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In the present era of globalisation and opening up of the Indian economy there is a flow of new technology, products and resources to India. This influx with the modern technology is also bringing with it-associated problems. The problems are more complex when the issue of management of safety, health and environment is concerned. This necessitates designing of newer policies and programs. For the management of occupational safety and health through various instruments such as policies and programs it becomes essential to base these instruments on sound footing. This requires an assessment of the present status of occupational safety and health in the country. Presently information in this area is not up-to-date and readily available for the policy makers. A national inventory on capabilities and management of occupational safety and health will be of great help for designing and implementing various instruments to protect the safety and health of the large work force working in various sectors of the economy. India is a large country and building up such an inventory would be a monumental task and therefore needs to be done in a phased manner keeping in mind the various constraints. As such a project has been taken up for the state of Rajasthan with the objective to collect and compile various information on occupational safety and health and dissemination of information regarding extent of compliance with the important provisions under The Factories Act, 1948 and the rules framed there under including system of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases as per the ILO Code of Practice at the unit and the state level.

India is a member of International Labour Organization and has ratified number of ILO conventions. As a result, major part of the ILO code of practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational accidents and diseases is being followed along with the Indian Standard IS3786. However, there is a delay at the unit level as well as at the district level on the part of the industrial organizations and enforcing agencies in collection, processing and dissemination of the information. This project, in technical collaboration with ILO, aims at studying the existing system of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases at unit, district and state level, identifying the areas for improving and establishing the system, which is in line with the systems existing in other countries.

The project was taken up in the state of Rajasthan with aim of concentrating the following categories in special reference to industrial scenario in the State.

  • Background information about the state of Rajasthan
    Deals with the demographic and geographiccharacteristicof the state of Rajasthan, population in different districts and major occupations of the people.
  • Economic activities

    Deals with the various aspects of economic sectors in the state, their value ofproduction, employment generated and contribution to the GDP.

  • Activities in manufacturing sector

    Deals with the different activities carried out in the manufacturing sector as per the National Industrial Code, value of production,employment generation, etc.

  • Occupational injuries and diseases

    Deals with the analysis of the occupational injuries - fatal and non-fatal and cases of occupational diseases in the manufacturing sector, especially in organised sector, which are covered under the Factories Act, 1948.

  • Management of occupational safety and health

    Deals with the infrastructure and resources available at the unitlevel and the state level for managing the crucial issues of occupational safety and health as defined under The Factories Act, 1948.

  • Resources available and needed for the management of Occupational

Safety and health

Based on the analysis of occupational injuries and diseases and the capabilities available in the state of Rajasthan for the management of occupational safety and health, an attempt is made to assess the resources required forthe better management of occupational safety and health.

For the data collection, the task force have visited to the office Chief Inspector of Factories and Boilers, Rajasthan.. The information pertaining to various economic sectors was collected by visiting each of the departments, having detailed discussions with the respective heads and referring to the annual returns of these departments. The information related with the manufacturing sectors were collected from the annual returns submitted by the factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948. The data related to the occupational injuries was supplied by Chief Inspector of Factories and Boilers, Rajasthan and studying the accident reports and records on to the data sheets specifically designed for this purpose were analysed. The industry-wise, cause-wise details of accidents were also analysed by the study team.

For the assessment of infrastructure available and capabilities of the organizations, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health, the profile program on the similar lines as that developed by ILO was used

Data collection and analysis could be efficiently completed because of active co-operation from various people involved with the project.

Background information


Rajasthan , state in northwestern India, bordered on the north and northwest by Pakistan, on the northeast by Punjab state and Haryāna state, on the east by Uttar Pradesh state, on the east and southeast by Madhya Pradesh state, and on the southwest by Gujarāt state. Rājasthān covers an area of 342,239 sq km (132,139 sq mi).

In the west, Rājasthān is relatively dry and infertile; this area includes some of the Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert. In the southwestern part of the state, the land is wetter, hilly, and more fertile. The climate varies throughout Rājasthān. On average winter temperatures range from 8° to 28° C (46° to 82° F) and summer temperatures range from 25° to 46° C (77° to 115° F). Average rainfall also varies; the western deserts accumulate about 100 mm (about 4 in) annually, while the southeastern part of the state receives 650 mm (26 in) annually, most of which falls from July through September during the monsoon season.

In 2001 Rājasthān had a population of 56,473,122, with an average density of 165 persons per sq km (427 per sq mi). The capital is Jaipur. The population of Rājasthān includes Rajput, Bhil, Minas, and other ethnic groups. The majority of the people practice Hinduism, although Jainism and Islam are also significant religions in the state. Rājasthān's main languages are Rajasthani and Hindi. The literacy rate in 1991 was 39 percent. Universities located in Rājasthān include Mohan Lal Sukhadia University (founded in 1962) in Udaipur, Rājasthān Agricultural University (1988) in Bīkāner, and the University of Rājasthān (1947) in Jaipur.

Rājasthān's economy is mainly agricultural; millet, wheat, maize (corn), and cotton are grown. Cotton mills and cement works are located in the state, but handicrafts are the main industry. Tourism is also an important part of the economy. A main tourist attraction is the striking Jaisalmer Fort (built in 1156). Additionally, the state contains many interesting Buddhist, Jain, and Mughal ruins.

Rājasthān has a single-chamber legislative assembly with 200 seats. The state sends 35 members to the Indian national parliament: 10 to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) and 25 to the Lok Sabha (Lower House). Local government is based on 30 administrative districts. Most of the state was formed between 1948 and 1950 from the former principalities of Rajputana.


The adjoining states of Rajasthan are Madhya Pradesh, Gujrat, Haryana Uttar Pradesh. Most of the area of the state is plane and the main crops are Cereals, Pulses and Oil Seeds,. The area under forest is 13871 Sq Kilometre

2.1.1 Land area

The Land area of Rajasthan State is 342 Thousand sq. km, which is about 11.3 percent of the total area of Indian Union. The Land use pattern in the state and its comparison with India & percent share is shown in Table - 1


 Land UsePercentage Share of Rajasthan
1Net area shown46.30
3Area under non agricultural uses5.08
4Barren and unculturable land7.49
5Parmanent pastures and other grazing lands4.98
6Land under missaleneous tree crops and groves0.04
7Culturable waste land14.32
8Fallow land (Other than current fallow)7.13
9Current fallow7.05
 Total Land Area34264789 Hectares
2.1.2 Administration

The State has a legislative assembly of members 200. The state is also represented by 25 Members of Parliament in Lok Sabha and 10 Members of Parliament in Rajya Sabha at central. The State is divided into 32 administrative districts. These districts are further subdivided in 241 Tahsils.Which covers 41353 villages, 9187 Gram panchyats and 237 Panchayat Samiti.The Hon'ble High Court of the state is situated at Jaipur.


2.2.1 Population

As per the records of Census 2001, the total population of Rajasthan is about 56.51 millions which is about 5.49 percent of the total population of the country. The density of population in the State is about 165 persons per sq. km. The male female ratio of the state is 921 female per thousand males. The percentage growth of population in the State is 28.41%, in comparison to the 1991-2001 decade. Total population of the state includes 17.2% Schedule Caste, 12.6 Schedule Tribe.

2.2.2 Language

The State official language of the State is Hindi. A good number of people speak Urdu and Marwadi for their day-to-day work.

2.2.3 Literacy rate

Rajasthan has a literacy rate of 60.4 percent of India. The male literacy rate is 75.70 % and female literacy rate is 43.90%. Similar figures for all India are 64.4%, 75.8% and 54.2% respectively.

Table - 2

Working population
S.No.DetailNo. Of persons
1.Working population2,37,66,655
 bAgricultural Workers60,77,340
 cOther Workers81,02,870
( Source Census 2001, Jangarna Nideshalaya Rajasthan)


The sect oral distribution of the state income during 2000-01 was Rs.4433502 Lakhs.


Estimated Sectoral distribution of the state income (2000-01)

SectorPercentage distribution
Agriculture including Animal Husbandry25.74
Manufacturing (a) Registered
(b) Unregistered
{5.20} = 11.16
Electricity,gas and water supply5.24
Other transport and storage1.97
Trade,Hotals and Restaurants14.28
Banking and Insurance4.93
Real Estate5.62
Public Administration4.41
Other Services9.32

2.3.1 Agriculture

The main food crops of the state are Bajra,Wheat, Rice and pulses. Main non food crops are Oilseeds, Pulses,and vegetable>


Food grain cropsNon Food grain Crops
Rice174.51Ground nut (oil seeds)204.62
Jawar120.00Sesamum “100.31
Bajra44.90Castor seed “4060.46
Maize264.68Rape seed &Mustered456.71
Small Mills19.19Linseed26.72
Wheat207.29Cotton fibre186.76
Barley76.96Sanhemp fibre15.06
Ture (Pulse)98.61Sugar cane44.78
Gram Pulse41.58Tobacco45.12
Other Kharif Pulses140.44Spices and Condiments229.71
Other Rabi Pulses216.96Vegetable>849.39

Source :- Rajasthan,Diary 2002 The area under cultivation:

During the year 2000-2001, the actual agricultural land use pattern in Rajasthan waw as follows:

Net area sown16.07 lakhs Hectares
Area sown more than once05.33 lakhs Hectares
Total cropped area21.40 lakhs Hectares Area under irrigation:

During the year 2000-2001 Net irrigated area was 49 lakh hectares. The major sources of irrigation are Tube Well and canals. About 70.77% of the total land is irrigated by wells and tube-wells followed by 27.59% by canals. Electricity generation and consumption

The electricity generation capacity of the state during 2000-2001 was 2518 Megawatt. The total consumption of electricity is 16693 mega watt hour. During the year 8915.804,2894.541 and 228.656 million KWH electricity is generated by thermal power, Hydropower and gas respectively. The details of consumption is as below


SectorPercentage Consumption
Public Utilities4.43

The above table indicates that nearly 42.21% electricity is consumed in Agriculture sector followed by 27.06 in industrial sector. Per capita electricity available in 2000-01 was 433.38 and per capita consumption of electricity was 300.52. The state has some surplus electricity, which at times exported, to the other states.

Manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948


The manufacturing is one of the very important economic sectors in the State of Rajasthan contributing 8.6 percent to the state income. It covers units registered under The Factories Act, 1948 (Amended 1987), as well as those not registered under this act. As per the provisions of the Act, a manufacturing unit is to be registered if manufacturing process is carried on with the aid of power and 10 or more persons are employed or manufacturing process is carried on without the aid of power and 20 or more persons are employed.

The State Government is also empowered to notify any unit carrying on manufacturing process as a factory irrespective of number of persons employed therein.


3.1.1Working Factories

In the State of Rajasthan once a factory is registered it is considered as working factory till its name is removed from the list of registered factories. Therefore, it is estimated that there are 12104 factories in the State.

It is evident from the table No 1 that sector manufacturing food product is having largest number of factories the total number of such factories are 3701 which is about 30.5% of the total number of factories of the state. Manufacture of wood and wood products, furniture and fixtures is the second largest sector having 2750 factories and third largest sector is manufacture of non mineral metallic products.

Under the provisions of the Central Act and under Special notifications issued by the State Government defence factories are exempted from submission of annual returns. However it has been noticed that very few factories are submitting the Annual Return. Non-receipt of annual returns by the factories is a serious problem, which restrict the Directorate of Industrial Health and Safety and other agencies for better planning in the field of industrial safety & health. Insufficient information may mislead the policy makers.


Distribution of Factories as per NIC Code
200-219Manufacturing of food products95110.17
220-229Manufacture of Beverages, Tobacco and Related Products
230-236Manufacture of Cotton Textiles144815.50
240-248Manufacture of wool, silk and man-made fibre textiles
250-259Manufacture of jute and other vegetable>
260-269Manufacture of textile products (including wearing apparel)1181.26
270-279Manufacture of wood and wood products; furniture and fixtures181619.44
280-289Mfg. of paper and paper products and printing, publishing & allied industries1691.81
290-299Manufacture of leather and products of leather, fur & substitutes of leather550.59
300-309Mfg.of basic chemicals & chemical products(except products of petroleum and coal)5065.4210.17
310-319Mfg. of Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum and Coal Products; Processing of Nuclear Fuels2983.19
320-329Manufacture of non-metallic mineral products185419.85
330-339Basic metal and alloys industries4755.09
340-349Manufacture of metal products and parts, excepts machinery and equipment1641.76
350-369Manufacture of machinery and equipment other than transport equipment3934.21
370-379Manufacture of transport equipment and parts610.65
380-389Other Manufacturing Industries2052.19
390-399Repair of Capital goods--
400-439Electricity, Gas and Water2472.65
740-749Storage & warehousing services--
970-979Repair services1771.89
Misc. 4044.33
Total 9341100


Details of Factories Registered under the Factories Act 1948 (Amended) 1948

YearNo of Registered FactoriesNo of factories submitted returnsMan days workedNo of MenNo of WomenNo of workersNo of fy not sub. returnsNo of estimated workersTotal no of workersNo of Factoires closed
3.1.2 Employment in registered factories

As per NIC Code (1987), employment details in the manufacturing sector comprising of registered factories is given in Table

Nic code (1987)DescriptionAverage No. of persons employedPercentage(%)
220-219Manufacturing of food products214915.92
220-229Manufacture of Beverages, Tobacco and Related Products
230-236Manufacture of Cotton Textiles11699532.22
240-248Manufacture of wool, silk and man-made fibre textiles
250-259Manufacture of jute and other vegetable>
260-269Manufacture of textile products (including wearing apparel)78352.26
270-279Manufacture of wood and wood products; furniture and fixtures122523.40
280-289Mfg. of paper and paper products and printing, publishing & allied industries52151.55
290-299Manufacture of leather and products of leather, fur & substitutes of leather34120.95
300-309Mfg. of basic chemicals & chemical products(except products of petroleum and coal)236816.55
310-319Mfg. of Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum and Coal Products; Processing of Nuclear Fuels107212.95
320-329Manufacture of Non-metallic mineral product5931216.35
330-339Basic metal and alloys industries240946.65
340-349Manufacture of metal products and parts, excepts machinery and equipment43241.20
350-369Manufacture of machinery and equipment other than transport equipment249717.00
370-379Manufacture of transport equipment and parts52031.45
380-389Other Manufacturing Industries83022.30
390-399Repair of Capital goods--
400-439Electricity, Gas and Water77572.15
740-749Storage & warehousing services--
97Repair services176944.94
Misc. 98252.10
Total 363084100

Manufacture of Cotton textile, wool and silk is employs largest number of persons 1,16,995. It represents 32.20%of the total workforce employed in factories. Manufacturing of non metallic mineral products is the second largest sector employing 59312(16.34%) workers and Manufacture of Machinery and equipment other than transport equipment is the third largest sector employing 6.88% of the total workforce in the organized sector

Occupational injuries in manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948


The state of Rajasthan has 9341 number of registered industries covered under The Factories Act, 1948. during the year 2002 . In the year 2002 there are 1997 reportable accidents in these factories. Out of which 57 are fatal and 1940 non-fatal injuries. The task force have received the detailed information from the office of the Chief inspector factories and boilers which is being appended in various tables given in this chapter.. .

For classification of accidents the Indian Standards 3786-1983 titled “Method for computation of frequency and severity rates in industrial injuries” and classification of industrial accidents along with the ILO code of practice on recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases were used. The industries were classified according to the industrial classification – 1987 NIC Code. The fatal and non-fatal injuries have been dealt with separately and a number of injuries have been taken for each group of industries.

The officers of the, Chief inspector factories and boilers Rajasthan invariably investigate all fatal accidents and significant non-fatal accidents and all instance of fire in detail. If it is found during the investigation that the accidents or occurrences have been due to deliberate negligence on the part of management in ensuring safe practices and operations, the management is apprised of the negligence in inspection report and prosecution is launched; in the court of law. The deterrent action of launching prosecution is not only with a view to avoid recurrence but to emphasize the implementation of safe practices as well. Apart from this, the management is also advised to take more specific safety measures to avoid the repetition of such accidents. It is also ensured by follow up inspections that such recommendations are fully implemented. An accident analysis data since 1995 till 2002 is given in the table


Industrial injuries in factories, rate of accident in Rajasthan.

YearAverage Daily EmploymentAccidents
FatalNon fatal
No Of AccidentsRate of AccidentNo Of AccidentsRate of Accident
19973065494.2.2 Cause wise :
The analysis of the 1940 non fatal injuries shows that about 60.82% of the total accidents are caused due to unspecified reasons and 15% of the accidents are caused wherein the workers are caught in between the moving parts of the machine while working on machine and doing repair and maintenance work. About 9.58% of the accidents have occurred because of persons striking/struck against the machine. Cause wise details have been given in table


CodeType of accidentNo. of accidentsPercentage of the accidents against total accidents
10Fall of persons975.0
11Fall of objects336.86
12Stepping, striking, struck against1869.58
13Caught in between objects29115
14Over exertions or wrong movement--
15Expo. to or contact with
extreme temp.
16Expo. to or contact with
electric objects
17Expo. to or contact with
harmful subs.

4.2.3 Agency wise:

Out of number of 20 agencies it is seen from the table that about 43.35% and 24.64% of the injuries have occurred due to other agencies and while handling goods /articles respectively. 9.60% of the accidents are caused by other means of transport. Details are given in Table


CodeAgencyNo. of accidentsPercentage of the accidents against total accidents
201Prime Movers30.15
202Transmission machinery542.78
203Metal working machine311.60
204Wood & Associated m/c90.46
209Other machines60.31
213Other wheeled Means of Trans.211.08
219Other means of trans.1869.60
221Pressure vessels80.41
224Electrical installations140.72
226Tools, implements & appliances924.74
227Ladders, mobile ramps1336.85
229Other equipments60.31
232Dust, gases, liquid & chemicals40.21
233Flying objects--
239Other materials & subs.160.82
242Indoor (Includes handling good/articles,falling,striking against etc.)47824.64
262Other agencies84143.35
4.2.6 Age and Sex wise:

Of the injured, 100% persons were male. It was informed by the Inspectorate that the figure related to age wise injuries and insurance wise are not available at the headquarter as indicated in table 7A and 7B below.


SexNo. of accidentsPercentage of the accidents against total accidents


CODEAgeNo.of accidentsPercentage of the accidents against total accidents
C18 to < 36NA 
D36 to < 51NA 
E51 to < 61NA 
F61 & aboveNA 
XNot KnownNA 

Occupational diseases and poisoning in manufacturing activities


ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases defines occupational diseases as “a disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activity.” Under Section 89 of The Factories Act, 1948 where any worker in a factory contacts any diseases specified in the Third schedule (Annexure-I), the manager of the factory shall send a notice thereof to such authorities and in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.

The Factories Act 1948 also stipulates that medical practitioner attending on a person who is or has been employed in a factory and is suffering from diseases specified in the Third Schedule shall without delay send a report in writing to the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories and Boilers Rajasthan.

5.1 Employees State Insurance Scheme

This scheme is implemented under E S I Act ,1948 in those factorises and other establishments where number of workers are 10 in case of power driven factories and more than 20 in case of non –power driven factories. The benefits like medical treatment for self and family, maternity benefits, compensation, rehabilitation etc. are given to the workers covered under the scheme.

5.2 Medical facilities in the state

The state has 12247 Government medical Institutions (modern Medicine) during the year 2000-01. In addition to the modern medicine the state also has 3826 number of Ayurvedic, Unani and Homeopathic institutions.

There exists 4535 population per medical institution, 1466 population per bed and 9097 population per doctor in the State.

Following allopathic hospitals and dispensaries existsin the state of Rajasthan.

Table - 1

YearHospitalDispensaryMother and child Welfare centrePrimary health centresAid postSub-centresTotal

5.3 Medical Examination

Medical examination Report of Workers for the period 1998-99 to 2002-03 by Factory Inspector (Medical ), CIF& B, Rajasthan

Table - 2

Sr. No.yearNo. of Factories InspectedDetails of Inspections (Medical examinations, necessary health instructions and elementary education programmes related to occupational diseases) for
11998-199940 Units200 Workers
21999-200050 Units250 Workers
32000-200155 Units300 Workers
42001-200253 Units250 Workers
52002-200360 Units400 Workers

In addition to above continuous educational programmes , First Aid training camps were also organised on occupational diseases .

Management of occupational safety and health at unit level


This chapter deals with the management of occupational safety and health at the unit level, i.e. manufacturing units. The state has a total number of 9341 manufacturing units the break-up of which according to factories registered under section 2(m), section 85 of the Factories Act 1948 is given in Chapter-3.. In order to have a fair idea, about the safety and health status in these units, the following specific provisions on safety and health have been covered under this chapter: -

  • Safety Policy
  • Appointment of Safety Officers
  • Safety Committee
  • Occupational Health Centers (FMO, Ambulance)
  • Welfare (WO, Canteen, Crèche, Lunch room, shelter etc.)
  • On-site Emergency Plans
  • Notification of site and Safety reports
  • Safety Audits
  • Off-Site Emergency Plan
  • Industrial Hygiene Laboratory

There are certain statutory requirements as provided under the Factories Act, 1948, and Rules framed there under, for each of the aspects stated above. Items 6.6 to 6.9 are additional requirement exclusively applicable to MAH installations, which are covered by separate set of rules. Each of the aspect with its status has been discussed in the following paragraphs.


The provision for the preparation of Health & Safety Policy is mandatory for factories covered under section 2(cb) and factories declared dangerous under section-87 of The Factories Act, 1948 employing more than 50 workers. Government of Rajasthan has incorporated the rule in this regard in Rule-65 MM under section 7-A(3) and section 41-B(2) of The Factories Act, 1948. The provisions regarding the contents, as to what the policy specifically deal with have been clearly spelt in these rules. Number of factories covered under Section 2 (cb) and Section 87 are 822 and 692 respectively in the State. The managements of such factories have been directed by Chief Inspector of Factories and Boilers to formulate their Health and Safety Policies as per statutory requirements. All MAH installations in the State of Rajasthan have formulated their Health & Safety Policy on priority basis.


Under section 40-B of The Factories Act, 1948, and Rajasthan Factories Rule 64B, the qualifications, duties and other service conditions of the Safety officers to be appointed in the factories are stipulated. The State Government by subsequent notification required the occupiers of the factories employing 1000 or more workers to appoint requisite number of Safety Officers. It is also required that the occupiers of factories covered under Rajasthan, Control of Industrial Major Accident hazard (CIMAH ) rules, 1999 & plants manufacturing Sulphuric acid employing less than 1000 workers and wherein involvement of risk of bodily injury, poisoning or disease or any hazard to health may occur, will employ one Safety Officer.

The present compliance is 100%. As all the required 54 number of safety officers have been appointed however records of qualification of all the safety officers is not made available.


Rule 65 J of the Rajasthan Factory Rules, 1951 framed under the provisions of Section 41 and 41-G of The Factories Act, 1948, require constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:-

  • Factories employing 250 or more workers
  • Factories covered under Section 87 of The Factories Act,1948 ( Amended 1987), and employing more than 50 workers
  • Factories covered under Section 2(cb) of The Factories Act, 1948, and employing more than 50 workers 275 number of safety committees have been constituted in the factories of the state.


As per Rule 65T of the Rajasthan Factory Rules, 1951 framed under the Section 41-C of The Factories Act, 1948, Occupational Health Centres are required to be set up in the Factories carrying out ‘hazardous process’ as described under Section 2(cb) of the Act. The Industries have been divided into 3 categories. i.e. the industries employing up to 50 workers, employing 51 – 200 workers and employing more than 200 workers.

Compliance of establishment of OHC in the state is 100%.


This part of the Chapter deals with the Welfare facilities e.g. appointment of Welfare officer, crèche facilities, canteen facilities, shelters, rest room and lunch room.

The provisions of Section 49 of The Factories Act, 1948, stipulates that any factory employing more than 500 workers is required to employ a Welfare Officer. The State Government has also incorporated in Rajasthan Factory Rule 1951 wherein age, qualification, duties and responsibilities and other service conditions are prescribed. All the required number of the welfare officers is appointed in the state. The number of canteens and crèches in the factories of the state are 160 and 21 against required number 161 and 22 respectively.


In order to control the major accidents in the State, factories prone to major accident hazards have been identified on the basis of the Rajasthan Factories Rules 1951, Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard (CIMAH) Rules, 1999 under section 41-B of The Factories Act, 1948 and Manufacture Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 (amended 2000), wherein specified industrial activities are categorised as potentially hazardous and prone to major hazard, in the form of storage & use of potentially hazardous substances in five groups exceeding the threshold quantities specified for them in schedule-3 of the above said rules. On the basis of the criteria laid down in the above mentioned, so far 98 factories have been identified as Major Hazard installations in the State.

The identified MAH installations are required to comply with specific provisions of the above mentioned rules, such as submission of Notification of Site/Safety Report; Preparation of On-Site Emergency Plan; Material safety Data Sheet; Notification of Major Accidents; and carrying out Safety Audit etc, in the respective schedules specified in the above rules.

The on site emergency plans received in the Inspectorate Factories and Boiler Directorate are subject to scrutiny by a multidisciplinary cell constituted at the head quarter of the inspectorate. Thereafter these on-site plans are sent back to the Occupiers of the concerned factories with directions for further improvement and rehearsal.

In the said rules it has also been made essential for the factories to rehearse the On Site Emergency plan once in every six months, so that state of preparedness; is ascertained in terms of men and machines when a disaster strikes. Practical exercises are, therefore, carried out be creating situations, as close as possible to actual conditions. The occupiers are directed to remove the weaknesses and vulnerabilities which surface during such simulation drills. The standard of performance is judged against a set of criteria fixed for this purpose through a checklist assessment by the regional officers.


As per the provisions of Rule 65Q of Rajasthan Factories Rules 1951, Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard (CIMAH) Rules, 1999an occupier who has control of the Industrial activity as described under the Rule shall prepare an on-site emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on the site on which industrial activity is carried on. All 98 MAH units have prepared and submitted these plans to the Inspectorate.

All the On Site Plans are being regularly monitored and updated as per the guidelines, which have been circulated to the occupiers so that the plans prepared have a similarity and in the event of emergency these could be easily referred for retrieval of necessary information. The guidelines stipulate all vital information and commitments to not only control the major accidents, but to mitigate the effect in the event of any catastrophe, which includes:

  • Preventive measure and plans effecting the factory's safety status currently enforced/practiced and disclosure of information to workers and public and details of public awareness system in existence or anticipated;
  • Development of scope and scenarios on the basis of previous histories and consequence analysis;
  • Material safety data sheet and important components of safety report;
  • Disaster control measures including mutual aid scheme;
  • Plan of coordination and interaction with various external agencies including administrative agencies in the event of major risk occurrence;
  • Action on site;
  • Plans of action for medical management, fire fighting, rescue and relief operation currently available and to be pressed into service at short notice; and much other general information in respect of plant, manufacturing process, neighbourhood, meteorological information etc.

6.7 Safety Report

As per the provisions of the Rule-10 (1) of Manufacture Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 ( Amended 2000), it is mandatory for an occupier to prepare and submit to the Chief Inspector before the commencement of an industrial activity the Safety Report of the Industrial activity to which these rules apply. The Safety Report is to be submitted in the prescribed format.

As per information available 20 no. of factories were required to prepare Safety Reports out of which 18 units have prepared such reports and submitted to the the Chief Inspectorate.


Safety audit is a statutory requirement under the Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical, Rules (MSIHC) 1989 for upper layer of major accident hazard units. According to the provisions of the Rule-10 (4) of Manufacture Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 it is mandatory for an occupier to conduct the Safety Audit of industrial activity once in a year with the help on an expert not associated with such industrial activity.

The objectives of the safety audit would be to review & critically assess the existing safety programmes to prevent & control the hazards in the plant with a view to suggest improvement . The benefit of safety audit is to evaluate the quality & effectiveness of the safety programme, rather than only quantitative measures of its failure.

The specific objectives of the safety audit would be :-

  • To study existing systems procedures plants & programmes on safety & health;
  • To review implementation status of the existing safety systems, procedures, plans & programmes; and
  • To recommend the measures for improving effectiveness for implementation of safety systems ,procedures, plans and programmes and also for improving the existing procedures/setting of new procedures if required

The overall methodology of safety audit will consist the following stages :-

  • Collection of preliminary information regarding manufacturing process & hazards etc. through a questionnaire developed by auditor before undertaking actual field work.
  • Examination of documents pertaining to Safety procedures/systems.
  • Discussions with key personnel at various levels.
  • Physical inspection of the plant.
  • Preparation of report with recommendations.

The scope of the audit is to verify whether the Planned and Documented activities are performed in accordance with written procedures and to verify by examination and evaluation of objective evidence that appropriate elements of a safety management systems have been developed, documented and implemented by units covered under The Manufacture Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 under The E.P. Act, 1986.

As per IS-14489-1998 some of the relevant points observed during safety audit are being listed below:

  • Health and Safety Policy
  • Accident Reporting, Investigation and Analysis
  • Safety Education and Training
  • Work Permit System
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • Emergency Preparedness ( On-Site and Off-Site both)
  • Compliance with statutory
  • New Equipments/Process review and inspection system
  • Prevention of Occupational disease
  • Safe operating procedure
  • Fire prevention, protection and fire fighting system

Safety audit of 20 factories is required to be conducted out of which 18 have done it and reports submitted to the Inspectorate. The recommendations pointed out by the auditor, are being enforced by the Inspectorate by issuing the directions/guidelines from time to time within stipulated period..


The Rajasthan Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards (CIMAH) Rules, 1999 under The Factories Act, 1948 clearly indicates that under Rule 13 or sub-rule (2) of this rule 14(3),the District Magistrate or the District Emergency Authority shall provided with the information for preparation of the Off Site emergency Plan by the occupier,

  • It shall be the duty of the District Magistrate or the District Emergency Authority designate by the State Government in whose area there is a site on which an occupier carries upon an industrial activity to which this Rule applies to prepare and keep up-to-date an adequate off-site emergency plan detailing emergencies relating to a possible major accident on that site will be dealt with and in preparing that plan the authority shall consult the occupier, the Chief Inspector and such other persons as appear to the authority to be appropriate {Rue 14(1) of MISHC Rules, 1989(amended 2000).
  • Constitution of State Crisis Group: The State Government shat constitute a State Crisis Group for management of chemical accidents within thirty days from the date of the commencement of these rules 6(1) under Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness, and Response) Rules, 1996).
  • Constitution of the District and Local Crisis Group: The State Government shall cause to be constituted within thirty days from the date of commencement of these rules {8(1) under Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness, and Response) Rules, 1996}

The Rajasthan Government has constituted the State Crisis Group. The Government has also District crisis group and Local crisis Groups respectively for the district having Major Accident Hazard Installations.

The Chief Secretary of the Rajasthan Government is the ex-officio chair person of the State Crisis Group. Which is the apex body of the government of Rajasthan and consist of governmental officials, technical experts, and industry representatives. This group is required to deliberate on planning, preparedness and to provide guidance for handling of chemical accidents, with a view to reducing the extent of loss of life, property and ill health. The State Crisis Group will review all the Off-site Emergency Plans for chemical disasters for their adequacy. This group is required to meet one in three months.

The State crisis group

1.Chief SecretaryChairman
2.Principal Secretary, Labour and EmploymentMember Secretary
3.Principal Secretary, ParyavaranMember
4.Principal Secretary Health & Medical DepartmentMember
5.Principal Secretary, IndustriesMember
6.Secretary Public Health engineering and Geo-water DepartmentMember
7.Chairman State Pollution Control BoardMember
8.4 Experts, ( Industrial Safety and Health), Nominated by state GovernmentMembers
9.Principal Secretary and Commissioner, TransportMember
10.Chief Inspector of Factories and BoilersMember
11.Director General Nagrik SurakshaMember
12.Director General PoliceMember
13.Representative from Industries ,(Nominated by the State Government)Member


The District Magistrate of the districts having Major Hazard Installations are ex-officio chair person of the District Crisis and this group is apex body at the district level and is required to review all On Site Emergency Plans prepared by the occupier of the Major Accident Hazard Installations for preparation of District Off-Site Emergency Plan, which shall also include hazards due to transportation of hazardous chemicals by road and by pipelines. The District Crisis Group is required to meet once in a 45 days and responsible to conduct one full-scale mock-drill of the District Off-Site Emergency Plan, on the site every year. District crisis groups of all the districts have been constituted according to the Schedule 7 under Rule 8 of the Chemical Accidents( Emergency and Planning, Preparation and Response ) Rules 1996. Similarly Local crisis groups have also been constituted as per Schedule 8 under Rule 8 of the Chemical Accidents( Emergency and Planning, Preparation and Response ) Rules 1996.

These rules provide a statutory back up for setting up of crisis groups in districts and states, which have Major Accident Hazard (MAH) Installations and are responsible to plan and respond to chemical emergencies in the Sate of Rajasthan. These rules define the major accident hazard installations to include industrial activity, transport and isolated storages at a site handling hazardous chemicals in quantities equal to or more than the specified quantities in the rules

All required factories have submitted information regarding off site emergency plans. 16 districts, where MAH installations are situated, have constituted the District. Crisis Group as below :-

Constitution of District crisis group


1District CollectorChairman
2Inspector/ Senior Inspector/Dy Chief Inspector of Factories And Boilers of Factories and Boilers/Member Secretary
3Up Khand AdhikariMember
4Fire Officer Nominated by District CollectorMember
5District Public Relation officerMember
6Comptroller of ExplosivesMember
7Nagrik Surakcha Adhikari, Nominated by District CollectorMember
8Representative form Trade, Nominated by District CollectorMember
9Superintendent of PoliceMember
10Chief Medical officerMember
11Commissioner/Executive Officer of Corporation /MunicipalityMember
12Representative from Public Health Engineering and Geo-water DepartmentMember
13Representative from State pollution control boardMember
14District Agriculture officerMember
154, Industrial Safety and health Experts, Nominated by District CollectorMember
16Representative from Industry, Nominated by District CollectorMember
17Chairman/Member Secretary of Local crisisMember
18District Transport OfficerMember

The On-site Emergency Plans for all the MAH installations have been got prepared and updating of these plans is being after every two years. To carry out this task steps are being taken by organising various meetings, seminars and by issuing the guidelines to the Management.

It is also been emphasized that management should be vigilant enough to prepare the plans as an effective tool to deal with the various emergency situations and not only fulfilling the legal requirements.

6.10 Industrial Hygiene Laboratory

Industrial Hygiene Laboratory established at the Chief Inspectorate of Factories, Jaipur. The equipments were provided through The Directorate General Factory Advice Services and Labour Institute Bombay. Since than this laboratory have been monitoring the work environment during the surveys conducted independently, in the factories in order to secure compliance of section 41-F of The Factories Act, 1948. So far toxic and hazardous substances like ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide, leather dust, asbestos, pesticides, silica dust, solvents, dyes and pigment dusts, which were present in The work environment, were monitored and analysed to estimate the concentration in the work environment. The factory management's having the above contaminants in their work environment have been recommended, where the concentration is above the threshold concentration, to adopt specific control measures to restrict the concentration of such toxic and hazardous substances below the threshold concentration stipulated; in Schedule-2 under section 41-F of The Factories Act, 1948 (Amended 1987). In case the concentrations of the hazardous substances are above the threshold limit the management is directed to do the needful in order to safeguard the workers form the exposure.

In addition to carry out above works the laboratory is also arranging to carry out the Eye Examination of the crane operators and other workers according to the type of their employment.

During discussions it was told by the officials that most of the equipments were old and obsolete and required replacement by Modern digital / computerised ones.


Sr. No.Name of contaminants/ substance1999-20002000-20012001-02 (Upto Dec.)2002-20032003-2004
Samples collectedSample exceeding limitsSamples collectedSample exceeding limitsSamples collectedSamples exceeding limitsSamples collectedSamples exceeding limitsSample collectedSample exceeding limits
3Sulphur Dioxide20110-8-11-6-
5Mercury Vapours--------- -
6Oxides Of nitrogen5-9-7-1-3-
7Hydrogen Sulphides12-13-----5-
8Vinyl Chloride09-18-----18-
9Acryl nitrite----------
11BHC Dust--1--- ----
12Cement Dust971-----76
13Coal Dust--------22
14Capital SSP Dust2----------
17Sulphuric Acid Fumes13-----------
18Methyl Para----------
19Copper Fumes---------- 
20Silica Quartz321914-- -1810
21Ore Dust-----------
22Hydrated lime--*---------
23Zinc Fumes2-1-------
24Hydrogen Chloride--6-1--1-3-
25Carbon Monoxide----1--3-5-
26Free Silica--------------
27Rock Phosphate----------
31Fenvaleration Dust Thayne----------
32Carbon Black------11--
33Nuisance Dust18299811781611
35Silver Fumes1---------
39Ni Metal1---------
40Chromium Metal1------------
41Sodium Hydroxide2---------
Total No Of Samples-461306228217724015424433
Totat No Of Industries-187 * * * * 

Management of occupational safety and health at state level


Management of safety and health at the state level is more complex than at the unit level. At unit level the problems are relatively simple and unit specific depending upon the type of industry. However at the state level the management of safety and health is not unit or industry specific and the instruments such as policies, legislation, etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues in all type of occupations. Apart from The Factories Act, 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities. These legislations are enforced by various state/ Central government agencies such as The Chief Inspectorate Of Factories and Boilers Rajasthan, Labour commissioner of the State and Chief Labour Commissioner Central, etc.

Education and training plays an important role in management of safety and health at state level and thus cannot be neglected. Non-government organizations (NGOs), voluntary organization’s, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health are contributing in their own way towards the objective for giving the workers a safe and healthy work environment.

Safety and health at work is governed by variety of statutes in the state depending on the nature of work place, manufacturing activity and specific aspects of safety and health. Some of the important statutes are given below:

  • The Factories Act, 1948 (Amended 1987)
  • The Rajasthan Factories Rules, 1951
  • Dangerous machines (Regulations) Act
  • Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulations) Act
  • Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules 1989
  • Rajasthan Factories (Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards) Rules.
  • Building and other construction workers Act 1996
  • Indian Electricity Act 1911
  • Indian Electricity Rules 1956
  • Indian Explosives Act
  • The Petroleum Act
  • Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels Rules

There are different departments of Central Government and State Government entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes. The efforts of the enforcement agencies are also supplemented by other organization’s such as training and research institutions, employers associations, employees associations, etc. in promoting occupational safety and health in the state.

7.1 Chief Inspectorate of Factories and Boilers

The Chief Inspectorate of Factories and Boilers, under the Department of Labour Rajasthan and. is looking after the enforcement of Factories Act 1948 and Rajasthan Factories Rules framed there under, Payment of Wages Act, 1936 and Indian Boiler Act, 1923. The inspectors are with engineering background in Electrical, Mechanical or Chemical engineering.

The State of Rajasthan has a total of 9401 registered factories under the Factories Act, 1948 employing about 372638 workers during the year 2003-04. To secure the compliance of the provisions of Factories Act, 1948, relating to industrial safety & health and other welfare measures, a total of 209 sanctioned posts of the officers and staff are there in the Inspectorate.

There are some other Specific laws (listed below) relating to management of hazardous chemical substances are also being enforced by Chief Inspectorate of Factories and Boilers in identified MAH installations.

  • The Rajasthan Factories (Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards) Rules, 1996; (under The Factories Act, 1948 (Amended 1987).
  • The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 (Amended - 2000); {under the Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986}; and
  • The Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996.

These legislations determine the concern and set priority for a comprehensive approach in ensuring safety in work environment and thereby preventing accidents. Chief Inspectorate of Factories and Boilers, Rajasthan are in line of action to adopt Management of hazardous substancesbe a comprehensive system inthe industrial enterprise and thus ensuring effective accident prevention in the state.

7.3.1.Offices and Areas covered

The Chief Inspectorate of Factories and Boilers of the state of Rajasthan has regional Offices at 21 places. Offices located at Jaipur,Jodhpur ,Alwar, Udaipur and Kota are headed by the Dy Chief Inspector Factories and Boilers. Similarly offices at Ajmer, Pali, Shriganganager, Bhiwadi Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Bikaner, Banswada, and Madanganj-Kishanganj are headed by Sr Inspector Factories and Boilers while offices at Bondi, Bharatpur, Sikar, Hanumangarh, Balotra, Makrana and Shirohi are looked after by Inspector, Factories and Boilers.

7.3.2. Strength of the Directorate

The Chief Inspectorate of Factories and Boilers is equipped with trained and experienced personnel The strength of the Inspectorate are as given below

Chief Inspectorate of Factories and Boilers01
Dy.Chief Inspectorate of Factories and Boilers07
Sr. Inspectorate of Factories and Boilers12
Inspectorate of Factories and Boilers19
Chemical Inspector02
Medical Inspector01

In addition to the above, the Inspectorate also has supporting administrative and technical staff.

7.3.3. Activities :

The different activities undertaken by the Inspectorate are given below Enforcement :

The Inspectorate enforces provisions contained in the following statutes:

  • The Factories Act, 1948,
  • Payment of Wages Act ,1936
  • Indian Boiler Act ,1923

Inspection of processing factories, identification of unregistered factories, investigation of accidents, approval of plans, attending to complaints is some of the activities undertaken for effective implementation of statutory provisions. Education and Training :

The Inspectorate in collaboration with Regional Labour Institute, Kanpur, Ministry Of Labour, Government Of India, and National Safety Council also conducts education and training programs for increasing safety and health awareness amongst various target groups from factories. Seminars and workshops are also organized to deliberate and discuss issues of safety and health and to come out with practicable solutions to the problems.

The inspectorate is running a Safety Museum cum training headed by a Dy Chief Inspector Of Factories and Boilers at Jaipur. To make the stay arrangement of the trainees the hostel building is under near completion. During the year 2003, 30 number of Training programmes including Workshop/Seminar were organised wherein 675 trainees were benefited. Promotional activities :

In addition, the Inspectorate is also involved in organizing industry-enforcement authority meet, safety day celebrations, exhibitions etc to promote workplace safety and health in factories. Inspection activities :

The State of Rajasthan has a total of 9401 registered factories under the Factories Act, 1948 employing about 372638 workers during the year 2003-04. Total number of 8702 inspections was carried out by the officers of Inspectorate during 2003 under different Acts enforced.

Table - 1

Number of Inspections in Factories and Boilers

2003-2004849113979888 Prosecutions and convictions :

The chapter 10 of The Factories Act, 1948 provides for penalties and procedures for violation of the provisions. The analysis shows that the prosecutions have been carried out under the section 92 of The Factories Act, 1948. The section 92 of The Factories Act, 1948 speaks about the general penalties for offences.

Table - 2

Prosecution and Conviction under Factories Act
YearNo Of FactoriesProsecution admittedConvictionFine in Rs

7.4 Development of Computerized Information Center

While collecting the information and data relating to the Safety Health and Welfare of the workers, Number of factories, Number of employees etc it was felt by the task force that there are lot of scopes to effectively update the data and other information with the help of computerization in the office Chief Inspectorate of Factories and Boilers, Rajasthan.

The rapid growth in information technology has given a new dimensions to the management of the organisation. The functions and importance of the management information system have increased considerably. It is the requirement of the day that in the present time of the liberalization privatisation and globalisation it is extremely essential to have updated information relating to the Safety, Health and Welfare of the workers working in the factories and other information about the environmental aspect directly and indirectly effecting the employees.

Rajasthan is a big state and the responsibilities of inspectorate are equally big. It is recommended that the Inspectorate of State of Rajasthan must be equipped with IT updates for effective data collection and data analysis in respect of health & safety. Minimum requirement in this regard is being given below.

At Head quarter

  • Insllation of V-SET system
  • Application Soft wares for Factory registration and management system.

At Regional Office

  • Computers
  • Printers
  • Modem
  • Telephone

7.5 Boiler Inspectorate

Boiler Inspectorate is working for the safety of the workers and enforcing following Central Acts and different Rules framed by the state. .

  • Indian Boiler Act,1923
  • Indian Boiler Regulation,1950
  • Rajasthan Boiler Rule,1969
  • Rajasthan Economizer Rules, 1959
  • Rajasthan Boiler Operation engineers Rules, 1958
  • Rajasthan Boiler attendant Rules, 1958

Table - 3

Comparative activities of Boiler Inspection for the last three years

Sl.Period(Year)Number of Boiler(Ecomomiser)Number of Boiler(Ecomomiser) InspectedBoiler(Ecomomiser)Newly RegisteredBoiler(Ecomomiser)RejectedBoiler(Ecomomiser)Sudden Inspection

Table - 4

Examination of boiler Engineers conducted by the Inspectorate

Sl.YearExaminees AppearedPassedFailedRevenue Earned(Rs)

Table - 5

Examination of boiler attendant conducted by the Inspectorate.

Sr. No.>YearFirst Class ExamsSecond Class Exam
Examinees AppearedPassedRevenue Earned (Rs.)Examinees AppearedPassedRevenue Earned (Rs.)

7.4.5 In addition to above activities the Inspection of the boilers are carried out by the office of the Inspectorate during construction stage of the boiler and components such as valve, super heaters, tubes, economizers etc. The Inspectorate has achieved Zero accident record and completion of 100% target.

Resources available and needed


During the study, the team visited departments and organisations dealing with occupational safety and health in the manufacturing sector with a view to establish inventory of occupational safety and health information in the state of Rajasthan. The activities of these departments, resources available at their disposal were examined to determine the problems faced by the organisations in the matters of occupational safety and health and further resources needed in order to effectively manage occupational safety and health at the state level.

The scope of the study was limited to cover the organisations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident reports. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, availability of safety reports, crèches, etc. as per the provisions of the Factories Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was outside the defined scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, the more elaborate in-depth study is required to be taken up to get a comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.

  • There are 9341 registered factories under Factories Act 1948, out of which some factories are covered under section 2(cb)and Section 87 of the Factories Act 1948 .It was informed that about 25% factories are sending annual returns. As the annual returns contains basic information such as employment, man hour employed, accidents, man-hours lost due to accidents, provision of welfare facilities, appointment of welfare officers and safety officers, occupational health facilities, etc. which are essential for compilation of state level data on occupational safety and health it is desirable that submission of annual returns should be insisted upon from all the factories.

    It is recommended that efforts should be made to ensure compliance with the requirement of submission of annual returns in prescribed format by all registered factories. It is also recommended that the occupier/manager of the factories should be asked to submit complete details in the annual returns. Non-compliance with such provisions can be brought to the notice of the occupier by issuing notice by the inspecting officials.

    As all occupiers are not sending the annual returns, complete details of the factory about employment of male/female workers, NIC code of the factory etc. are not updated. It is therefore recommended that complete data must be obtained before issuing/renewing license to the factory.

  • It was informed that it was very difficult to segregate factories as coming under section 2(cb) or section 87 merely on the basis of information given in annual return form or license form or registration form. Therefore, it is suggested that the annual return form prescribed under the Rajasthan Factories Rules should be amended to include following additional information:
    • The description of the factory as per NIC classification
    • Whether covered under section 2(cb)
    • Whether notified as factory carrying on dangerous operations under section 87
    • Whether covered under MSIHC Rules as MAH installations.
  • It is seen from the data for cause wise and agency wise injuries that maximum number of fatal injuries are due to “other” reasons Although serious efforts have been done by the inspectorate while analysing the accident by cause wise and agency wise, yet the category “others” is required to be further reviewed/analysed so as to identify the ultimate cause/agency of the accident.
  • Almost 73.68% of fatal accidents have occurred in the age group of 36-50 years. This may be due to overconfidence amongst more experienced workers in factories. Another reason for this could be the change of job of these workers without proper training/ retraining in the safety and health related aspects pertaining to their jobs.
    It is recommended that the training and retraining of workers is needed in safety and health aspects at regular intervals and also when there is a change in their jobs. More supervision of young workers is required to be done
  • Almost 43.35 % of nonfatal accidents are caused due to “other reasons”, 12.47% are due to handling goods and other articles and about 9.59 % are due to striking against or struck by machines. This indicates that proper work procedure, safe system of work, safe operating procedures are not being followed in the factories.
    It is recommended that the occupiers or the managers of the factories should be told about their statutory duties for designing and implementing suitable> They should be instructed to design such work procedures in respect of all the jobs and the system for checking the implementation of the same.
  • Tools, implements, appliances used on the shop floor; machines and indoor are the major agencies causing accidents.

    It is therefore suggested that the occupiers/ managers of the factories should be advised on:

    • design, maintenance and proper use of material handling equipment
    • safe use of tools, appliances and equipment
    • adequate guarding of machinery, and
    • proper house keeping
  • Statistics on the industries accidents in the State of Rajasthan reveals that wool, silk and other man made textile industry has the highest number of accidents followed by manufacture of Machinery and Equipments other than motor transport.

    It is recommended that industries having potential for severe accidents should be notified under section 87 of the Factories Act. More emphasis should be given on compliance with the provisions of the Factories Act in these factories.

  • It is informed by the Inspectorate that not a single case was reported to the inspectorate, under section 89 of the Factories Act. There seems to be lack of co-ordination between various agencies connected with management of occupational health/diseases at unit level. It must be emphasized upon the management of the factories that whenever any suspected case of occupational disease is reported to ESIC hospitals and other medical practitioners, it should also be reported to the Inspectorate in the prescribed format under section 89 of the Factories Act. It is further recommended that in the area of detection, diagnosis and control of occupational disease, ESIC should inform to the Chief Inspectorate of Factories and boilers and/or its other regional offices, of the cases which are under consideration for compensation.
  • While going through the accident reports received in Inspectorate from the management, it reveals that some of the accident reports in prescribed form under Rajasthan Factories rules1951, are incomplete. It is recommended that all occupiers must be advised to send the reports duly filled and mention the NIC Code of the industry. It is also suggested that form 18 may be changed accordingly to ensure that all required information is filled therein
  • There is a satisfactory level of compliance as far as the appointment of safety officer in factories is concerned. However, the reports of accidents in the prescribed Form, furnishing details of the accidents, causes of accidents and agencies involved therein, non use of personal protective equipment etc. indicate that the safety officers have not been effective in discharging their duties. It is therefore suggested that safety officers in all the factories should be trained and retrained through refresher courses on:
    • Technique of safety audit
    • Establishment of safety management system
    • Costing of accidents, and
    • Leadership for safety and health

    This may lead to better status of safety and health management in factories. It is also recommended that there should be better interaction between factory inspectors and Safety Officers through discussions on the ways and means for improving the safety, health and working conditions in their factories.

  • The provisions under the Factories Act and Rules provides for medical examination of workers employed in certain categories of factories by certifying surgeon. As there are many factories requiring medical examination of workers employed therein it is practically impossible to cover these factories by a medical inspector of factories employed in the, Chief Inspectorate of Factories and boilers Rajasthan.
    Therefore, it is suggested that on the lines of what is being done in other states such as Maharashtra, private medical practitioner could be appointed as certifying surgeon for particular areas, in order to conduct medical examination of workers and issue certificate of fitness as required under the Factories Act and the Rules.
  • The number of factories and the officers (Inspectors) carrying out the inspection does not seem to be proportionate, as against suggested norm of 150 factories per inspector. The average number of factories required to inspected by a single inspector is very high, leaving scope for compromises on quality of inspection. Therefore efforts should be made to bring down this ratio to a more reasonable level. This can be achieved through:
    • prioritization of inspection
    • strengthening of inspectorate

    Most small scale units engaged in manufacturing of slate pencil, saw mills, stone crushers, cotton textile handloom units etc., employ less than 10/20 workers. The emphasis on inspection of such factories could be reduced and more emphasis could be given on inspection of the factories engaged in manufacturing of chemicals, cotton textile mills, manufacture of paper, food products, etc. which are more hazardous in nature and employing more number of workers. This would require an in-depth study of the pattern of industry vis-à-vis. the quantum and quality of hazard, level of employment etc. Thereafter, action plan for prioritization of inspection should be worked out. Separate checklist for inspection of small, notified factories should be prepared, keeping in view the general level of compliance expected in respect of these factories.

  • It was informed that the existing equipments in the Industrial Hygiene Lab are quite old and obsolete. It is recommended that new versions (Digital/Computerized) of these equipments should be made available to carryout the analysis more accurately. Also equipments, which are out of order, need to be repaired/calibrated.
  • A number of factories in the State are employing labour on contract for undertaking various activities. As per the definition of “worker” under section 2(l) of the Factories Act, 1948, even the contract worker is to be provided adequate safety and health in the factory premises. It is often observed that the occupier/manager of the factory tend to ignore this responsibility. The office of the Labour Commissioner in the State enforces the Contract Labour Act. In order to ensure that adequate attention given to the safety, health and welfare of the contract labour by the occupiers, a programme for enforcement of safety and health provisions for the benefit of contract labour employed in the factory can be jointly undertaken by Chief Inspectorate of Factories and boilers Rajasthan and Office of the Labour Commissioner. This programme can also include awareness improvement and training and education in the area of safety and health.
  • Department of Science, Technology and Environment among other things is responsible for clearing industrial projects from environmental angle. There is a Site Appraisal Committee under the Chair of Directorate of Industrial Health and Safety, constituted under section 41-A of the Factories Act. These two committees are having similar objectives i.e., clearing the location of industry from safety, health and environment angle. It is therefore suggested that these two committees should work in close coordination with each other in order to avoid duplication of efforts to facilitate faster clearance of industrial projects and to reduce the inconvenience to the industries and promote economic growth. In fact, as per the recommendation of the High Level Committee, constituted by Ministry of Labour to study the overlapping provisions, the Site Appraisal Committee, constituted under the Factories Act should be empowered to give environment clearance to the initial location of industrial projects likely to be covered under the Factories Act.
  • Large number of industrial units in the state are registered with Department of Industries and only very few of the industries looks to be covered /registered under Factories Act, 1948. The department of industries is looking after the licensing, development, training, marketing and financial aspects in respect of these units. However, this department is not looking after the safety, health and welfare of workers. For educating the owner-managers as well as the workers of small scale units in the field of safety, health and productivity, a collaborative programme can be devised and implemented by the, Chief Inspectorate of Factories and boilers Rajasthan and the Department of Industries & Commerce in collaboration with DGFASLI. For this purpose, the training module developed by ILO “On Improvement of Productivity by better working conditions” could be used. It is also recommended that Central Labour Institute/ Regional Labour Institute ,Kanpur can also be associated extensively in these efforts.
  • In view of few fire incidences in the state an effective awareness programme on control of fire incidents could also be prepared in collaboration with Fire Brigade Department, Industries Association and Chief Inspectorate of Factories and boilers Rajasthan. for the occupiers/managers and workers of the factory. This programme should include, formulation of mutual aid scheme and establishments of emergency response centers in various industrial pockets of the states.
  • More than 10% number of fatal accidents are caused due to contact with electrical energy. This indicates inadequacy of attention paid to safety while working with electrical energy. This could be because of low level of awareness, lack of education and training, employment of non-qualified personnel for the works connected with electricity, etc. Since these aspects are coming under the scope of activities of Electrical Inspectorates, it is suggested that a programme could be formulated in collaboration with Chief Inspectorate of Factories and boilers Rajasthan to improve the status of electrical safety in factories. In this programme specific electrical hazards while working in the factories could be identified and the precautions to be taken could be disseminated through various modes such as training programmes, leaflets, booklets, lectures, etc. The factory inspector should also be trained in this area to identify the noncompliance with the provisions and issue necessary directives/ guidelines to the occupiers/managers.
  • In all there are 12,247 hospitals, dispensaries and mother, child welfare centres and sub-health centres having 37,882 beds. The medical practitioners appointed in these hospitals are mainly concentrating on diagnosis, prevention, control and treatment of the common diseases such as leprosy, tuberculosis, etc. It is suggested that all medical practitioners in these hospitals should also be exposed/trained in occupational health. Their extensive training in the field of occupational health will improve their skills in early detection or diagnosis of occupational diseases and will help them in recommending suitable> By this way, the status of occupational health of the workers employed in factories could be improved.
  • The Insurance Medical Services Department in the State provides the medical services to the workers covered under ESIC Act, 1948. The workers are referred to the hospitals for diagnosis and treatment. However, it was found that the suspected as well as confirmed cases of occupational diseases are not brought to the notice of Chief Inspectorate of Factories and boilers Rajasthan. As a result, no case of occupational disease is reported under section 89 of the Factories Act, which is contrary to the fact. It is suggested that a programme for close coordination between ESIC, ESI Hospitals (The Insurance Medical Services Department) and Chief Inspectorate of Factories and boilers Rajasthan should be prepared for early detection, diagnosis and prevention of occupational diseases. This will facilitate taking appropriate preventive measures by the inspectors of factories and boilers in order to eliminate or control the causative working conditions in various factories. This will improve the status of occupational health of the working class in the long run.
  • In addition to what is being done by the Non- governmental organizations such as Loss Prevention Association of India, National Safety Council and Industrial Hygiene Society, other various employers associations in the State should also take up the activities in the field of safety and health on a large scale. This should include organising seminars and workshops, debates for senior executives from the industries and trade union leaders, etc. In these seminars and workshops the issues arising out of liberalization, globalization, modern manufacturing techniques and developments, new innovations in the field of manufacturing etc. vis-à-vis. and their impact on safety, health and welfare of the workers should be discussed.
  • In order to promote safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories, seminars and workshops should also be organised for increasing the awareness level of union leaders in the field. The unit level union leaders should be involved in training and education of workers in the field of safety and health. In such programmes, more emphasis should be given on the role of union leaders in promotion of safety and health at the workplace.
  • In view of the technological advancement and use of new manufacturing techniques and advance machines, the law, for ensuring safety and health of the persons working in the factories is becoming more and more stringent and it is required that the effective implementation of safety measures is to be ensured at site. This situation demands for a very specific training programmes/workshop for the officers of Chief Inspectorate of Factories and boilers Rajasthan, so that the real sprit of law is translated into action and thereby not only the work environment is protected but also the safety of workmen and material are ensured.
    Therefore it is recommended that specific course for environmental protection, safety at workplace and management of hazardous substances etc. should be designed and training to be given to the officers of factory directorate.
  • Central Board for Workers Education in collaboration with Directorate of Industrial Health and Safety should design and conduct specialised training programmes on safety and health for the workers. The programmes should also be organised for state level trade union leaders for improving the safety and health awareness among them.
  • While collecting the statistics regarding the factories as well as the accidents, it was found by the study team that although some factories were submitting the annual returns in the prescribed format to the local offices as well as to the regional offices and headquarters, the information was not being compiled and sent to the Headquarters in time. As a result the collected information could not be processed and the trends regarding various parameters on occupational safety and health could not be established. A closer examination of the issue reveals that the information at the field level could not be compiled or is taking time for compilation because of manpower shortage. It is therefore suggested that all field level offices should be equipped with suitable> This arrangement will also improve the communication among the offices of Inspectorate leading to effective implementation of the orders issued under the provisions of the Factories Act eliminating the delays.
  • In order to review the status of safety, health and welfare in the factories and formulate action plan on the basis of findings from time to time, a tripartite State level committee on occupational safety and health should be constituted under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Labour Minister.

Source of Information

  • Statistical Diary of Economics and Statistical Division Rajasthan 2001
  • Factories Act, 1948 and Rajasthan Factory Rules, 1951.
  • Annual Progress Report of Chief Inspectorate of Factories & Boilers, Rajasthan, 2003-04.
  • ILO Code of Practice for Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and diseases.
  • Indian Standards IS 3786 on Method for Computation of Frequency and Severity Rates for Industrial Injuries and classification of industrial accident.
  • National Industrial Classification (All Economic Activities) 1998.



THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 ( AMENDED 1987 ), 1948
(See section 89 and 90)

List of notifiable diseases

  • Lead poisoning including poisoning by any preparation or compound of lead or their sequelae.
  • Lead tetra-ethyl poisoning.
  • Phosphorous poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Mercury poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Manganese poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Arsenic poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Poisoning by nitrous fumes.
  • Carbon bisulphide poisoning.
  • Benzene poisoning, including poisoning by any of its homologues, their nitro or amido derivatives or its sequelae.
  • Chrome ulceration or its sequelae.
  • Anthrax.
  • Silicosis.
  • Poisoning by halogens or halogen derivatives of the hydrocarbons, of the aliphatic series.
  • Pathological manifestation due to : -
    • radium or other radioactive substances.
    • X-rays.
  • Primary epitheliomatous cancer of the skin.
  • Toxic anaemia.
  • Toxic jaundice due to poisonous substances.
  • Oil acne or dermatitis due to mineral oils and compounds containing mineral oil base.
  • Byssionosis.
  • Asbestosis.
  • Occupational or contact dermatitis caused by direct contract with chemical and paints. These are of types, that is, primary irritants and allergic sensitizers.
  • Noise induced hearing loss (exposure to high noise levels).
  • Beryllium poisoning.
  • Carbon monoxide.
  • Coal miners' pneumoconiosis.
  • Phosgene poisoning.
  • Occupational cancer.
  • Isocyanides poisoning.
  • Toxic nephritis.




Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Infectious and parastic diseases contracted in an occupation where there is a particular risk of contamination.
  • All work involving exposure to health or laboratory work;
  • All work involving exposure to veterinary work;
  • Work relating to handling animals, animals carcasses, part of such carcasses, or merchandise which may have been contaminated by animals or animal carcasses;
  • Other work carrying a particular risk of contamination.
2.Diseases caused by work in compressed air.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
3.Diseases caused by lead or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Poisoning by nitrous fumes.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Poisoning by organphosphorus compoundAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned


Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Diseases caused by phosphorus or toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.Diseases caused by mercury or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Diseases caused by benzene or its toxic homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Diseases caused by nitro and amino derivatives of benzene or its homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Diseases caused by chromium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
6.Diseases caused by arsenic or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
7.Diseases caused by radioactive substances and ionising radiations.All work involving exposure to the reaction of radioactive substances or ionising radiations.
8.Primary epithelomatous cancer of the skin caused by tar, pitch bitumen, mineral oil, anthracene or the compounds, products or residues of these substancesAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
9.Diseases caused toxic halogen derivatives by hydrocarbons (of the aliphatic and aromatic series).All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
10.Diseases caused by carbon disulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
11.Occupational cataract due to infra-red radiations.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
12.Diseases caused by manganese or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
13.Skin diseases caused by physical, chemical or biological agents not include in other items.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
14.Hearing impairment caused by noise.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
15.Poisoning by dinitrophenol or a homologue or by substituted dinitrophenol or by the salts of such substances.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
16.Diseases caused by beryllium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
17.Diseases caused by cadmium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
18.Occupational asthma caused by recognised sensitising agents inherent to the work process.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
19.Diseases caused by fluorine or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
20.Diseases caused by nitroglycerine or other nitroacid esters.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
21.Diseases caused by alcohols and ketones.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
22.Diseases caused by asphyxiants; carbon monoxide, and its toxic derivatives, hydrogen sulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
23.Lung cancer and mesotheliomas caused by asbestos.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
24.Primary neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder or the kidneys or the ureter.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned


Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Pneumoconiosis caused by sclerogenic mineral dust (silicosis, anthraoosilicosis asbestosis) and silico-tuberculosis provided that silicosis is an essential factor in causing the resultant incapacity or death.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.BagassosisAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by cotton, flax hemp and sisal dust (Byssinosis)All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Extrinsic allergic alvoelities caused by the inhalation of organic dusts.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by hard metals.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned