
14Manufacture of metal products & parts, except machinery and equipment42.25
15Manufacture of Machinery & Equipment other than Transport Equipment95.08
16Manufacture of Transport Equipment and Parts.31.69
17Other Manufacturing Industries10.56
18Repair of Capital Goods10.56
19Electricity, Gas & Water52.82
20Activities Allied to Construction10.56
21Wholesale Trade in wood, paper, skin,leather etc.10.56
22Retail trade n.e.c42.25
23Storage and warehousing services0--
24Recreational & cultural services10.56
25Repair services31.69
5.1.2 Cause-wise:

The analysis of the 177 fatal injuries shows that "Fall of the Persons" and "Exposure to or contact with extreme temp" have contributed to about 19.77% each of total fatal accidents. 20.33% was the single largest area which contributed by "Stepping, Striking & Struck against" type of accident followed by 'Explosions' and 'Exposure to and contact with harmful substances' which were 15.25% and 8.47% respectively. Table -2 shows the above cause-wise break-up of fatal injuries

TABLE - 2

CAUSE WISE FATAL INJURIES
Sl.No.Type of AccidentNo. of injuriesPercentage
1Fall of persons3519.77
2Fall of objects73.95
3Stepping, striking, struck against3620.33
4Caught in between objects116.21
5Over-exertion or wrong movement0 
6Expo. to or contact with extreme temp35]9.77
7Exposure to or contact with electric objects95
8Expo. to or contact with harmful subs.158.47
9Explosions2715.25
10Others21.13

5.1.3 Agency-wise: In terms of the agency involved in the fatal injuries, 'Dust, gas, liquid and chemicals' accounts for majority of accidents which covered 25.42% of the total fatalities followed by 'Prime Movers' amounting to 11.86%. Remaining significant areas of injuries were 'Other machines, Wheeled means of transport, Pressure vessels, Other agencies' were responsible for fatal injuries. Table 3 gives the agency-wise fatal accidents.

TABLE - 3

AGENCY WISE FATAL INJURIES
Sl. No.Agency. InvolvedNo. of AccidentsPercentage
1Prime Movers2111.86
2Transmission Machinery52.82
3Metal Working Machine63.38
4Wood and Associated Machine10.56
5Other Machines147.90
6Other Wheeled Means of Transport116.21
7Other Means of Transport52.82
8Pressure Vessels105.64
9Electrical Installations95.08
10Tools, Implements & appliances10.56
11Ladders, Mobile Ramps84.51
12Scaffolding84.51
13Other Equipments52.82
14Explosives0 
15Dust, Gases, Liquids & Chemicals4525.42
16Flying Objects52.82
17Other Materials & Substances73.95
18Indoor0--
19Animals0--
20Other Agencies169.03

5.1.4 Nature-wise: Nature of injury analysis of the fatal injuries reveals that 38.41% are due to 'Other unspecified injuries' stands largest by nature while 'Multiple Injuries' and 'Bum' cover 23.72% and 20.33%, respectively. Table - 4 shows the nature-wise fatal injuries.

TABLE- 4

NATURE WISE FATAL INJURIES
Sl. No.Nature of InjuryNo. of injuriesPercentage
1Fractures63.38
2Contusions & Crushing63.38
3Bum3620.33
4Acute Poisoning42.25
5Asphyxia84.51
6Effect of Electrical Currents73.95
7Multiple injuries of different nature4223.72
8Others and unspecified injuries6838.41

5.1.5 Location-wise: 'Multiple locations' caused the highest number of injuries which stands for 34.97% followed by 'Unspecified locations of injury' caused 34.40% of the total fatal injuries, while 'General injuries' and 'Head' were the locations which caused fatalities contributed to 13.53% and 7.90% respectively. Location ­wise fatal accidents are shown in Table - 5.

TABLE- 5

LOCATION WISE FATAL INJURIES
Sl. No.Location of InjuryNo. of AccidentsPercentage
1Head147.90
2Neck95.08
3Trunk00
4Upper limb52.82
5Lower limb21.13
6Multiple locations6234.97
7General injuries2413.53
8Unspecified locations of injury6134.40

5.1.6 Age and Sex wise: A total of 177 employees met with fatal accident, of these 172 were male. Out of above 177 fatal accidents, 44% were from the age group 18-36 followed by 15% between 36 to 51 years of age group. A greater number of injured employees' age group could not be ascertained. And also particulars of insurance coverage were also not available due to improper reporting by the employer. Table-6 shows all the above details.

TABLE - 6(A)

SEX-WISE FATAL INJURIES
Sl. N o.SexNo. of injuriesPercentage
1Male17297.17
2Female52.83

TABLE-6(B)

INSURED/UNINSURED FATAL INJURIES
Sl. No.Insured/UninsuredNo. of injuriesPercentage
1Insured126.76
2Uninsured16593.24

TABLE - 6(C)

AGE-WISE FATAL INJURIES
Sl. No.AgeNo. of injuriesPercentage
1< 1410.56
214 to <150--
315 to < 180--
418 to<367844.00
536 to < 512715.23
651 to < 6173.95
761 & Above0--
8Not available6436.10

5.2 NON-FATAL INJURIES

All together 9159 non-fatal occupational injuries had been reported by industries in the State of Maharashtra during the year of 2001. The classification of accidents and injuries were done according to the IS : 3786-1983 and also ILO Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases.

5.2.1 Industry-wise: The industry-wise analysis of non-fatal injuries shows that highest 31.05% of the accidents were in the Cotton textiles industries. 10.53% contains by the Basic Metals and Alloyed manufacturing industry and 7.93% are in the industries manufacturing Transport Equipment and Parts. Table -7 shows the industry-wise non-fatal injuries.

TABLE - 7

INDUSTRY-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

Sl.No.IndustryNo. of injuriesPercentage
 Manufacture of  
1Food products3443.75
2Beverage, tobacco and tobacco products50.05
3Cotton textiles284931.05
4Wool, silk and man-made fiber1681.83
5Textile Products550.6
6Wood and wood products220.23
7Paper products2763.01
8Leather & leather products50.05
9Basic chemicals and chemical products5395.87
10Rubber, plastic, petroleum and coal products2132.32
11Non-metallic mineral products2352.56
12Basic metal and alloys96610.53
13Metal products and parts5536.02
14Machineries and equipments5966.50
15Transport equipment and parts7287.93
16Other manufacturing industries2282.49
17Repair of Capital goods5866.39
18Electricity, Gas & Water750.81
19Construction----
20Storages and warehousing services----
21Repair services1551.69
22Electrical Machinery and apparatus3784.12
23Others1831.99
 Total9159 

5.2.2 Age and Sex-wise: Of the injured, more than 99% were male. Female injury figured negligibly in sex wise distribution chart of the state of Maharashtra. As far as age wise distribution it was revealed that majority of accidents involving the age group of '36 to 50' chronologically followed by the groups of' 18 to 35' and 51 to 60'. Table-8 gives details of sex-wise injuries.

TABLE - 8

SEX-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES
Sl. N o.SexNo. of injuriesPercentage
1Male910799.26
2Female520.74

5.2.3 Cause-wise: Cause-wise analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows that 20.03% of the accidents are due to 'Caught in between objects'. 10.68% stepping, striking and struck against objects, 8.02% due to fall of objects and 10.95% due to fall of persons. 40.33% injuries caused covers 'other type of accidents'. Table-9 shows the cause-wise non-fatal injuries.

TABLE – 9

CAUSE-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES
Sl. No.Type of AccidentsNo. of injuriesPercentage
1Fall of persons100510.95
2Fall of objects7368.02
3Stepping. striking and struck against98010.68
4Caught in between objects183820.03
5Over exertion or wrong movement2763.00
6Exposure to or contact with extreme temperature1371.49
7Exposure to or contact with electric objects550.60
8Exposure to or contact with harmful substance4324.70
9Others370040.33

5.2.4 Agency-wise: The Indian Standard 3786 : 1983 which is as comprehensive as the ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accident and Diseases has been used to classify the accidents into 20 major categories. These are given in Annex of the report.

The analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows that other agencies are the major area contributing to 35.20% of the injuries and transmission machines as well as 'handling of goods' have contributed 1 T58% and 11.77% of the injuries each.

TABLE - 10

AGENCY-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES
Sl.No.AgencyNo. of injuriesPercentage
1Prime movers400.43
2Transmission machines161317.58
3Metal working machines3323.62
5Other machines2552.78
6Transport931.01
7Pressure vessels310.34
8Electrical installations550.60
9Tools, implements and appliances3273.56
10Ladders, mobile ramps5045.50
11Scaffolding1021.11
12Other equipment3994.34
13Fire & Explosion106115
14Dust, gases, liquid and chemicals1141.24
15Flying objects981.06
16Handling Goods108011.77
17Indoor7808.50
18Animals--
19Other agencies323035.20

5.2.5 Location-wise: According to IS 3786 : 1983 and ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases, the location of injury has been divided into 8 categories. Table - 11 shows the distribution of location-wise injuries pertaining to the Mumbai region only. 47.90% and 29.67% of the injuries have occurred in the upper limb and lower limb region respectively comprising of shoulder, upper arm, elbow, fore-arm, wrist, hand and fingers. This is followed by head injuries, which was 10.80%.

TABLE – l1

LOCATION-WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES (MUMBAI REGION)
Sl. No.Location Of InjuryNo. of injuriesPercentage
1Head27610.79
2Neck50.20
3Trunk1214.73
4Upper limb122547.89
5Lower limb75929.67
6Multiple locations1023.98
7General injuries70.28
8Unspecified locations;582.27

5.2.6 Nature-wise Injury: Nature of injury according to IS 3786 is classified into 14 categories, like fracture, dislocation, sprains, concussion, amputation, wounds, contusions & crushing, burns, acute poisoning, asphyxia, electrical currents, etc. Table-I2 is again a table pertaining to the Mumbai region only which gives the nature of injury-wise distribution.

Non-fatal injuries in the region have been found to be mainly by the nature of wounds like lacerations, cuts, contusion with wounds, scalp wounds, etc. Superficial injuries contributed to the highest, i.e. 43.55% followed by contributing to 13.2% and burns- 11.3%, other unspecified injuries 8.2%, contusions, other wounds and fractures 7% each of the total injuries.

TABLE - 12

DISTRIBUTION OF NON-FATAL INJURIES (MUMBAI REGION)
Sl. No.Nature of injuryNo. of injuriesPercentage
1Fracture552.15
2Dislocations010.04
3Sprains and strains26410.32
4Concussions & other internal injury150.58
5Amputations and encleations060.23
6Other wounds311.21
7Superficial injuries111443.55
8Contusions and crushings72928.50
9Burns632.46
10Acute poisoning010.04
11Asphyxia040.16
12Effects of electrical currents020.08
13Multiple injury of different nature080.32
14Others and unspecified injuries26010.16

Occupational diseases and poisoning in manufacturing activities

OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES & POISONING IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases defines Occupational Diseases as "a disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activity". Under Section 89 of the Factories Act, 1948 where any worker in a factory contracts any disease specified in the Third Schedule (Annexure-I), the Manager of the factory shall send a notice thereof to such authorities and in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.

Also any medical practitioner attending on a person who is or has been employed in a factory and is suffering from diseases specified in the Third Schedule shall without delay send a report in writing to the office of the Directorate, Industrial Safety and Health.

In the State of Maharashtra, few occupational disease cases have been reported to the Directorate, Industrial Safety and Health. However, the ESIC which deals with compensation to the workers for any loss while working in the factory has cases of occupational diseases as per the Employees State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Act, 1948 during the year 2001, but the same is not available from the sources.

The occupational diseases result in loss of earning capacity of the workers. This loss varies according to the occupational diseases contracted by the worker. The severity of the disease may result in permanent disability to the worker. However, there were cases of occupational disease or permanent disability due to injury during the period 2001, but during the year 2001, there were NIL case of Poisoning. However, 12 cases of occupational diseases reported are given in the table>

No.of casesName of occupational diseaseHarmful agents
5ByssinosisCotton dust
 ByssinosisCotton dust
7Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL)High noise level

All the above cases were investigated by Medical Inspectors of Factories/ certifying Surgeons and recommendations forwarded.

Management of occupational safety and health at unit level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT UNIT LEVEL

This Chapter, as is evident, deals with the management of occupational safety and health at the unit level, i.e. manufacturing units. The state has a total of 28324 working factories in the year 2001, the break-up of which according to factories registered under Section 2(m), Section 85 of the Factories Act, 1948 is given in Chapter-4. In order to have a fair idea, about the safety and health status in these units, the following aspects on safety and health have been converted under this Chapter:

  • Safety Policy
  • Appointment of Safety Officers
  • Safety Committee
  • Occupational health centers (FMO, Ambulance)
  • Welfare (WO, Canteen, Creche, Lunch Room, Shelter, etc.)
  • On-site Emergency Plans
  • Safety Reports
  • Safety Audits
  • HAZOP Studies
  • Dangerous Occurrences

There are certain statutory requirements as provided under the Factories Act, 1948 and Rules framed there under, for each of the aspect stated above. Items 7.6 to 7.9 are additional requirement exclusively applicable to MAR installations, which are covered by separate set of rules. Each of aspect with its status has been discussed in the following paragraphs.

7.1 SAFETY POLICY

The Rule 73(L) of the Maharashtra Factory Rules, 1963, framed under the provisions of Sections 7 A(3), 41-B(2) and 112 requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by every factory except

  • Units covered under Section 2(m)(i) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing less than 50 workers.
  • Units covered under Section 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948
  • Provided that they are not covered in the first schedule under section 2( cb ) or covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948.
  • Units covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948.

In addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories or class or description of factories to comply with the above requirements of Safety Policy if in his opinion it is expedient to do so.

As per the details available 1902 units were required preparation of Safety Policy. However, only 1360 units have prepared the Safety Policy, which is about 71.6% of the total requirement.

7.2 APPOINTMENT OF SAFETY OFFICERS

As per the provisions of Section 40-B of the Factories Act, 1948, Safety Officer is required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria:

7.2.1

  • Units employing more than 1000 workers,
  • Wherein in the opinion of the State Government, any manufacturing process or operation is carried on involving any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or diseases or any hazard to health.

As per the details available, 564 Safety Officers were required to be appointed in 394 factories in the State. As against this, 530 Safety Officers were appointed in various units.

Description of factoriesNo. of factories as per Col. 1No. of Safety Officers required to be appointedNo. of Safety Officers appointed
Factories employing 1000 or more workers and notified under section 40-B(1)(i)133303269
Factories notified under section 40-B(1 )(ii)261261261

7.3 SAFETY COMMITTEE

The Rule 73(J) of the Maharashtra Factory Rules, 1963 framed under the provisions of Section 41 and 41-G of the Factories Act, 1948 requires constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:

  • Units employing 250 or more workers.
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.
  • Units covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.

As per the information available, 1349 units have constituted Safety Committees out of 1902 units, which is about 70.4%.

7.4 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH CENTERS

As per Rule 73(W) of the Maharashtra Factory Rules, 1963 prescribed under Section 41-C of the Factories Act, 1948, Occupational Health Centers are required to be set up in the factories carrying on 'hazardous process' as described under Section 2(cb) of the Act. The industries have been divided into 3 categories, i.e. the industries employing up to 50 workers, employing 51 - 200 workers and employing more than 200 workers. 327 MAR units have provided 183 Full time Factory Medical Officers and 144 Part-time Factory Medical Officers. They have 249 ambulances and provided 175 ambulance rooms. Other than MAH, 412 other units have provided 273 full time and 38 part time Factory Medical Officers and 412 ambulance vans with 412 ambulance rooms, respectively.

Table showing number of MAH factories, appointment of Medical Officer, Ambulance Van and Occupational Health Centre.

DetailYear
20002001
No. of MAH Factories327327
No. of Medical Officers appointed on Full Time/ Part Time/Retainer Basis275275
No. of Ambulance Van or other vehicle provided250249
No. of Occupational Health Centre provided175210

Table showing Factories employing workers above 500, appointment of Factory Medical Officer on Full time / Part time and on Retainer basis and number of Ambulance Room (Dispensary) provided.

DetailYear
20002001
No. of Factories employing more than 500 workers411412
No. of Medical Officers Full Time273274
No. of Medical Officers Part Time138138
No. of Ambulance van or other vehicle411412
No. of Occupational Health Centre411412

7.5 WELFARE

 

This part of the Chapter deals with the Welfare facilities, e.g. appointment of Welfare Officers, creche facilities, canteen facilities, shelters, rest room and lunch room.

As per the provisions of Section 49 of the Factories Act, 1948, any factory employing more than 500 workers, is required to employ a Welfare Officer. Table below gives the details of Welfare Officers appointed in the factories.

aNumber of factories required to appoint Welfare Officers factories.280
bNumber of factories in which Welfare Officers mentioned in (a) above are appointed466
cNumber of Welfare Officers required to be appointed in factories employing ordinarily 500 or more workers334
dNumber of Welfare Officers so appointed453

As per the provisions under Section 48 of the Factories Act, 1948, any factory employing 30 or more women workers are required to provide creche facilities for the use of children below the age of 6 years for the women employees. There are certain requirements under the Section for these creches which are to be met by the occupier of the factory. In total 406 units are required to provide creche facility and out of these 187 units have provided the creche facilities.

As per the provisions under Section 47 of the Factories Act, 1948, any factory employing more than 150 workers is required to provide adequate and suitable>

As per the details available 933 factories are required to provide the shelters, rest rooms and lunch-room facilities. However, 3541 factories have provided this facility, which is much more than the statutory provision.

As per the provisions under Section 46 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 250 workers is required to provide canteen facilities for the use of workers.

As per the details available, out of 1220 units, 637 occupiers of factories and 583 contractors have provided canteen facilities.

7.6 ON-SITE EMERGENCY PLANS

As per the provision under "The Maharashtra Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard Rules, 2003", an occupier who has control of the industrial activity, as described under the Rule, shall prepare an On-site emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on the site on which industrial activity is carried on.

As per the information available 327 number of MAH installations were required to prepare the on-site emergency plan. 255 MAH installations have prepared the plans and submitted to the Director of Industrial Safety and Health.

7.7&7.8 SAFETY REPORTS AND SAFETY AUDITS

As per the provisions under "The Maharashtra Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard Rules, 2003", it is mandatory for an occupier to prepare and submit to the Chief Inspector before the commencement of an industrial activity, the Safety Report of the industrial activity to which these rules apply. The Safety Report is to be submitted in the prescribed format. Further it is advisable that all the units after the commencement of the industrial activity shall carry out an independent Safety Audit of the respective industrial activities with the help of an expert not associated with such industrial activities. This will help the management to know the weak points in their system and to take suitable>

No information was available from DISH about how many units were required to prepare and actually preparedand submitted to enforcing authority.

7.9 HAZOP STUDIES

The HAZOP Studies, i.e. the Hazard and Operability studies are carried out in advance on any plant to examine the process or at least the relevant parts of the process to discover how deviation from the intention of design can occur to decide whether such deviations can give rise to hazardous conditions.

The technique aims to simulate the imagination of designer in a systematic way and is useful in identifying potential hazards in advance and allow the user to take corrective measures.

However, no information is available about the units which have conducted risk assessment studies.

7.10 DANGEROUS OCCURRENCES

As per provision of Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948, and Rule 114 of the Maharashtra Factory Rules, 1963, dangerous occurrences are reportable>

Sl.No.FactoryCircumstances Causing Dangerous Occurrence
1National Highway Trucking Centre, Chembur, MumbaiDue to CNG filling, there was damage to the deky of the taxi.
2Mamta Trading Co., Ghatkopar, MumbaiDue to bursting of the boilers.
3Aarti Drugs Ltd., MIDC, TarapurFire caught due to inflammable solvent.
4Sterling Aralaries Pvt. Ltd., TarapurDuring the process ethelene oxide which is inflammable, fire broke out
5Rajni Chemicals Industries, TarapurThe reactor busted due to increase in Temperature and pressure of acrohly nitrathe
6Pratap Organics, Pavane, ThaneFire caught due to inflammable solvent.
7Chemosol Industries Pvt. Ltd., MIDC, Mahad-do-
8Chemosol Industries Pvt. Ltd., MIDC, Mahad-do-
9Ordnance Factory, Jalgaon, NashikExplosion
10'C' Cure Building Products Pvt. Ltd., PuneDue to opening auto dare the boiler exploded
11Prerana Pharma Intermediate,AmbernathFire caught due to inflammable solvent
12Bhagwati S.S.K. Ltd., SolapurWhile changing the tyre tube, there was pressure and it bursted
13Shree Pulshkar Petro Products Ltd.,Fire caught due to inflammable solvent
14S.B. Reshellers Pvt. Ltd., KolhapurDue to pressure there was an explosion

Management of occupational safety and health at state level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AHD HEALTH AT STATE LEVEL

Management of Safety and Health at the state level is more complex than at the unit level. At unit level, the problems are relatively simple and unit specific depending upon the type of industry. However, at the state level management of safety and health is not unit or industry specific and the instruments such as policies, legislation, etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues in all type of occupations. Apart from the Factories Act, 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities. These legislations are enforced by various state government agencies such as Directorates of Factories and Boilers, Labour Commissioner, etc.

Education and training plays an important role in management of safety and health at state level and thus cannot be neglected. Non-government organizations (NGOs), voluntary organizations, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health are contributing in their own way towards the objective for giving the workers a safe and healthy work environment.

Safety and health at work is governed by variety of statutes in the state depending on the nature of work place, manufacturing activity and specific aspect of safety and health. Some of the important statutes are given below:

  • The Factories Act, 1948
  • The Maharashtra Factories Rules, 1963

     

  • The Maharashtra Safety Officers (Duties, Qualifications and Conditions of Service) Rules, 1982.
  • The Maharashtra Welfare officers (Duties, Qualifications and Conditions of Service) Rules, 1966.
  • The Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Act, 1983.
  • Bombay Shops and Establishment Act.
  • Industrial Dispute Act, 1947
  • Fatal Accident Act, 1855.
  • Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948
  • Employees' Liability Act, 1938
  • Gas Cylinder Rules, 1981
  • Insecticide Act, 1968, with Rules, 1971
  • Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels (Unfired) Rules, 1981
  • The Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986.
  • The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, 1989, Amended in 1994, 2000 & 2001
  • The Maharashtra Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard Rules, 2003
  • The Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning & Preparedness) Rules, 1996.
  • The Environment Protection Act, 1986.

There are different departments of Central Government and State Government entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes. The efforts of the enforcement agencies are also supplemented by other organizations such as training and research institutions, employers' associations, employees associations, etc. in promoting occupational safety and health in the state.

8.1 DIRECTORATE OF INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, (DISH) MAHARASHTRA STATE

This Directorate, under the Department of Labour and Rehabilitation at State Secretariat is looking after safety, health and environment of workers employed in factories. The Directorate is headed by the Chief Inspector of Factories called Director. In the state of Maharashtra, the Factories are under the same Directorate like many other states in the country where the Boilers are looked after by the Chief Inspector of Boilers and the Factories are looked after by the Chief Inspector of Factories. Thus in the State of Maharashtra, the Directorate of Factories have to look after the enforcement of Factories Act, 1948. The Inspectors (now called as Assistant Directors, Deputy Directors and Joint Directors) with mechanical and other engineering/medical background are also Factory Inspectors.

8.1.1 Infrastructure Facilities

The Directorate of Industrial Safety and Health has set up an Industrial Hygiene Laboratory in 1952 for imparting safety and health data of samples collected in industries. The laboratory is equipped with equipment and accessories for carrying out ventilation study, noise study, illumination study, heat stress and to carry out the complete chemical analysis of samples of dust, chemicals and other pollutants from samples collected in industries. .

8.1.2 Employment and Area Covered

The DISH is having a strength of 97 personnel as given in the organization chart (enclosed) and the whole State of Maharashtra is under the jurisdiction of this Directorate.

The Head office of the DISH is at Mumbai and the Regional Offices are at Nagpur, Thane, Kalyan, Vasai, Panvel, Nashik, Pune, Aurangabad, Kolhapur and Akola. The District Offices are at Satara, Sangli, Solapur, Ahmednagar, Nanded, Dhule, Jalgaon, Bhandara, Chandrapur and Amaravati.

8.1.3 Strength of the Inspectorate

The Directorate is manned by 97 personnel out of 137 sanctioned strength as given below:

Director (DISH)01
Addl. Director01
Joint Director12
Dy. Director35
Asstt. Director39
Medical Inspector of Factories01
Certifying Surgeons Industrial01
Hygiene Staff Industrial06
Hygiene Lab.01
Total97

The Department functions under the Secretary (Labour) who reports to the Hon. Labour Minister of the State of Maharashtra.

8.1.4 Main functions of the DISH

Directorate of Industrial Safety and Health (DISH) is a statutory Government Body entrusted with the Enforcement of the Factories Act, 1948 and the Maharashtra Factories Rules, 1963, along with and the rules under the Environment Protection Act and rules made there-under:

  • Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, 1989
  • Chemical Accidents (Emergency, Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1986.

Workmen Compensation Act, 1923.

The Factories Act, 1948 mainly aims at regulating the working conditions in factories, which embrace inter-alia, safety, health and welfare aspects.

The Department is headed by the Director of Factories, who reports directly to the Secretary (Factories).

The different activities undertaken by the Directorate are given below:

8.1.4.1Inspection and Prosecution

23471 Inspectionswere carried out, which include hazardous and non ­hazardous factories. 777 prosecutions were launched during the year 2001 and 497 factories prosecuted.

8.1.4.2Important Activities in 2001

Factories Registered by 2001
U/S 2 m(i)22398
U/S 2 m(ii)276
U/S 8510722
Total33,396
Working Factories By 2001
U/S 2 m(i)19906
U/S 2 m(ii)204
U/S 858214
Total28,324
  • As on December, 2001, the total registered factories were 33,396, wherein total working factories were 28,324 and workers employed daily were 1201000.
  • Incidence rate of accidents per 1000 workers employed in factories during the year 2000 was 12.50 (Provisional) as compared to the national level of 10.93 (P).
  • Various Surveys were conducted under the Industrial Hygiene Surveillance activity undertaken by the department.
  • Visited and Medical checks of 9179 factory workers were conducted in 180 factories during the year 2001 under the Occupational Health Surveillance programme.

8.1.4.3Promotional Activities

  • Safety -Various training programmes/seminar, etc. were organized to the help of Safety Committee.
    Training Programmes/Seminars during the year 2001<
    No. of safety seminars organized16
    No. of participants1149
    No. of factories where safety training programmes were organized67
    No. of participants1600
  • Major Accident Hazard Control - Updating On-site plans/Disaster Crisis Group meetings/2nd Environment Committee Meeting.
  • Small Scale Industries - Regular meetings are held with SSIs/ Associations and a number of other organizations for assistance to SSIs.
  • Safety Awards - A number of programmes are conducted for Safety Award functions and Safety Awards are awarded to industries.

Other Activities in 2001

As per Chemical Accidents (Emergency, Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rule 1996, Crisis Group at 6 state, district and local levels are prepared and mock drills of such plans are conducted regularly. The DISH has promoted the MARG in Bhandup, Mulund, Thane, Navi Mumbai, Tarapur, Kalyan, and Raigad areas. Awareness and preparedness training programs are conducted through MARG regularly for taking action in the event of any chemical accident.

8.1.5 Inspection Activities

Although the Directorate of Industrial Safety and Health is an enforcing agency, it has been observed that the stress of the department is more on the implementation and training front rather than enforcement. However, 23471 factories were inspected. Number of inspections and visits to MAH factories during the year is 358.

8.1.6 Prosecutions and Convictions

The Chapter 10 of the Factories Act provides for penalties and procedures for violation of the provisions. The analysis shows that prosecutions have been carried out under Section 92 of the Factories Act. The Section 92 of the Factories Act speaks about the general penalties for offences.

There were 770 prosecutions under section 92. 3309 cases were pending from the previous year while 280 cases were decided and 236 were convicted finally with an imposition of Penalty of Rs.1351 000/- which goes towards State income.

Under Section 92 of the Factories Act Penal Cases:

Pending from the previous year3309
Launched during 2001770
Decided during the year280
Convicted during the year236
Total Penalty ImposedRs. 1351000/­-

8.2 OFFICE OF THE LABOUR COMMISSIONER

8.2.1 Objectives

The office of the Commissioner, Labour is assigned with the duties and functions relating to Industrial Relations, Labour Welfare, Enforcement of Labour Legislative besides Implementation of Labour Welfare and Social Security Schemes. The officials in the Labour Department are also appointed and declared as authorities performing quasi-judicial executive functions under various Labour Legislations of both the Central and State Government.

8.2.2 Functions

In order to achieve the aims and objectives, the office ensures administration of balanced industrial relations, strict enforcement of Labour Legislation, ensuring welfare benefits under the statute to workmen in both organized and unorganized sector equally, timely revision of minimum rates of wages in Scheduled Employment and their proper enforcement.

8.3 MAHARASHTRA STATE POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD

8.3.1 The Indian economy has grown at a rapid pace during the last few decades with industry as an important constituent of growth. At the same time the natural environment is being damaged by extensive pollution by industries, vehicle traffic, deforestation, etc. To look after the environmental problems the Government of Maharashtra has created a separate department for Environment in 1985. However, well before that "Maharashtra Pollution Control Board" constituted in 1970 under "Maharashtra Prevention of Water Pollution Act, 1969" has been in force to look after the environmental problems in the State.

The Board is in the State regularly monitoring environmental water quality of main rivers every month at 38 locations under Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS) & Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resources (MINARS) projects. Out of these 38 locations, at 15 locations the water quality is found to be deteriorated during the year 2001-02. The Board has also monitored the overall environmental quality at 177 other locations out of which at 62 locations the water quality was deteriorated, since Bio-oxygen Demand (BOI) was exceeding the limits. The main reasons for this are discharge of domestic effluent in the river without treatment and very limited flow in the river after monsoon.

The ambient air quality in Brihanmumbai is monitored by Municipal Corporation of Brihanmumbai at 6 locations. It has been decided to monitor at 26 stations under the project National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (NAAQM) in the state. Out of these Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) is monitoring air quality at 5 occasions, the remaining 21 stations are monitored by the educational institutes. During 2001-02, at 2 locations, NOx concentration was found above the standard and at 6 locations SPM level (Suspended Particulate Matter) was found above the standard

The Government of India has recently enacted bio-medical (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 and Government of Maharashtra has appointed Maharashtra Pollution Control Board as its implementing authority. The board has already started preparing inventory of bio-medical waste generating hospitals/ medical institutions. Till the end of March, 2002, the board has given authorization to 743 medical institutions.

For proper and planned industrialization, work of preparation of zoning atlas is undertaken by Maharashtra Pollution Control Board in association with Central Pollution Control Board. Zoning atlas work for Ratnagiri district is now completed and for Aurangabad and Pune districts, is in final stages and is expected to be completed by March, 2003.

The board collects data on various aspects of water and air pollution from all major establishments in the state and regularly monitors them. During 2001-02, under ‘Water and Air Pollution Act’ the board has issued 8976 consents to various industries to establish or expand as against 7430 consents issued during 200-01. As per the provision under the Act, the board collect water cess from the specified industries and local bodies on the basis of consumption of water. Amount of Rs. 6.45 crore and Rs. 12.67 crore was collected as water cess during the year 200-01 and 2001-02, respectively.

The board monitors the polluting industries for their pollution control operations and action is taken against defaulters. The information regarding the details of legal action taken against defaulting industries is given in table>

YearNumber of legal actions under section
33A of Water (P&CP) Act, 197431A of Air (P&CP) Act, 1981
ProposedFinalProposedFinal
1998-993111243916
1999-003022306936
2000-01317136355
2001-022986710320

8.3.2 Activities of the Board Including Various Functions:

Functions Performed under the Act: The functions of the State Board as specified in the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981:

Functions under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974:

  • to plan a comprehensive programme for the prevention, control or abatement of pollution of streams and wells in the State and to secure the execution thereof;
  • to advice the State Government on any matter concerning the prevention, control or abatement of water pollution;
  • to collect and disseminate information relating to water pollution and the prevention, control or abatement thereof;
  • to encourage, conduct and participate in investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention, control or abatement of water pollution;
  • to collaborate with the Central Board in organizing the training of persons engaged or to the engaged in programmes relating to prevention, control or abatement of water pollution and to organize mass education programmes relating thereto;
  • sewage and trade effluents and to review plants, specifications or other data relating to plants set up for the treatment of water, works for the purification thereof and the system for the disposal of sewage or trade effluents or in connection with the grant of consent as required by this Act;
  • to lay down, modify or annual effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents and for the quality of receiving waters (not being water in an interstate stream) resulting from the discharge of effluents and to >
  • for the prevention, control or abatement of discharge of waste into streams or wells;
  • to advise the State Government with respect to the location of any industry the carrying on of which is likely to pollute a stream or well;
  • to perform such other functions as may be prescribed or may, from time to time, be entrusted to it by the Central Board or the State Government.

Functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,1981:

  • to plan a comprehensive programme for the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution and to secure the execution thereof
  • to advise the State Government on any matter concerning the prevention, control, or abatement of air pollution;
  • to collect and disseminate information relating to air pollution;
  • to collaborate with the Central Board in organizing the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programmes relating to prevention, control or abatement of air pollution and to organize mass education programme relating thereof;
  • to inspect, at all reasonable times, any control equipment, the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution in such areas the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution in such areas; such directions to such persons as it may consider necessary to take steps for the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution;
  • to advise the State Government with respect to the suitability of any premises or location for carrying on any industry which is likely to cause air pollution.

8.3.3 Objectives and Approach:

The functions listed above are directed towards the effective control of water and air pollution and thus to maintain and restore, wherever necessary the wholesomeness of water for various designated best uses and to preserve the quality of air as per requirement of ambient air quality. The Goa State Pollution Control Board aims to achieve these objectives through:

  • Control on quality effluents and emissions from existing industrial units by periodical analysis of their effluent and emission samples.
  • Maintain suitable industrial development by selecting non-polluting industries and the industries with effective effluent treatment arrangements.
  • Developing Data Base to prepare water use and water quality maps and air quality zoning.

8.4 DIRECTORATE OF INDUSTRIES AND MINES

8.4.1 Small Scale Industries (SSI) :

The SSI sector is a vital segment of the economy, contributing substantially in the form of production, employment and export. This sector creates large employment opportunities in low capital cost. For speedy growth of SSI sector in the state, the Government, has already brought about simplifications in the SSI registration procedures. The investment limit for SSI units has been reduced from Rs.3 crore to Rs.1 crore. For tiny sector, this limit has been increased from Rs.5 lakh to Rs.2 lakh. For small-scale service and business enterprises sector, the investment limit has been increased upto Rs.1303 lakh. The composite term loan limit for SSI units has been increased from RS.2 lakh to Rs.5 lakh. The investment limit for SSI units in the category of hand tools and hosiery has been enhanced upto Rs.5 crore. The total number of SSI units in the state as on 30th November, 2002 was 3.71 lakh. The total capital investment and employment therein at the time of registration was Rs.868 crore and 26.98 lakh, respectively.

8.4.2 Minerals:

The potential mineral bearing area in the state is about 58 thousand sq. km. (i. e. about 19 per cent of the total geographical area of the state) which is mainly concentrated in the districts of Bhandara, Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, Nagpur, Yavatmal, Kolhapur, Satara, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg and Thane. The major minerals found in the state according to their production are coal, limestone, bauxite, manganese ore, silica sand and laterite. The details of production of major minerals in the state during 2001-02 are given in the following table>

Major mineralsProduction (in lakh tones)Percentage increase/decrease over the previous year
Coal308.307.2
Laterite1.1741.0
Manganese ore3.886.9
Bauxite10.785.0
Silica sand1.25(-)25.6
Limestone62.493.0

During the year 2001-02, the total value of minerals production in the state was Rs.2402 crore showing increase of 7.2 per cent over the previous year. The value (Rs.2,254 crore) of coal extracted during 2001-02 accounted 94 per cent of the total value of minerals extracted.

8.5 MAHARASHTRA STATE TEXTILE CORPORATION

The Maharashtra State Textile Corporation (MSTC) was incorporated in the State in the year 1966. The Government of Maharashtra has decided in January, 2001 to closing down the textile mills run by the MSTC owing to heavy losses incurred by them. Up-to the end of December, 2002, six mills are closed and now three mills are with the MSTC. The labour component of the mills with the MSTC was 3,300. These mills together have 70,000 spindles and one thousand looms. The turnover of mills during the year 2001-02 was Rs.73.27 crore as compared to Rs.I08.23 crore during 2000-01. Its production value during April to December, 2002 was about Rs.24 crore as against Rs.58 crore for the corresponding period of the previous year.

8.6 MAHARASHTRA STATE KHADI AND VILLAGE INDUSTRIES BOARD

The Maharashtra State Khadi and Village Industries Board (MSKVIB) was incorporated in the year 1962 under the Bombay Khadi and Village Industries Act, 1960. The main functions of the Board are to organize, develop and expand activities of Khadi and Village Industries (KVI) in the State. The Board provides financial assistance to individuals, registered institutions and co-operatives. It also provides technical guidance and training to individual beneficiaries and makes arrangement in marketing of products of village industries, etc.

Details of financial assistance made available by various financial institutions and the State Government to KVI sector in the state are given in the following table>

Agency2000-012001-022002-03 (Expected)
LoansGrantsTotalLoansGrantsTotalLoansGrantsTotal
Khadi& Village Industries Commission126--126301--301------
Banks*2985--29853973--3973646--646
State Government--12761276--13481348--10671067
Total31111276438742741348562264610671713

* These includes nationalized banks, co-operative banks and other financial institutions.

Source.- Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2002-03.

Presently, 116 categories of industries are in the purview of the KVl sector. Under Artisan Employment Guarantee Scheme, employment opportunities were provided to 3.58 lakh artisans during 2001-02, as compared to 3.54 lakh artisans for the previous year. It is expected that during 2002-03, employment opportunities will be provided to 3.62 lakh artisans.

The Board is also implementing a special scheme of bee keeping in the Western Ghat Region of the state. The board had distributed 24,567 bee boxes up-to the end of 2001-02. From these bee boxes 3863 kg. honey was produced.

The physical achievements for entire KVI sector under all programmes of the board are given in the following table.

YearValue of production in units assisted (Rs. crore)Employment provided (Artisans in lakh)
2000-0110364.85
2001-0210584.92
2002-03(Estimated)10765.02

Source : Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2002-03.

8.7 MAHARASHTRA INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION

The Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) was established in 1962 under Maharashtra Industrial Development Act, 1961 for commuting rapid orderly growth and developing industries in industrial areas in the State. The MIDC supplies developed plots with necessary infra-structural facilities like internal roads, water, electricity and other internal services to entrepreneurs in the industrial areas. The State Government is implementing following important programmes through MIDC, (1) Establishment of 61 Growth Centres covering entire State, (2) Establishment of Mini-industrial Areas to cover all the talukas in the State, (3) Establishment of 5 Growth Centres with assistance from the Central Government and (4) Setting up of 'Five Star' Industrial Areas at 10 centers as declared in the 'Industry, Trade and Commerce Policy, 1995' of the State.

The MIDC has constructed sheds in selected industrial areas. By the end of March, 2002, development of 264 industrial areas was allotted to MIDC, out of which 100 were large, 66 were growth centers (61 with State Government and 5 with assistance from the Central Government) and 98 were mini-industrial areas. As on 31st March, 2002, the total planned area of the MIDC was 87,634 hectares, of which 52,223 hectares (60 percent) area was in its possession. The total area of allotted plots was 18.1 thousand hectares. The total water supply capacity of MIDC was 1.941 million litres per day. The performance of MIDC in 2000-01and 2001-02 is given in the following table.

Item2000-012001-02Cumulative as at the end of 2001-02
Plots carved out113197551856
Plots allotted69466543048
Sheds constructed60244069
Sheds allotted1812844970
Units in production53451323290
Units under construction--953274
Total investment in units (Rs. In Crore)--480522155

Source: Economic Survey of Maharashtra, 2002-03

8.8 DIRECTORATE OF HEALTH SERVICES

8.8.1 Introduction

The Directorate of Health Services (DHS) provide primary health care and family welfare services to the public at large and particularly to those living in rural areas. Various national programmes launched deliver primary health care services and help in developing rural health infrastructure. The stress was laid in health policy programmes implemented in providing preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative health care services through its CHCs/PHCs and District Hospitals. Maharashtra has one of the most extensive health systems in India as health care services are made available to the people at door steps and hence the State is considered as one of the best performing state in India in the matter of Health and Medical Care as it has achieved most of the targets set for the nation for the year 2002.

As far as infrastructure of health services is concerned, by the end of 200 1 there is a good network of 1768 Primary Health Centres, 9725 Sub Centres besides 1544 rural medical dispensaries and 1102 hospitals. Special clinics for implementation of various national programmes, such as, family welfare, TB, Leprosy, STD, AIDS, Malaria, Filaria, Control of Blindness, etc. provide health care services. A Medical Store Depot procures necessary medicines, drugs/equipment and machineries and distribute them to the hospitals/health centers under the control of DHS as per their requirements.

The implementation of all the national programmes, such as, Family Welfare, MCH, TB, Malaria and Other Vector Home Diseases, Leprosy, Control of Blindness and STD are headed by CMOs. The Institute of Nursing Education is headed by a Principal. The Primary Health and Community Health Centres are manned by Health Officers/Medical Officers and assisted by trained/qualified staff and para-medical staff. The sub-centers are looked after by Health Workers, while, RMDs are manned by Rural Medical Officer.

8.8.2 Achievement During 2000-2001 : The emphasis of the Public Health sector is on the consolidation of infra-structural facilities such as sub-centers, primary health centers and community health care centers, so as to reach health services to all comers of the state. More recently the emphasis has been given to mental health care. AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) control, cancer control and special health facilities in the tribal areas. The problems of malaria, gastro enteritis and other water born diseases are prevalent during monsoon season, particularly in tribal districts like Thane, Nashik, Dhule, Nandurbar, Amaravati and Gadchiroli. To control these and other diseases various programmes are being implemented in the state. By the end of 2001, there were Public and Government aided 1,102 hospitals, 1,544 dispensaries, 1,768 primary health centers and 9,725 sub-centers in the state implementing these programmes. These services have appreciably helped to improve the health standard of the people in the state, which is evident from the relatively low crude death rate (7.5) and low infant mortality rate (48) for the year 1999 for Maharashtra State as compared with the rates of 8.7 and 70, respectively for all India.

8.8.3 National Programmes

Family Welfare:

The main objective of the family welfare programme is to stabilize population and improve quality of life of the people. The effective implementation of population control programme has reflected in the relatively low birth rate of 21.0 in the state as compared with that of 25.8 for All India for the year 2000. The percentage of eligible couples effectively protected by the various family planning methods under the family welfare programme was 60.9 as observed in the National Family Health Survey of 1998 (NFHS-2) in the state as against 48.2 for All India. Out of the total eligible couples in the state, 52.2 percent were covered under the sterilization methods.

Pulse Polio Programme:

The WorId Health Organisation has aimed at making the world 'Polio Free'. As a part of this, the Health Department of the Government of India decided to implement the pulse polio programme throughout the country. To eradicate polio throughout the country, in addition to the regular immunization programme, additional two oral doses of polio vaccine every year were administered to the children in the age group 0-5 years the years 1995-96 to 2001-02 except four doses during 1999-2000. During current year 2 additional doses to about 118 lakh children in the state were administered.

Special School Health Programme

Under this programme, medical check up of the students in standard 1 to IV is done every year. During the year 2000-01, such programme was taken up in November, 2000 and about 70 lakh students from 64,092 schools throughout the state were examined and primary treatment was given for minor illness and referral services were provided for major illness. An expenditure of Rs.2.31 crore is expected under this scheme during 2001-02.

Savitribai Phule Kanya Kalyan Scheme

As per the state's new population policy the scheme is modified with effect from 1st April, 2000. This scheme is applicable only for below poverty line families and having one or two daughters and no male child and accepting sterilization. This scheme is divided into two parts, under first part an incentive of Rs.10000 in the form of fixed deposit for 18 years in the name of daughter(s) is given to the couples with no male child accepting terminal method after one or two daughters. If beneficiaries couple has two daughters an amount of Rs.5000 will be provided for each daughters. Under 2nd part of the scheme an additional incentive of Rs.5,000 each for beneficiary daughter will be provided as a fixed deposit for five years who completes here schooling up-to Std. X and does not get married before 20 years of age

National AIDS Control Programme: The National AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) Control Project is a 100 per cent centrally sponsored scheme and is being implemented in the country with the assistance from the World Bank. In the phase-I the project was sanctioned for the period September, 1992 to March, 1999. The phase-II project is being implemented in the state (except Brihanmumbai) through the Maharashtra State AIDS Control Society from April, 1999. The phase-II is also planned with World Bank assistance for a period 1999-2004.

During 2000-01 and 2001-02, the Maharashtra State AIDS Control Society (MSACS) received funds of Rs.8.53 crore and Rs.3 crore respectively. The Society has spent Rs.7.67 crore in 2000-01 and Rs.5.51 crore upto the end of December, 2001.

AIDS Control Programme for Brihanmumbai

Brihanmumbai, "Mumbai Districts AIDS Control Society (MDACS) was established in July, 1998 by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Mumbai being the economic capital of India, has maximum inflow of diversified population with layers of complexities. It has huge floating population. Considering this factor HIV/AIDS has become vibrant serious issue in Mumbai. More than 50 per cent of cases in the country are reported from Maharashtra of which more than 50 percent are from Mumbai.

Since 1999-2000 Mumbai Districts AIDS Control Society received funds of Rs.23.37 crore. The Society has spent Rs.15.23 crore up-to the end of October, 2001. The MDACS is implementing this programme in collaboration with 13 NGOs at 13 different places in Brihanmumbai and has established 13 STDs centers and 16 Voluntary Test Centres for STDs. Similarly, MDACS has launched AIDS Awareness Campaign all over Brihanmumbai.

8.9 MUMBAI PORT TRUST

8.9.1 Structure and Functioning of the Department

Administrative Set-up:

The management and administration of the Mumbai Port Trust are carried out by the Chairman for and on behalf of the Board of Trustees constituted under the provisions of the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963. The Chairman is assisted by Deputy Chairman and Heads of Department.

For administrative convenience, working of the Port is divided broadly among the following departments. Each "Head of Department" who is appointed by the Ministry of Shipping, functions within the powers delegated to him under the provisions of the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963.

General Administration Department:

The General Administration Department functions as a Secretariat of the Port Trust and its other functions and responsibilities, inter-alia include personnel matters, labour issues, management of legal matters, security affairs, public relations, watch and ward, estate, inter departmental co-ordination and assistance to the Chairman/Deputy Chairman in day-to-day matters regarding information, direction and policy.

Traffic Department

Traffic Department is headed by the Traffic Manager. This Department is responsible for all operations connected with landing, receipt, storage, delivery and shipment of goods and documentation relating thereto, embarkation and disembarkation of passengers, control of traffic in Port Area, an terminal railway operations.

Civil Engineering Department

Civil Engineering Department is headed by the Chief Engineer. This Department is responsible for all the Civil Engineering works being executed by the Port Trust. The duties of this department inter-alia comprise construction, maintenance and repairs of the quays/jetties, sheds, buildings, roads, railways, water supply drainage repairs, capital dredging and development of land acquired by the Port.

Finance Department

The Finance Department is headed by the Financial Advisor and Chief Accounts Officer. This Department is responsible for the preparation of budget estimates, investment of surplus funds, maintenance of accounts of income/expenditure, proposals involving finance, checking estimates for work, etc. Besides, the department arranges the internal audit of the various departments and carries out periodical verification of stores and inventories

Medical Department

The Medical Department is headed by the Chief Medical Officer. This Department looks after the Medical Services of the Port Trust

Mechanical Engineering Department

The Mechanical Engineering Department is headed by the Chief Mechanical Engineer. This Department looks after the operation and maintenance of Mechanical Ore Handling Plant, other cargo handling equipment and all other mechanical/electrical works of the port. This department is also responsible for acquisition, installation and maintenance of the Port crafts, locomotives, wagons, other items of machinery and automobiles. A fully equipped Mechanical/Electrical Workshop is maintained by this Department to cater to all the maintenance work.

Marine Department

The Marine Department is headed by the Deputy Conservator. This department is in-charge of all the navigation and marine conservancy services which include pilotage, berthing/un-berthing of vessels, marine surveys, salvaging operations, receiver of wreck, etc. The various crafts like mooring barge, tugs, survey/pilot launches, etc. are also manned and operated under this department. This department also carries out the maintenance dredging and is in-charge of the fire fighting and pollution control services and also communication services between ships and the Port.

Planning and Management Services Department:

This Department is headed by the Director. It is in-charge of the corporate planning, economic evaluation of future projects and plans, preparation of feasibility reports, and collection, compilation, analysis and maintenance of comprehensive data on traffic, shipping and utilization of port equipment and crafts, submission of management information, dissemination of information to Ministry and other agencies, traffic forecast, market surveys and trade promotion, Port's hinterland studies, inhouse training and human resources development, centralized record keeping system, library, information and publicity services.

Materials Management Department:

Headed by the Materials Manager, this Department is in-charge of procurement, stocking and inventory control of all the stores, materials, consumables required for Port Operations and maintenance including acquisition of spares for the Port's Mechanical Ore Handling Plant and floating crafts like, tugs, dredgers, launches, etc.

Cargo Handling Labour Department:

This Department is headed by the Chief Manager. The function of the Department is to ensure greater regularity of employment to dock workers and to ensure that an adequate number of dock workers is available for the efficient performance of dock work.

8.9.2 Accidents Occurred During 2001 :

Sr.No.CausationFatalNon-Fatal
PortAreaNon-PortAreaPortAreaNon-PortArea
1Striking against object5--40--
2Falling of object----
3Person falling----
4Others----
Total5--40--

Cargo Handled in lakh tones during 2000-01 and 2001-02 atMPT:

 2001-022000-01
Coastal Cargo81.388.2
Overseas Cargo165.6155.6
Total246.9243.8

8.10 JAWAHARLAL NEHRU PORT TRUST

8.10.1 Structure and Functioning of the Department

Administrative Set-up:

The management and administration of the IN Port Trust are carried out by the Chairman for and on behalf of the Board of Trustees constituted under the provisions of the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963. The Chairman is assisted by Deputy Chairman and Heads of Department.

For administrative convenience, working of the Port is divided broadly among the following departments. Each "Head of Department" who is appointed by the Ministry of Shipping, functions within the powers delegated to him under the provisions of the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963

GeneralAdministration Department:

The General Administration Department functions as a Secretariat of the Port Trust headed by Chief Manager (Administration and Secretary) and its other functions and responsibilities, inter­-alia include personnel matters, labour issues, management of legal matters, security affairs, public relations, watch and ward, estate, inter departmental co­ordination and assistance to the Chairman/Deputy Chairman in day-to-day matters regarding information, direction and policy.

Traffic Department:

Traffic Department is headed by the Chief Manager (Operations). This Department is responsible for all operations connected with landing, receipt, storage, delivery and shipment of goods and documentation relating thereto, embarkation and disembarkation of passengers, control of traffic in Port Area, and terminal railway operations.

Civil Engineering Department:

Civil Engineering Department is headed by the Chief Manager (PPD). This Department is responsible for all the Civil Engineering works being executed by the Port Trust. The duties of this department inter-alia comprise construction, maintenance and repairs of the quays/jetties, sheds, buildings, roads, railways, water supply drainage repairs, capital dredging and development of land acquired by the Port.

Finance Department:

The Finance Department is headed by the Financial Advisor and Chief Accounts Officer. This Department is responsible for the preparation of budget estimates, investment of surplus funds, maintenance of accounts of income/expenditure, proposals involving finance, checking estimates for work, etc. Besides, the department arranges the internal audit of the various departments and carries out periodical verification of stores and inventories.

Medical Department:

The Medical Department is headed by the Chief Medical Officer. This Department looks after the Medical Services of the Port Trust.

Mechanical Engineering Department :

The Mechanical Engineering Department is headed by the Chief Manager (Operations). This Department looks after the operation and maintenance of Mechanical Ore Handling Plant, other cargo handling equipment and all other mechanical/electrical works. of the port. This department is also responsible for acquisition, installation and maintenance of the Port crafts, locomotives, wagons, other items of machinery and automobiles. A fully equipped Mechanical/Electrical Workshop is maintained by this Department to cater to all the maintenance work.

Marine Department:

The Marine Department is headed by the Deputy Conservator. This department is in-charge of all the navigation and marine conservancy services which include pilotage, berthing/un-berthing of vessels, marine surveys, salvaging operations, receiver of wreck, etc. The various crafts like mooring barge, tugs, survey/pilot launches, etc. are also manned and operated under this department. This department also carries out the maintenance dredging and is in-charge of the fire fighting and pollution control services and also communication services between ships and the Port.

Planning and Management Services Department:

This Department is headed by the Chief Manager (PPD). It is in-charge of the corporate planning, economic evaluation of future projects and plans, preparation of feasibility reports, and collection, compilation, analysis and maintenance of comprehensive data on traffic, shipping and utilization of port equipment and crafts, submission of management information, dissemination of information to Ministry and other agencies, traffic forecast, market surveys and trade promotion, Port’s hinterland studies, in-house training and human resources development, centralized record keeping system, library, information and publicity services.

Materials Management Department:

Headed by the Chief Manager (Operations), this Department is in-charge of procurement, stocking and inventory control of all the stores, materials, consumables required for Port Operations and maintenance including acquisition of spares and floating crafts’ like, tugs, dredgers, launches, etc.

Cargo Handling Labour Department:

This Department is headed by the Chief Manager. The function of the Department is to ensure greater regularity of employment to dock workers and to ensure that an adequate number of dock workers is available for the efficient performance of dock work.

8.10.2 Cargo Handled at JNPT in lakh Tons:

2001-02 : 225

2000-01 : 186

8.10.3 Cargo handled at 48 minor ports in 2001-02 was 49.77 lakh tones as against 60.40 lakh tones during 2000-0 I.

8.11 DIRECTORATE GENERAL FACTORY ADVICE SERVICE AND LABOUR INSTITUTES (DGFASLI)

8.11.1 Introduction:

The Directorate General of Factory Advice Service & Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) formerly known as Chief Adviser of Factories was set up in 1945 in Delhi, with the objective of advising the Central and State Governments on administration of the Factories Act and liaisoning of factories inspection services in the States. The office was subsequently shifted to Mumbai in 1966.

DGFASLI achieved significant importance as an attached office of the Ministry of Labour, Government of India serving as a technical arm to assist the Ministry in formulation of National policies on Occupational Safety and Health in Factories and Docks.

The Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Act 1986 and the Regulations 1990 provide for Safety, Health and Welfare of dock workers. These are enforced by the DGFASLI through the Inspectorates of Dock Safety set up in all the major ports in India.

8.11.2 Functions:

  • Rendering advice and carrying out support research activities for the administration of the Factories Act. and the Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Act ,1986.
  • Co-ordinating technical and legal activities to facilitate uniform standards of enforcement of safety and health in manufacturing and port sectors.
  • Administering the Dock Workers (Safety, Health & Welfare) Act, 1986 and Regulations framed there under and enforcing them in the major ports of the country.
  • Educating and training employers and employees on matters relating to safety and health.
  • Conducting promotional activities by operating schemes for recognition of good suggestions under Vishwakarma Rashtriya Puraskar and good safety performance under National Safety Awards on behalf of the Ministry.
  • Co-operating with International Agencies like ILO, WHO, UNDP and advising the Central Government in adoption of the international standards concerning safety and health.
  • Training of foreign nationals and rendering expert advice to developing countries.
  • Building Competence of enforcement agencies.
  • Issuing approval to flameproof electrical enclosures.
  • Collecting and disseminating information and material relating to safety and health.

8.11.3 Organisation

DGFASLI organisation comprises of the headquarters, the 5 Labour Institutes and 11 Inspectorates of Dock Safety.

  • Headquarters situated in Mumbai
  • Central Labour Institute in Mumbai
  • Regional Labour Institutes in Kolkata, Chennai, Kanpur and Faridabad
  • Inspectorates of Dock Safety at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Kandla, Mormugao, Tuticorin, New Mangalore, Cochin, Visakhapatnam, Paradip and Jawaharlal Nehru Port.

In 1959, the Central Labour Institute, Mumbai was established under UNDP Project as a socio-economic laboratory and as a national institute dealing with scientific study of all human aspects of industrial development. Subsequently, Regional Labour Institutes were established at Kolkata, Kanpur, Chennai and Faridabad to serve as Regional Centres.

The Labour Institutes are fully equipped with necessary laboratory facilities for conducting studies and surveys in the field of safety and health. The Institutes are also having conference facilities fully supported with modern audio-visual equipment. Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare Centres are also established at these Labour Institutes. Apart from this Mobile Safety Exhibition Van are also available for taking the massage of safety and health to the doorsteps of factories. Training Centres and Safety Exhibition Centre are also established in some of the inspectorates of dock safety.

The Regional Labour Institute at Faridabad is under construction. It is being operated from a rented premise.

8.11.4 Staff Strength

The organisation is headed by the Director General and assisted by three Deputy Director Generals, two posted in Headquarters looking after Factory Advise Services and Dock Safety aspects; and one posted in Central Labour Institute. Each of the divisions at Headquarters and CLI and RLIs are headed by officers at the level of Director.

The manpower inventory of the organization as on Ist January, 2002 is 446 as against the sanctioned strength of 530, which include 182 Technical personnel in position as against the sanctioned strength of 231 and 264 Administrative personnel as against the sanctioned strength of 299. The posts at RLI, Faridabad are yet to be created.

8.12 NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATION (NGO)

8.12.1 NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL

Background:

The National Safety Council (NSC) was set up on the 4th March, 1966 by the Ministry of Labour through seven signatories

Objectives:

The overall objective of the NSC is to generate, develop and sustain a voluntary movement of Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) at the national level.

Structure:

It is managed by a 51 Member Independent Board of Governors headed by Chairman who is nominated by the Government of India. The NSC has 14 Chapters, 27 Action Centres covering 21 States and one Union Territory.

Activities: The main activities of the NSC are

  • Training: Specialised and In-plant
  • Conferences, Seminars and Workshops
  • Safety Audit, Awareness Survey and Consultancy Services
  • NSCI Safety Awards
  • Campaigns - National Safety Day/Week, Fire Services Week, World Environment Day
  • Projects - National Safety Calendar, HSE Diary

* Publications, etc.

8.12.2 CENTRAL BOARD FOR WORKERS EDUCATION

Organizational Set-Up:

The Board has its headquarter at Nagpur. It operates through a network of 49 Regional Directorates and 9 Sub-Regional Directorates located in various parts of the country. There are four Zonal Directorates at Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai to monitor and supervise the training activities of the Regional Directorates in their respective zone.

The Board carries out its activities at three levels, viz. National, Regional and Unit and conducts various training programmes. The national level programmes are conducted by the Boar's apex training Institute called Indian Institute of Workers Education established in 1970 at Mumbai.

The primary aim of establishing the Indian Institute of Workers Education is to enable the Board to conduct national level training programmes for achieving its objectives, to develop stronger and more responsible trade unions, to promote the growth of democratic process in trade union organization and administration, to equip organized labour to take its place in a democratic society, to inculcate in them 'Nation First" approach based on community of interests.

The Institute serves as a demonstration and information center and acts as a nucleus around which specialized schemes for training and education to labour are evolved. It also serves as a clearing-house of knowledge for Regional and Sub-Regional Directorates of the Board. It conducts research in developing and perfecting methods and tools of teaching for Indian Workers.

The Institute is designed to function as an inter-disciplinary training center. Also draws experiences of foreign countries in implementation of workers education programmes and adapts them to fit in the Indian environment. It serves as a laboratory where certain experiments in the attitudinal changes are carried out.

Coverage:

Board's training programmes cover workers of organized, unorganized, rural and informal sectors. Supervisory and managerial cadres are also covered through Joint Educational Programmes. High-level self-financing seminars are also organized for top-level executives and Trade Union leaders

8.12.3 LOSS PREVENTION ASSOCIATION OF INDIA LTD. (LPA)

Introduction:

LPA is a non-profit organization having its headquarter at Mumbai and branch offices at New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad and Kochi Employs a team of professionals from various technological fields to carry out its activities. Many of the services offered by LPA can be availed by its associate members only.

Activities:

Engaged in promoting safety and loss control through education, training, seminars, workshops and consultancy. The training programmes are designed for supervisory and managerial personnel. Disseminate information through its quarterly journal - Loss Prevention News and Road Safety Digest.

Resources available and needed

RESOURCES AVAILABLE AND NEEDED FOR MANAGEMENT OF OSH

During the study, the team visited departments and organizations dealing with occupational safety and health in the manufacturing sector with a view to establish inventory of occupational safety and health information in the State of Maharashtra. The activities of these departments and resources available at their disposal were examined to determine the problems faced by the organizations in the matters of occupational safety and health and further resources needed in order to effectively manage occupational safety and health at the state level.

The scope of the study was limited to cover the organizations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident forms. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, availability of safety reports, creches, etc. as per the provisions of the Factories Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was beyond the defined scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, more elaborate in-­depth study is required to be taken up to get comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.

The findings and recommendations, as brought out during the study of the data based on the year 2001, are summarized below:

RECOMMENDATIONS

  • In the year 2001, in the state of Maharashtra, 177 fatal injuries and 9159 non-fatal injuries occurred. A District-wise annual action plan may be prepared by the DISH to reduce the high number of accidents.
  • All the field offices should be provided with computer and required software to keep the accident records, annual returns, etc. updated. Connectivity should be provided with the Head office of DISH and Statistical Cell of DGFASLI to facilitate keeping of updated records and its ready availability.
  • Emphasis should be laid on a system to develop on-line submission of annual returns, notification of accidents, etc. by factories.
  • During the year 2001, there were 177 fatal accidents, out of which 32 persons died in explosion. Therefore, due consideration should be given for work environment monitoring, especially for the chemical industries.
  • The second major cause of fatal accidents was 'persons falling' in which 28 persons died. Also due to this cause 1080 non-fatal accidents occurred. The industries may be advised to take adequate precautions for 'working at height>
  • Third major cause of fatal accidents was fire in which 24 persons died. Adequate precautions for fire prevention should be taken in factories as required under the Maharashtra Factories Rule, 1963. Regular fire drills should be undertaken and records maintained.
  • Fourth major contributing factor of fatal accidents is by 'machinery moved by mechanical means in which 23 persons expired and 1613 injured. This reveals that adequate safety precautions were not taken to guard the moving parts. Another reason for above could be the change of job of these workers without proper training/retraining in the safety and health related aspect pertaining to their jobs.
    It is recommended that the need for training and retraining of workers in safety and health aspects at regular intervals, and also when there is a change in their job should be brought to the notice of the occupiers or managers. Further, the occupiers can also be directed to introduce a suggestion scheme/incentive scheme and other motivational tools for promoting safety and health at work place.
  • Almost 30% of non-fatal accidents were caused due to fall of persons, fall of object, stepping, striking and struck against and about 20% are due to caught in between objects. This may be due to bad housekeeping, improper work procedure, unsafe system of work, unsafe operating procedures, etc.
    It is recommended that the occupiers or the managers of the factories should be intimated about their statutory obligations for designing and implementing, maintaining good housekeeping, suitable>
  • Material handling, tools, implements, appliances used on the shop floor, machines and indoors are the major agencies causing accidents.
    It is, therefore, suggested that the occupiers/managers of the factories should be advised on:
    • design, maintenance and proper use of material handling equipment
    • safe use of tools, appliances and equipment
    • adequate guarding of machinery, and
    • plant layout and housekeeping
  • The analysis of accidents with respect to the location of injuries reveals that maximum percentage of the bodily injury has occurred to Upper Limb Portion. The head, hands and foot are the body parts, which are frequently injured in accidents. This indicates that proper protection of these body parts is not ensured at workplace. Therefore the occupiers should be advised to provide appropriate personal protective equipment to their workers and ensure its proper use.
  • The Department of Health Services in the State has 1768 Primary Health Centres, 9725 Sub-centers besides 1544 Rural medical dispensaries and 1102 hospitals.
    It is suggested that all medical practitioners in these hospitals should also be exposed/trained in occupational health. Their extensive training in the field of occupational health will improve their skills in early detection or diagnosis of occupational diseases and will help them in recommending suitable action to the workers and employers. By this way, the status of occupational health of the workers employed in factories could be improved.
  • Employees Insurance Medical Services Department in the State provides the medical services to the workers covered under the ESIC Act, 1948. The workers are referred to the hospitals for diagnosis and treatment.
    It is suggested that a programme for close coordination between ESIC, ESI Hospitals (The Insurance Medical Services Department) and Directorate of Industrial Safety and Health should be prepared for early detection, diagnosis and prevention of occupational diseases. This will facilitate' taking appropriate preventive measures by the inspectors of factories in order to eliminate or control the causative working conditions in various factories. This will improve the status of occupational health of the working class in the long run.
  • The programme on control of fire incidents could be prepared in collaboration with Fire Brigade Department, Industries Association and Directorate of Industrial Safety and Health. This programme should include, approval of fire fighting plans, formulation of mutual aid scheme and establishment of emergency response centers in various industrial pockets of the states.
  • In addition to what is being done by the non-governmental organizations, various employers association in the state should also take up the activities in the field of safety and health on a large scale. This should include organizing seminars and workshops, debates for senior executives from the industries and trade union leaders, etc. In these seminars and workshops the issues arising out of liberalization, globalization, modem manufacturing techniques and developments, new innovations in the field of manufacturing, etc. vis-a-vis their impact on safety, health and welfare of the workers should be discussed.
  • In order to promote safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories, seminars and workshops should be organized for increasing the awareness level of union leaders in the field. The unit level union leaders should be involved in training and education of workers in the field of safety and health. In such programmes, more emphasis should be given on the role of union leaders in promotion of safety and health at the workplace. The trade union leaders may be sponsored by the units to attend safety and health training programmes conducted by reputed organizations, like the Central Labour Institute, Mumbai. The Central Board of Workers Education may also arrange such programmes for trade union leaders.
  • While collecting the statistics regarding the factories as well as accidents, it was found by the study team that although the factories were submitting the annual returns in the prescribed format to the DISH in time, but due to shortage of manpower and facilities, the collected information could not be processed and the trends regarding various parameters on occupational safety and health could not be established.
    It is, therefore, suggested that all field level officers should be equipped with suitable computer facilities and adequate manpower for quick flow of information. Full-time statistical staff may be appointed to maintain the records of annual returns properly. This arrangement will also improve the communication among the offices of the DISH leading to effective implementation of the orders issued under the provisions of the Factories Act. This will improve the communication with other Labour Departments/ Offices and DGFASLI.
  • In order to review the status of safety, health and welfare in the factories and formulate action plan on the basis of findings, time to time, a tripartite state level committee on Occupational Safety and Health should be constituted under the Chairmanship of the Labour Minister. In this committee, representatives of Government Departments connected with factories and labour, representatives of employers' and employees' can be included. This is also in line with the recommendations made by the Standing Labour Committee to the Indian Labour Conference.
  • A web-site of the DISH may be opened for giving details of various requirements of industries, NGOs and public. Facilities to download the information, forms may be provided.
  • More than 500 factories required preparation of Safety Policy. They may be advised to comply the requirement at an early date.
  • Safety Committees are yet to be constituted in more than 500 factories. They may be persuaded to comply the requirement.
  • It has been observed 72 MAH units are yet to prepare On-Site Emergency Plan. These MAH units may be advised and persuaded to prepare the On-Site Emergency Plan as per legal requirement.

Annexures

ANNEXURE - I

THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 ( AMENDED 1987 ), 1948
THE THIRD SCHEDULE
(See section 89 and 90)

List of notifiable diseases

  • Lead poisoning including poisoning by any preparation or compound of lead or their sequelae.
  • Lead tetra-ethyl poisoning.
  • Phosphorous poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Mercury poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Manganese poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Arsenic poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Poisoning by nitrous fumes.
  • Carbon bisulphide poisoning.
  • Benzene poisoning, including poisoning by any of its homologues, their nitro or amido derivatives or its sequelae.
  • Chrome ulceration or its sequelae.
  • Anthrax.
  • Silicosis.
  • Poisoning by halogens or halogen derivatives of the hydrocarbons, of the aliphatic series.
  • Pathological manifestation due to : -
    • radium or other radioactive substances.
    • X-rays.
  • Primary epitheliomatous cancer of the skin.
  • Toxic anaemia.
  • Toxic jaundice due to poisonous substances.
  • Oil acne or dermatitis due to mineral oils and compounds containing mineral oil base.
  • Byssionosis.
  • Asbestosis.
  • Occupational or contact dermatitis caused by direct contract with chemical and paints. These are of types, that is, primary irritants and allergic sensitizers.
  • Noise induced hearing loss (exposure to high noise levels).
  • Beryllium poisoning.
  • Carbon monoxide.
  • Coal miners' pneumoconiosis.
  • Phosgene poisoning.
  • Occupational cancer.
  • Isocyanides poisoning.
  • Toxic nephritis.

ANNEXURE - II

EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE ACT, 1948
THE THIRD SCHEDULE
LIST OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES

PART A

Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Infectious and parastic diseases contracted in an occupation where there is a particular risk of contamination.
  • All work involving exposure to health or laboratory work;
  • All work involving exposure to veterinary work;
  • Work relating to handling animals, animals carcasses, part of such carcasses, or merchandise which may have been contaminated by animals or animal carcasses;
  • Other work carrying a particular risk of contamination.
2.Diseases caused by work in compressed air.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
3.Diseases caused by lead or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Poisoning by nitrous fumes.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Poisoning by organphosphorus compoundAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned

PART B

Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Diseases caused by phosphorus or toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.Diseases caused by mercury or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Diseases caused by benzene or its toxic homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Diseases caused by nitro and amino derivatives of benzene or its homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Diseases caused by chromium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
6.Diseases caused by arsenic or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
7.Diseases caused by radioactive substances and ionising radiations.All work involving exposure to the reaction of radioactive substances or ionising radiations.
8.Primary epithelomatous cancer of the skin caused by tar, pitch bitumen, mineral oil, anthracene or the compounds, products or residues of these substancesAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
9.Diseases caused toxic halogen derivatives by hydrocarbons (of the aliphatic and aromatic series).All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
10.Diseases caused by carbon disulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
11.Occupational cataract due to infra-red radiations.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
12.Diseases caused by manganese or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
13.Skin diseases caused by physical, chemical or biological agents not include in other items.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
14.Hearing impairment caused by noise.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
15.Poisoning by dinitrophenol or a homologue or by substituted dinitrophenol or by the salts of such substances.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
16.Diseases caused by beryllium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
17.Diseases caused by cadmium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
18.Occupational asthma caused by recognised sensitising agents inherent to the work process.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
19.Diseases caused by fluorine or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
20.Diseases caused by nitroglycerine or other nitroacid esters.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
21.Diseases caused by alcohols and ketones.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
22.Diseases caused by asphyxiants; carbon monoxide, and its toxic derivatives, hydrogen sulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
23.Lung cancer and mesotheliomas caused by asbestos.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
24.Primary neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder or the kidneys or the ureter.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned

PART C

Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Pneumoconiosis caused by sclerogenic mineral dust (silicosis, anthraoosilicosis asbestosis) and silico-tuberculosis provided that silicosis is an essential factor in causing the resultant incapacity or death.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.BagassosisAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by cotton, flax hemp and sisal dust (Byssinosis)All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Extrinsic allergic alvoelities caused by the inhalation of organic dusts.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by hard metals.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned