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General Introduction

The technological advancements and development of complex and hazardous processes, the management of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) has become a vital issue. The threat of occupational hazards, particularly in the chemical and petrochemical industries is of great concern, specially, for the people who are responsible for policy planning and designing of instruments and other interventions for protecting the large workforce in the country. The major problem faced by the policy planners is the non-availability of timely information on vital areas such as occupational injuries and diseases, infrastructure available at the unit and the state level for taking up awareness, promotional and developmental programs.

The Directorate General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) is relied upon by Central and State Governments for a variety of information pertaining to occupational safety and health. At present the facilities available in our country do not allow as quick a response as is often needed. Further, substantial increase in the number of registered factories, introduction of sophisticated modern technology and complexities in plant and equipment design have brought many constraints in the area of Occupational Safety and Health policy making at national level. For planning of effective strategy on control of accidents and ill-health, timely and reliable information is vital.

The Ministry of Labour has been deeply concerned over the non-availability of occupational safety and health information for policy planning. To overcome this deficiency the scheme “Setting up of a Data Bank-cum-Information Centre” at Central Labour Institute, Mumbai was proposed during the 7th Five Year Plan. The scheme was approved by the Planning Commission in the 7th Plan. The scheme was continued in the modified form during the 8th and 9th Plan period with the title “Development of Safety & Health Information System and Data Bank”.

The Project

The present Plan Scheme “Development of Safety & Health Information System and Data Bank” being operated during the 10th Plan envisages creation of the National Inventory on Occupational Safety and Health Information to widen the information base and making available the information at one source to help in the activities specially those related to policy planning directed at improving the occupational safety and health of the workers.

The national inventory besides having OSH information state-wise collected through respective State Inspectorate will also include the following:

  • Abstracts of OS&H national literature
  • OS &H literature acquired from abroad
  • Factory Advice Service databases
  • Dock Safety related databases
  • Details of MAH installations, hazardous chemicals, national specialists, etc.
  • Scanner based data base on accident events, etc.

The Objectives of the Project

To develop all the five Labour Institutes under the DGFASLI Organisation as the action resource centers for collection, processing and dissemination of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Information with a view to create an Inventory on OSH Information for the prevention of Occupational Injuries and health problems in the count

The Scope of the Project

The proposed scheme will have the following components:

  • Development of Occupational Safety and Health national inventory and connectivity between State Factory Inspectorate and DGFASLI. The inventory will cover information pertaining to manufacturing activities covered under the Factories Act 1948, Occupational injuries and diseases in the sector, management of OSH at unit and state level.
  • Creation of occupational safety and health information action resource centers at five labour Institutes by providing them with computer hardware and software facilities and also by involving other organizations specialized in the field of safety, health and environment to participate in the project.
  • Human Resource Development of personnel attached to action resource centers.
  • Dissemination of information through electronic media using the latest information technology for creating public awareness about safety, health and environment.
  • Dissemination of information through conventional media to reach the large workforce including decision makers not having access to the information technology. This will include publication of newsletter, technical reports, safety cards etc.
  • Creation of databases containing information on handling of containers and dangerous goods, hazardous installations, inland container depots, minor and intermediate ports, competent persons, panel of doctors in ports, etc. Dock Safety division will participate by way of providing raw data collected from the field.
  • Developing infrastructure for occupational safety and health e-self learning centers at all action resource centre in the labour institutes.
  • Effective implementation of the 12 point Minimum Agenda for E-Governance. This includes providing computers upto the level of Section Officers, setting up of LAN, training of all staff on computers, procure and use office automation software, website updating and maintenance, developing software packages for delivery of services and information, etc.
  • As information technology is developing very fast, the latest hardware and software available during the plan period will be acquired.

The Methodology

In order to create a national inventory of OSH information, the following activities are envisaged to be carried out in each State:

  • Identification of support information
  • Location of sources of information
  • Creation of suitable mechanism for information collection
  • Selection and use of appropriate technology for processing and storage of information.
  • Development of procedures for user friendly dissemination of information.
  • Development of suitable infrastructure for achieving the above.

The Project Team

The various activities under the Project are being carried out by the five Labour Institutes as nodal agencies. The Regional Labour Institute, Faridabad, is the nodal agency for the five states viz., National Capital Territory of Delhi, Union Territory of Chandigarh, Haryana and states of Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh.

After the successful completion of studies in the NCT of Delhi and the Union Territory of Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh was taken up for the collection of data during the year 2004-05. Subsequently the States of Haryana, Punjab, and Jammu & Kashmir, will be taken up for the similar type of study.

The Task Force comprising of the following officers and staff of Regional Labour Institute, Faridabad and the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories, Himachal Pradesh, was constituted for carrying out the study in hand.

I.Regional Labour Institute (RLI), Faridabad

  • Shri Moinul Haque, Director-in-Charge, RLI-Faridabad - Coordinator
  • Shri S. C. Sharma, Asst. Director (Safety)
  • Shri Devesh Singh Verma – L.D.C

II.Management Information System (MIS), DGFASLI, Mumbai

  • Shri S.N. Borkar, Dy.Director(Prod.)
  • Shri P.N. Patil, Tech. Asstt.
  • Smt Jaya Vimalan, Stenographer Gr.III
  • Smt Pramila Ajila, Stenographer Gr.III

III.Inspectorate of Factories, Himachal Pradesh

  • Shri Kashmir Chand, IAS.
    Labour Commissioner cum Chief Inspector of Factories, H.P
  • Shri S.C Awasthi
    Joint Labour Commissioner cum Additional Chief Inspector of Factories, H.P
  • Shri A.K.Sood
  • Assistant Director (Factories). (H.Q) H.P, Shimla.

Activities under the Project

The present project aims at studying the existing system of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases at unit, district and state level in the state of Himachal Pradesh, identifying the areas for improving and establishing the system, which is in line with the systems existing in other countries.

The activities of the project have been divided in the following categories:

  • Background information about state of Himachal Pradesh - Deals with the demographic and geographic characteristics of state of Himachal Pradesh, population in different districts and major occupations of the people.
  • Economic activities - Deals with the various aspects of economic sectors in the state, their value of production, employment generated and contribution to the GDP.
  • Activities in manufacturing sector – Deals with the different activities carried out in the manufacturing sector as per the National Industrial Code, value of production, employment generation, etc.
  • Occupational injuries and diseases- Deals with the analysis of the occupational injuries–fatal and non-fatal and cases of occupational diseases in the manufacturing sector.
  • Management of occupational safety and health - Deals with the infrastructure and resources available at the unit level and at the state level for managing the crucial issue of occupational safety and health.
  • Resources available and needed for the management of occupational safety and health.

Based on the analysis of occupational injuries and diseases and the capabilities available, an attempt is made to assess the resources required for the better management of occupational safety and health in the state of Himachal Pradesh.

Background information


Himachal Pradesh, called "Dev Bhumi" the abode of Gods & Goddesses, nestles between "Shivalik Hills" in the South and Great Himalayan ranges in the North.The State is bordered by Jammu & Kashmir on North, Punjab on West and South-West, Haryana on South, Uttar Pradesh on South-East and China on the East.

Himachal Pradesh as political entity came into existence on 15th April 1948. It was constituted by integrating the princely States of Chamba, Mandi, Suket, Sirmaur and 26 smaller states known as the Punjab Hill States. Subsequently, in 1954 Bilaspur, which was then a part "C" State, was also merged with Himachal Pradesh. In 1960 District Kinnaur was carved out of District Mahsu which was earlier constituted by merging 27 hill states.

After the re-organization of Punjab in 1966, Shimla, Kangra, Kullu, Lahaul-Spiti Districts, Una Tehsil of Hoshiarpur District and Nalagarh Tehsil of Ambala District were also merged. In 1972 Districts of Kangra and Mahasu were reorganized. District Kangra was trifurcated and Una and Hamirpur Tehsils were made into separate Districts. Some areas of Mahasu District were merged with Shimla District while the others formed the new District of Solan.

The forests of Himachal Pradesh are rich in vascular flora, which forms the conspicuous vegetation cover. Out of total 45,000 species of plants found in the country as many as 3,295 species (7.32%) are reported in the State.

More than 95% of species are endemic to Himachal and characteristic of Western Himalayan flora, while about 5% (150 species) are exotic introduced over the last 150 years.


Territory of Himachal Pradesh stretches from 30 22’ 40’’ N to 33 12’ 40’’ N Latitude and from 75 45’ 55’’ E to 79 04’ 20’’ E Longitude. The State is bordered by Jammu & Kashmir on North, Punjab on West and South-West, Haryana on South, Uttar Pradesh on South-East and China on the East.

Land area

Land area of Himachal Pradesh state is 5567300 hect.. The land use pattern in the state is given in Table

No.ContentsArea (hect.)
1Total Geographical Area
i) By Professional Survey
ii) By Village Papers
3Barran and Unculturable Lands7,75,896
4Land Put to Non-Agricultural Use2,24,791
5Permanent Pastures and Other Grazing Lands13,40,222
6Land under Misc. Trees Crops not Included in Area Sown97,527
7Cultivable Waste Lands1,03,942
8Other Fallow Lands22,706
9Current Fallows55,410
10Net Area Sown5,60,154
11Area Sown More than Once4,26,184
12Total Cropped Area9,86,338

The Forests

The Forests of Himachal Pradesh known for their grandeur and majesty are like a green pearl in the Himalayan crown. This life supporting systems are presently under great stress due to impact of modern civilization, economic development and growth in human and cattle population. According to national Forest Policy, 1988, atleast two third i. e 66% of the geographical area should be under forest in the hilly states like Himachal Pradesh. However, keeping in view that about 20 % of the area is inaccessible and beyond the tree limit, the State Government aims to bring 50% of the geographical area under forest cover The forests of the State have been >

Reserved Forest Area1896
Protected Forest Area33004
Unclassed Forest Area930
Other Forest Area405
Forest Not Under Control Of Forest Deptt.751

The State has 32 numbers of wild life sanctuaries.


The state having in a legislative assembly of 68 members. The State is divided in to 12 districts. In addition there are 71 Tehsils, 72 Blocks, 28 Nagar Panchayats, 2922 Gram Panchayats(December-1997), 48 Towns and 19388 Villages



The total population of the state is 5170877 person (1991-Cencus) with .45 million living in Urban area and 4.72 million person are living in Rural area. The State has sex ratio of 976 female per thousand male. The density of population is about 93 person per sq. Km.


The official language of the state Hindi & Local Dialects.


The state has the combined birth rate of 23 (Per 1000)


The state has combined death rate of 8 (Per 1000).


The total literacy rate of the state is 63.88 % with male literacy rate of 75.36 % and female literacy rate of 52.13 %.


The per capita income of the state is Rs. 9603/- at 1996-97 base.


The State has 80 numbers of hospitals (1997-98)

Economic Situation in Himachal Pradesh


The economy of Himachal Pradesh is dependent upon agriculture and its allied activities and any fluctuation in agricultural production affects the growth rate considerably. The over all economic growth in total state domestic product during 2002-03 (Q) was 4.5 percent as the total state domestic product at constant prices (1993-94) increased to Rs.8454 crore from Rs.8089 crore in 2001-02. The state has made significant progress in the development of Horticulture. The topographical variations and altitude differences coupled with fertile, deep and well drained soils favour the cultivation of temperate to sub tropical fruits. The region is also suitable for cultivation of ancillary horticultural produce like flowers, mushroom, honey and hops.


High priority has been accorded to tourism industry, which has emerged as a major sector in the development of economy of the state. The Govt. has developed appropriate infrastructure for the growth of tourism involving activities requiring heavy investment and pioneering commercial projects in new areas where private sector may be reluctant to undertake such activities initially.

Power Generation

Himachal Pradesh state Electricity Board is engaged in the investigation and execution of various hydroelectric projects and transmission and distribution of electricity. Himachal Pradesh has launch a reform programme in the power sector. During the financial year 2003-04, 1357 million units of electricity was generated by March, 2004. Due to limited resources available with state Govt., it has approved the participation of private sector in the generation and supply of power and taken up various hydroelectric projects in private sector for implementation.

Information Technology

Information Technology has a great scope for employment generation and revenue earnings. Himachal Pradesh Govt. in this context has prepared an I.T. Vision 2010 with the assistance of NASSCOM. Govt. has proposed a target of exporting I.T. Software and allied services worth Rs.2000 crore unto the year 2005. Commensurate with the IT policy of the state government certain initiatives have already been taken in the state to further growth of IT.

Road Transport sector

After the formation of Himachal on 15th July, 1948 the network of roads had received top-most priority of the Govt. as there were very limited roads in the State at that time. At present the road network is widely spread in Himachal Pradesh. The increase in road network is fairly a strong indicator of economic development of the Himachal Pradesh in the field of education, health, agriculture, horticulture and the related fields. On the formation of present Corporation on 02.10.1974, the total routes operated by HRTC were 379 which have grown to 1733 routes in 2000-2001 and the fleet strength have grown from 733 to 1728 in 2000-2001. As the road length increased and basic infrastructure for development also kept pace with it, this had direct relation on the growth of the HRTC.

Bus remains the sole mode of passenger transportation as railways have a very marginal contribution in the State. The railway network in Himachal Pradesh has remained static since 1947, except for a small stretch of about 18 Kms. from Nangal to Una, which has been connected by a broad gauge railway line very recently. This is the only expansion of railway network in Himachal for the last 50 years. The narrow gauge lines connecting Pathankot with Joginder Nagar and Kalka with Shimla are so slow moving that a very small percentage of traffic is carried by them at present; thereby leaving the onus of carrying the passenger traffic on to bus transport.

Besides its operation in the entire Himachal Pradesh including tribal districts of the State, HRTC operates its buses in neighboring States of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Union territories of Chandigarh and Delhi. Further, it has acquired distinction to ply its buses to the highest village of the Asia and also its buses cross through the three Worlds highest passes namely; Bara-Lacha, Kunjam and Rohtang. HRTC is plying its buses in remotest area of the Pradesh, where private operators hesitate to ply the buses.


Himachal Pradesh is blessed with vast and variegated fishery resources in the shape of networks of rivers, streams, tributaries, sprawling reservoirs, natural lakes and ponds etc. Mainly classified into riverine, lacustrine, recreational and pond fisheries, the state waters offer considerable potential for the promotion of fisheries and generating employment. About 12500 fishermen families in the Pradesh depend directly or indirectly on this occupation for their livelihood. During 2003-04, cumulative fish production was of the level of 6465 tonnes valued at Rs. 2977.00 lakh from the state’s various reservoirs. The total fish seed production from Carp farms of the sate during the year reached 17.52 million. To make fish feed readily available in the state one feed mill was set up at Jachh, district Kangra. The country’s first Mahseer fish seed production farm is also being set up at Sidhpur in Mandi district. The requisite stocking of the fish is being done in the newly created Chamera Dam. An amount of Rs. 292.00 lakh have been sanctioned out of which an amount of Rs. 131.00 lakhs has been released by BBMB, NHPC and SJVN or the following 3 Scheme.

  • Development of Fisheries in Suketi stream of Mandi district
  • Development of Fisheries in Chamera reservoir.
  • Development of Fisheries in Sutlej river.


Raising up of livestock is an integral component of rural economy. In Himachal there is a dynamic relationship between common property resources (CRPs such as forests, water and grazing land), livestock and crops. Livestock depend to a certain extent on fodder and grass grown on CPRs as well as on crops and residues. At the same time the animals return fodder, grass and crop residues to the CPRs and fields in the form of manure and provide much needed draught power. Livestock thus is an important integral to the sustainability of economy of Himachal Pradesh. The contribution of major livestock products during the year 2002-03 was 7.76 lakh tones of milk, 1610 tonnes of wool, 87.00 million eggs and 3487 tonnes of meat which will likely to be of the order of 7.96 lakh tones of milk, 1680 tonnes of wool, 91.00 million eggs and 3600 tonnes of meat during 2003-04.

Milk production and Per Capita Availability

YearMilk Production(‘000tonnes)Per Capita Availability (grm./Day)

Animal Husbandry plays an important role to boost the rural economy and as such for livestock development programme attention is paid in the state by way of (i) Animal Health & Disease control (ii) Cattle Development(iii) Sheep Breeding & Development of Wool (iv) Poultry Development(v) Feed & Fodder Development (vi) Veterinary Education and (viii) Livestock Census

Milk Based Industries

H.P MILKFED is operating dairy development activities in the state by providing a remunerative outlet for the surplus milk to the rural milk producers residing in remote and far-flung areas. Majority of these milk producers are small and marginal farmers.

The estimated production of various milk products in the organized sector (MILKFED) including milk sold in the market, paneer, butter, ghee and SFM bottles is shown in table>

Production of Milk Based Industry

Milk SoldLakh Its.75.0074.0277.9756.88
SFMLakh bottles0.520.340.300.19
Dahi cupsLakh cups-

Manufacturing sector


Total number of large and medium industrial units in Himachal Pradesh as on 31.12.2003 was 2140 . The sector wise distribution is given below:

Central sector13
State sector104
Private sector2023


IndustryRs. In Lakhs
Agriculture & Animal Husbandry320579
Power Gas & Water Supply102676
Forest Industries71988
Mining Industries9417
Other manufacturing industries874700

In the small scale sector, the contribution to the value of industrial production by majority of industries was as given in Table - 2.


Industry (NIC Code)Gross Output


Solan & Kangra districts are are having largest number of working factories. The distribution of working factories in major districts during 2002-03 is as given below.


Industrial disputes in the state are declining over the years. In the year 2003, total 585 disputes handled in the state. Only 16 disputes led to strikes and one lockouts. The total mandays lost due to strikes and lockouts are 33917 during 2003.

Manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948


The manufacturing is the second largest economic sectors after Agriculture in the State of Himachal Pradesh. It covers units those registered under the Factories Act, 1948 as well as those not registered. As per the provisions of the Act, a manufacturing unit is to be registered if manufacturing process is carried on with the aid of power and 10 or more persons are employed or manufacturing process is carried on without the aid of power and 20 or more persons are employed.


The Himachal Pradesh comprises of diverse terrain ranges from plain to the mountains and has varied climatic zones. This diversity has endowed it with very rich natural resources. With diverse agro-climatic conditions and geographical features, Agriculture, Horticulture, Floriculture, Sericulture, Forestry, Tea Plantation, Hydro power generation and tourism are comparatively better developed. The rich natural resources of Himachal Pradesh are ideally suited for investment in three major sector namely Industries, Hydroelectric power & Tourism. There has been very significant development in the field of Industrial development.

District-wise group-wise details of units in Medium & Large Scale Sector

Sl NoDistrictNo. of Units.Investment (Rs in lacs)Total Employment.
7Lahaul& Spiti551246.671483


As per 2001 Census, 32.36 percent of the total population of the Himachal Pradesh is classified as main workers, 16.92 percent marginal workers and the rest 50.72 percent as non-workers. Of the total workers (main + marginal) 65.55 percent are cultivators and 3.10 percent agricultural labourers, 1.68 percent are engaged in household industry and 29.67 percent in other activities. The employment assistance/information service for placement of Himachalis in various industrial units, institutions and establishments in the Pradesh is rendered through the 3 regional employment exchanges, 9 district employment exchanges, 2 university employment and guidance bureaus, and 53 sub-employment exchanges.

Himachal Pradesh Government Employees (Regular) as on 31.03.2002

The total number of Government Employees (Regular) as on 31.03.2002 was 144446. The estimated number of gazetted employees was 8415 (5.82 %) and 136031(94.18%) was non- gazetted.

DistrictGazettedNon - GazettedTotal
Lahaul & spiti12321692292
Himachal Pradesh8415136031144446

Women enterprises and SSI units managed by Women

The total number of women enterprises in the Total SSI Sector was estimated at 3720 (4.88 %). The estimated number of enterprises actually managed by women was 3517 (4.61 %). The Districts of Kangra, Mandi, Shimla and Harmirpur accounted for about 65.60 % the share of women entrepreneurs in the State. The position of women entrepreneurship and women enterprises is given State-wise in the following table.

Participation of women in management/ownership in SSI Sector, District

S.NoName of DistrictNo. of Enterprises Managed by WomenNo. of Women Enterprises
3Lahaul & Spiti1416

About 31.83 % of the women enterprises were in the registered SSI sector and the remaining 68.17 % were in the unregistered SSI sector. With regard to the enterprises managed by women, 23.7 % were in the registered SSI sector and 76.23 % were in the unregistered SSI sector. The District – wise distributions of units managed by women and women enterprises in respect of registered and unregistered SSI sectors are given in Table and Table UR-16 in the Appendix. The total number of female employees in the SSI sector is estimated at 33,17,496. About 57.62 % of the female employees were employed in the SSI units located in the States of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. The State-wise details are given in the following table.


S.NoName of DistrictNo. of Female Employees
Regd. SSI sectorUnregd. SSI sectorTotal
3Lahaul & Spiti53252305

The proportion of female employees in the total employment in the SSI sector was of the order of 7.19 %. Top five districts in terms of maximum female employment are Mandi, Kinnaur, Kangra, Solan & Hamirpur. These five districts accounted for 68.15 % of female employment.

SSI units registered under Factories Act

The registration in SSI sector is voluntary whereas the registration under the Factories Act is mandatory. The criteria in the former is either in terms of upper ceiling in original value of plant and machinery (for SSIs) or in terms of upper ceiling in value of fixed assets other than land and building for (for SSSBEs). The criteria for registration under the Factories Act is in terms of lower ceiling in the number if workers engaged. Only manufacturing and repair/ maintenance enterprises are registered under the Factories Act, Whereas registration under SSI sector includes, in addition to these two types, some types of Services as well. However, there is a possibility that some of the units in the Total SSI sector might have been registered under the Factories Act. In the Third Census, it was found that 3805 units were registered under Section 2m (i) or 2m (ii) of Factories Act and 6255 units were registered under Section 85(i) (ii) of the Act. The District-wise details are given in the following table>

Distribution of units in the Total SSI Sector registered under Factories Act, District-wise

S.No.Name of DistrictEstimated no. of units regd. Under Factories Act
Section 2(m) (i) or 2(m)(ii)Section 85 (i) or 85 (ii)
3Lahaul & Spiti00
13Not recorded3130

Employment Exchange

During the period 1.4.2003 to 31.03.2004 in all, 1,26,637 applicants were registered and 1,299 placements were done. The number of vacancies notified during this period by various employers was 3,083. The consolidated number on live register of all employment exchanges stood at 8.95 lakh on 31.03.2004.

Central Employment Cell

    As on 30.11.2002 there are 11,106 technical and highly skilled persons registered with the cell on the basis of their duplicate registration cards received from their parent Exchanges in the Pradesh.
    During the period from 1/1/2002 to 30.11.2002, in all 2422 vacancies of various nature were notified by the Employers of the Private Sector Establishment out of which 672 vacancies were of technical and highly skilled nature and were notified to the Central Employment Cell.
    During The period from 1/1/2002 to 30/11/2002 in all 6501 candidates of various trades including of unskilled nature were sponsored in various Industrial Units in the Private Sector in the Pradesh, out of which 2159 candidates were of technical and highly skilled nature.
    During the period from 1/1/2002 to 31/11/2002 in all 150 job seekers were placed in various Private Sector in Industrial Units in the Pradesh out of which 71 are of technical and highly skilled nature, exclusively placed by the Central Employment Cell.

Occupational injuries in manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948


Number of working industries covered under the Factories Act 1948= 2140, Reportable accidents In the year 2003 in these factories= 18


Fatal injuries in the state of Himachal Pradesh as reported in the Annual returns submitted by the factories for theyear 2003 are five. The five fatal injuries from four factories were taken and analyzed as per the IndianStandards 3786 and the ILO Code of Practice of recording and notification of occupational accidentsand diseases. The analysis has been done industry group wise, cause wise, agency wise, nature of injurywise, location of injury wise, sex and age wise.

Industry wise

Of the total fatal injuries analyzed, two accidents were in the units manufacturing of non-metallic mineral products. The industry wise analysis of the fatal accidents shows that 40% of the accidents are in the industry Manufacture of non-metallic mineral products, 20% fatal injuries are each in cotton textiles, paper and paper products and basic chemicals and chemical products manufacturing industry. The industry wise fatal injuries are given in Table - 1.



IndustryNo. of accidentsPercentage
Manufacture of food products--
Manufacture of cotton textiles120%
Manufacture of wood and wood products--
Manufacture of paper and paper products120%
Manufacture of basic chemicals
and chemical products
Manufacture of rubber, plastic,
petroleum and coal products
Manufacture of non-metallic
mineral products
Repair of capital goods--


The analysis of the five fatal injuries shows that explosion has contributed to about 20% of thefatalaccidents, 20% due to caught in between objects, 20% due to expo. to or contact with extreme temp., 20% due to fall of persons and 20% due to others. The Table - 2 shows the number of cause-wise fatal injuries and their percentage.


Type of AccidentNo. of accidentsPercentage
Fall of persons120%
Fall of objects--
Stepping, striking, struck against--
Caught in between objects120%
Expo. to or contact with
extreme temp.
Expo. to or contact with
electric objects
Expo. to or contact with
harmful subs.

Agency wise:

In terms of the agency involved in the fatal injuries, pressure vessels have contributed to about 40% of the accidents, 20% of the injuries are because of problems in the electrical installation, 20% because of indoor and 20% are due to other equipments. Table - 3 gives the agency-wise fatal injuries


Agency involvedNo. of accidentsPercentage
Transmission machinery--
Other means of trans.--
Pressure vessels240%
Electrical installations120%
Other equipments120%
Dust, gases, liquid
& chemicals
Flying objects--
Other materials & subs.--
Other agencies--

Nature wise

Nature of injury analysis of the fatal injuries shows that 20% of the fatal injuries are of the concussions & other internalinjury, 20% due to effects of electrical current, 20% are due to burns, 20% are due to multiple injuries of different nature and 20% are due to others and unspecified injuries. The Table -4 shows the nature-wise fatal injuries.


Nature of injuryNo. of accidentsPercentage
Concussions & other internal injury120%
Other wounds--
Contusions & Crushings--
Effects of electrical currents120%
Multiple injuries of different nature120%
Others and unspecified injuries120%
Location wise:

Multiple location and head injuries contributed to 40% each of the fatal accidents and 20% in unspecified locations of injury. The location wise injury is shown in Table – 5


Location of injuryNo. of accidentsPercentage
Upper limb--
Multiple locations240%
General injuries--
Unspecified locations of injury120%

Age and Sex wise:

A total of five no. of people have met with fatal accident, all of these are male. 100% of the people are insured and their families were entitled to get compensation. 60% of the people sustaining fatal injuries were in the age of 18 to 36 years, 40% were in the age group of 36 to 51 years. Table - 6 gives age and sex wise injuries

TABLE – 6(A)

SexNo. of accidentsPercentage

TABLE – 6(B)

Insured/UninsuredNo. of accidentsPercentage

TABLE – 6(C)

AgeNo.of accidentsPercentage
18 to < 36360%
36 to < 51240%
51 to < 61--
61 & above--


A total number of thirteen non-fatal occupational injuries have been reported by the industries in the state of Himachal Pradesh for theyear 2003. The >

5.2.1 Industry-wise:

The industry-wise analysis of non-fatal injuries shows that 46.15% of the accidents are in the manufacture of non-metallic mineral products , 30.76% are in the industries manufacturing basic chemicals and chemical products, 7.69% are in the industries manufacture of cotton textiles and 15.38% are in the Other manufacturing industries. The Table - 7 shows the industry-wise non-fatal injuries.


Industry descriptionNo.of accidentsPercentage
Manufacture of food products--
Manufacture of cotton textiles17.69%
Manufacture of wool, silk and
man-made fibbers
Manufacture of jute and other
Manufacture of wood and
wood products
Manufacture of paper and
paper products
Manufacture of basic chemicals
and chemical products
Manufacture of rubber, plastic,
petroleum and coal products
Manufacture of non-metallic
mineral products
Basic metals and alloys industry--
Manufacture of metal products
and parts
Manufacture of machinery
and equipment
Manufacture of transport equipments
and parts
Other manufacturing industries215.38%
Repair of capital goods--
Storage and ware housing--

Age and Sex wise:

Of the injured 100% persons were male. Injuries were high (69.23%) in the age group of 18 to 36, followed by 30.76% in the age group of 36 to 51. 100% of the persons were insured. The Table - 8 gives the details of injuries age and sex wise.

TABLE – 8(A)

SexNo.of accidentsPercentage

TABLE – 8(B)

Insured/UninsuredNo.of accidentsPercentage

TABLE – 8(C)

AgeNo.of accidentsPercentage
15 to < 18--
18 to < 36969.23%
36 TO < 51430.76%
51 to < 61--
61 & above--

Cause Wise:

Cause wise analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows that 23.07% of the accidents are each due to caught in between objects and fall of persons, 7.69% each by fall of objects, Stepping, striking, struck against and Expo. to or contact with harmful substances and 30.76% by Others. The Table - 9 shows the cause-wise non-fatal injuries.


Type Of AccidentNo.of accidentsPercentage
Fall of persons323.07%
Fall of objects17.69%
Stepping, striking, struck
Caught in between objects323.07%
Over-exertion or wrong
Expo. to or contact with
extreme temp.
Expo. to or contact with
harmful substances.

Agency Wise

The Indian Standard 3786-1983 which is as comprehensive as the ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases has been used to > These are given in the Annex of the report.

The analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows that Other agencies is the major agency contributing to 23.07% of the injuries and Transmission machinery and Other machines have contributed to 15.38% of the injuries .

The other agency responsible are metal working machine, tools, implements & applns, ladders & mobile ramps, Other equipments, Dust, gases, liquid & chemicals and Other materials & substance to 7.69% each of the injuries in this segment. Table - 10 shows the agency involved in non-fatal injuries in different group of industry.

TABLE – 10


AgencyNo.of accidentsPercentage
Prime Movers--
Transmission machinery215.38%
Metal working machine17.69%
Other machines215.38%
Other wheeled Means of Trans.--
Electrical installations--
Tools, implements & applns.17.69%
Ladders, mobile ramps17.69%
Other equipments17.69%
Dust, gases, liquid & chemicals17.69%
Flying objects--
Other materials & subs.17.69
Other agencies323.07%
Location wise :

According to IS 3786 and ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of occupational accidents and diseases, the location of injury has been divided into 9 categories. 38.46% of the injuries have occurred in the upper limp region comprising of shoulder, upper arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand and fingers. This is followed by 23.07% in the lower limb region comprising of the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, foot and toes. Unspecified locations of injury and General injuries contributed to 15.38% each of the Non-fatal accidents and 7.69% in Head injury. The Table - 11 shows the distribution of injuries location-wise.

TABLE – 11

Location of injuryNo.of accidentsPercentage
Upper limb538.46%
Lower limb323.07%
Multiple locations--
General injuries215.38%
Unspecified locations of injury215.38%

Nature of injury wise:

Nature of injury according to IS 3786 is classified into the 14 categories like fracture, dislocation, sprains, concussion, amputation, wounds, contusions and crossings, burns, acute poisoning, asphyxia, electrical currents, etc.

Non-fatal injuries in the state have been found to be mainly the fractures. these fractures have contributed to 53.84% of the injuries. 30.76% of injuries are of Others and unspecified injuries and 7.69% of the each injuries are of Sprains & strains and Other wounds. Table - 12 gives the percentage distribution of injuries.

TABLE – 12

Nature of injuryNo.of accidentsPercentage
Sprains and strains17.69%
Amputations & Enucleations--
Other wounds17.69%
Superficial injuries--
Contusions & Crushings--
Acute poisoning--
Multiple injuries of different nature--
Others and unspecified injuries430.76%


Total number of working MAH factories in Himachal Pradesh2
Number of workers.100
Male Worker100
Female WorkerNil
Fatal injuriesNil
Non-Fatal injuriesNil
Fatal injuries Mandays LossNil
Non-Fatal injuries Mandays LossNil

Occupational diseases in manufacturing activities


ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases defines occupational diseases as “a disease contracted as a result of an exposure of risk factors arising from work activity”. Under Section 89 of the Factories Act, 1948 where any worker in a factory contracts any of the diseases specified in the Third Schedule (Annexure-1), the manager of the factory shall send a notice thereof to such authorities and in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.

Also any medical practitioner attending on a person who is or has been employed in a factory and is suffering from diseases specified in the Third Schedule shall without delay send a report in writing to the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories.

In the state of Himachal Pradesh there was no reporting of occupational disease during the last three years. As there is post of Inspector of Factories, Medical, no visit were carried out, no pathological investigation and X-rays were carried out because of lack of facilities available with the department.

Management of occupational safety and health at unit level


The Chapter as is evident, deals with the management of occupational safety and health at the unit level, i.e. manufacturing units. The state has a total no. of 2140 manufacturing units, the breakup of which according to factories registered under Section 2(m), Section 85 of the Factories Act, 1948 is given in Chapter - 4. In order to have a fair idea, about the safety and health status in these units, the following aspects on safety and health have been covered under the Chapter :-

  • Safety Policy
  • Appointment of Safety Officers
  • Safety Committee
  • Occupational health centers (FMO, Ambulance)
  • Welfare (WO, Canteen, creche, lunch room, shelter etc.)
  • On-site emergency plans
  • Safety reports
  • Safety audits
  • HAZOP studies

There are certain statutory requirements as provided under the Factories Act, 1948 and Rules framed there under, for each of the aspects stated above. Items 7.6 to 7.9 are additional requirement exclusively applicable to MAH installations which are covered by separate set of rules. Each of the aspect with its status has been discussed in the following paragraphs.


As per the provisions of Sections 7A(3), 41-B(2) and 112 requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by the factories meeting the following criteria :-

  • Units covered under Section 2(m)(i) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers
  • Units covered under Section 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 100workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948
  • Units covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948

In addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories or >

As per the details available 66 units required preparation of safety policy, 66 units have prepared the safety policy which is 100% of the total.


As per the provisions of Section 40-B of the Factories Act, 1948, Safety Officer is required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria :-

  • Units employing more than 1000 workers, units wherein any manufacturing process or operation is carried on Involving any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or diseases or any hazard to health.

As per the details available, 8 Safety Officers were required to be appointed. As against this8 Safety Officers were appointed in various factories in the State.


As per the provisions of Section 41 and 41-G of the Factories Act, 1948 require constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:-

  • Units employing 250 or more workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers
  • Units covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers

As per information available 66 units required constitution of Safety Committees. All the 66 units have constituted Safety Committees.


As per the provisions under the Section 41-C of the Factories Act, 1948 Occupational Health Centers are required to be set up in the Factories carrying and ‘hazardous process’ as described under Section 2(cb) of the Act. The Industries have been divided into 3 categories. i.e. the industries employing up to 50 workers, employing 51 – 100 workers and employing more than 200 workers. No information is available regarding requirement and establishment of Occupational Health Centers in factories. However in 19 factories submitting complete annual returns, ambulance room have been set up.


This part of the Chapter deals with the Welfare facilities e.g. appointment of Welfare officer, crèche facilities, canteen facilities, shelters, rest room and lunch room.

As per the provisions of Section 49 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 500 workers is required to employ a Welfare Officer. As per the details available 19 units were required to appoint the welfare officers. All the 19 units have actually appointed the welfare officers.

As per the provisions under Section 48 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing 30 or more women workers are required to provide creche facilities for the use of children under the age of 6 years for the women employees. There are certain requirements under the Section for these creches which are to be met by the occupier of the factory.

As per the details available 18 units have provided the creche facilities.

As per the provisions under Section 47 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 150 workers is required to provide adequate and suitable shelters or rest rooms and lunch rooms for the use of the workers employed.

As per the details available 48 units have provided the shelters or rest rooms and 48 units have provided lunch rooms facilities.

As per the provisions under Section 46 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 250 workers is required to provide canteen facilities for the use of workers.

As per the details available 56 units have provided canteen facilities.

As stated earlier items 7.6 to 7.9 are the additional items exclusively applicable to Major Accident Hazard Control Unit. There are a total number of two working MAH units in the State. The Statutory requirement for the units are covered under Section 41-B of the Factories Act, 1948. The Statutory requirement for the above items and their status is discussed in the following paragraphs.


As per the information available two no. of MAH installations were required to prepare the on-site emergency plan. Two MAH installation have prepared the plans and submitted to the Director of Factories.


As per the information available two no. of units were required to prepare Safety Reports. Two units have prepared the Safety Report and submitted to the Director of Factories. Further, 33 units have carried safety audit and submitted reports to the Director of Factories.


The HAZOP Studies i.e. the hazard and operability studies are carried out in advance on any plant to examine the process or at least the relevant parts of the process to discover how deviation from the intention of design can occur to decide whether such deviations can give rise to hazardous conditions.

The technique aims to simulate the imagination of designer in a systematic way and is useful in identifying potential hazards in advance and allow the user to take corrective measures.

As per the information available 25 units have conducted risk assessment studies.

Management of occupational safety and health at state level



The Department of Labour and Employment came into being in 1972. It is mainly responsible for implementation of various labour laws (26 Central & 2 State Acts) and for providing employment assistance to job-seekers. Thus, basically it is a regulatory Department. The department is basically playing the role of a facilitator and regulator. It comprises of 3 wings-Labour, Factories & Employment. The Labour wing is primarily looking after the establishing and maintaining of industrial peace and harmony. The Factories wing looks after the registration of factories as well as the safety of industrial workers. The Employment wing helps the interested job seekers/self employment seekers by way of registration, sponsoring and by giving vocational guidance and career counseling.

The activities of Department can be divided broadly into two wings pertaining to Labour and Employment.

Labour wing is responsible for the implementation of 28 Labour Laws (Central & State) with a view to establishing and maintaining peace in the Industrial Establishments. Under the provisions of the Industrial Disputes Act 1947, Labour Court/Industrial Tribunal has been set up at Shimla to decide industrial disputes. Under the Factories Act 1948, registration and renewal of factories licenses is done as also ensuring safety of workers.

Employment wing is responsible for Registration, Sponsoring and giving Vocational Guidance to the interested candidates and collection of Employment Market Information, as per provisions of the Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959 and Persons with Disabilities Act (Equal opportunities, Protections of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995.

Following is the list of Central and State Labour Acts and Rules being implemented by the Labour & Employment Department.

Central Acts
  • Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976
  • Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970
  • Child Labour (Regulation and Prohibition) Act, 1986
  • The building and other construction workers (regulation of employment and
    conditions of service) Act, 1966
  • Cine workers and cinema theatre workers (regulation of employment) Act, 1981
  • The building and other construction workers cess Act, 1952
  • Employees provident fund and miscellaneous provisions Act, 1952
  • Employees state insurance Act, 1948
  • Equal remuneration Act, 1976
  • Factories act, 1948
  • Industrial dispute Act, 1947
  • Industrial employment (standing orders) Act, 1946
  • Interstate migrant workman (regulation of employment and conditions of service) Act, 1979
  • The labour laws (exemption from furnishing returns and maintaining registers
    by certain establishments) Act, 1988
  • Maternity benefit Act, 1961
  • Minimum wages Act, 1948
  • Motor transport workers Act, 1961
  • Payment of bonus Act, 1965
  • Payment of gratuity Act, 1972
  • Payment of wages Act, 1936
  • Plantation Labour Act, 1951
  • sales promotion employees (conditions of service) Act, 1976
  • Trade union Act, 1926
  • Working journalists and other newspapers employees (condition of service and
  • Miscellaneous provisions) Act, 1955
  • Workman compensation Act, 1923
  • Boilers Act, 1923

State Acts

  • Himachal Pradesh shops and commercial establishment Act, 1969
  • Himachal Pradesh industrial establishments (National & festival holidays, casual & sick leave) Act, 1969

Organisation Set-Up

  • Directorate = 1
  • Labour Court = 1
  • Regional Employment Exchanges = 3
  • District Employment Exchanges = 9
  • University Employment Information & Guidance Bureau =2
  • Sub-Office Employment Exchanges = 53
  • Assistant Director of Factories(Una) =1
  • Labour Offices = 5
  • Labour Inspectors Offices = 25

There are total 99 offices functioning under the Department of Labour and Employment in Himachal Pradesh. Out of these offices, Regional Employment office, Mandi, District Employment Office, Chamba and Kinnaur, Labour Office, Mandi, Rampur Bushar and Labour Inspector, Rampur Bushar, Mandi Nalagarh and Baddi, and Sub Office Employment Exchange, Nalagarh are housed in Government Buildings. Apart from it, 14 Sub-Office Employment Exchanges namely, Pangi, Tissa, Amb, Sarahan, Gohar, Baijnath, Palampur, Dehra, Indora, Joginder Nagar, Karsog, Pooh, Sarkaghat and Sunder Nagar and One Labour Inspector office, Amb are housed in Departmental building. The department is constructing District Employment Office and Labour Inspector Office, Bilaspur building through H.P.P.W.D. One newly constructed building District Employment and Labour Inspector Office, Kullu has been taken over by the department in the month of December, 2002. Similarly, Sub Office Employment Exchanges, Rajgarh, Sangrah and Udaipur are also being constructed.

Minimum Wages:-

Himachal Pradesh Government has constituted a Minimum wages advisory Board under the Minimum wages Act, 1948 for the purpose of advising the State Government in the matter of fixing and revising the minimum rates of wages for the workers in the 24 scheduled employments. On the recommendations of this Board, the State Government has revised the minimum rates in respect of unskilled workers from Rs. 51.00 to 55/- Per day or Rs 1650/- per month w.e.f. 1.8.2001. The minimum rates of wages has been increased from Rs.55/- to Rs.60/- or Rs.1800/- per month w.e.f 1.8.2002.

Labour Welfare Measures:-

Under the Bonded Labour System(Abolition) Act, 1976 the State Government has constituted vigilance committees at the District and sub-divisional level besides a screening committee at the State level. The State Government has constituted a Labour Court/Industrial Tribunal with Headquarters at Shimla for adjudication of industrial disputes under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 and an independent Presiding Officer of Labour Court/ Industrial Tribunal of the rank of District and Session Judge has been appointed.

State Employees Insurance Scheme:-

The employees State Insurance scheme is applicable in the areas of Solan, Parwanoo, Brotiwala, Baddi, Mehatpur, Nalagarh, Poanta Sahib, Kala-Amb and Shimla town. About 1460 establishments with an estimated employment of 51600 workers under the ESI Act, 1948 and 926 establishments with an estimated employment of 20975 workers are covered under the Employees Provident Fund Act, 1952. During the year 2002, 11 Trade Unions were registered under the Trade Union Act, 1926. Under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 during the year 2002, 369 disputes were received out of which 349 were referred to the Labour Court/ Industrial Tribunal, Himachal Pradesh for adjudication.

Industrial Relations:-

The problem of industrial relations has assumed considerable importance on account of expansion of industrial activity in the Pradesh. Conciliation machinery has been functioning in the Pradesh and has proved to be an important agency for the settlement of industrial disputes and maintaining industrial peace. The functions of conciliation officer have been entrusted to the Labour Officers and Regional/District Employment Officers in the field within the their respective jurisdiction. Besides, the powers of conciliation officer have also been vested with the respective Labour Inspectors in respect of all those establishment in which the number of workers does not exceed two hundred. The higher authorities intervene in the cases where the conciliatory officers fails to bring about any amicable settlement. For looking into the problems of the workers/labourers and management of Hydel projects the Himachal Pradesh Government has constituted Tripartite State Level Board and Project level Tripartite committees in the Pradesh in order to monitor the prompt construction/completion of the projects going on in the Pradesh.

Promoting I.T.Software I.T.Services Industry:-

The Government of Himachal Pradesh has recently come-out with a new Industrial policy where in great emphasis has been laid on the promotion of I.T. sector industries particularly. In order to give a boost to the software and

I.T. services industries/establishments various relaxation have been granted to I.T. Industry under the various labour laws. The clean pollution free atmosphere, healthy and peaceful industrial environment in the State will go a long way in prompting entrepreneur to set up more and more industrial units in the State. With this end in view, the Government of Himachal Pradesh, Labour Department has taken a number of initiatives mainly, giving relaxation in working hours, relaxation in period of work, relaxation of over-time, relaxation in spread over, relaxation in of working hours for women employees etc. These relaxation to I.T. Sector have been given under the H.P.Shops and Commercial Establishment Act, 1969 and Factories Act, 1948. The Govt. has also introduced a “Self Certification Scheme” for the I.T. Software Service Industry. Under this scheme those establishments who fulfill the requirement will be issued certificate declaring it to be a unit under the Self Certification Scheme. Thereafter no inspection of these units will be undertaken for the period of one year except in the cases of a specific complaint.

Manpower and Employment Service:-

The Department of Labour and Employment, from the year 1972, when it came into existence as a separate department has remained absolutely in the service of the people in Himachal Pradesh. Two University Employment Information and Guidance Bureaus, three Regional Employment Exchanges Nine District Employment Exchanges and Fifty-three Sub offices employment Exchanges are working in the Pradesh. These exchange help in the matter of registration, placement, vocational guidance and employment counseling to the applicants/public as well as in the matter of collection of employment market information. The Himachal Pradesh Government has also set up a Foreign Employment and Manpower Export Bureau at Directorate or Labour and Employment, Shimla from 2/94 for desirous workmen seeking job abroad.

Employment Market Information Programme:-

The district level employment data, under Employment Market Information Programme, is being collected since 1960. It covers only the organized sector of Indian Economy which inter-alia covers all the public sector Establishments irrespective of their size and the non-agricultural establishment in the Private Sector employing 10 or more persons. Employment data in respect of all public sector establishments and non agricultural establishments in private sector employing 25 or more persons is collected under the provision of Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959 and rules made/framed thereunder. The employment data from smaller non-agricultural establishments in private sector, employing 10 to 24 persons is collected on voluntary basis.

The total employment in the State as on 31.12.2001 in Public sector was 2,47,729 and in private sector was 49,455.

Vocational Guidance:-

There are total four Vocational Guidance Centre under the Department of Labour and Employment, out of which One is State vocational Guidance Centre at the Directorate and other three are located at Regional Employment Office, Mandi, Shimla and Dharamsala. In addition to this there are two University Employment Information and Guidance Bureau at Palampur and Shimla. These Vocational Guidance Centers impart vocational guidance to needful applicants.

The achievement / work done by these Vocational Guidance Centers and other Employment Exchange from 1.1.2002 to 30.11.2002 is as follows:-

  • No of persons who received individual Guidance 50,762
  • No of persons who received Guidance at the time of registration 99,990
  • No persons who received individual information 10,946
  • No cases reviewed in the Live register 38,845
  • No of persons who participated in the Group Discussion 12,141
  • No of persons who came to the professional cell 1,091
  • No of Guidance campus held 1,121

Central Employment Cell

With a view to provide technical and highly skilled manpower to all the industrial units, institutions and establishments set-up / being set-up in the private sector in Himachal Pradesh, the Central Employment Cell remained engaged in rendering its services as usual during the year 2002. The area of operation of the Cell did not remain confined only to making the technical and highly skilled manpower available to the aforesaid institution, establishment and Industrial Units but also assisted the Private Sector in meeting with its unskilled manpower requirements through the network of Employment Exchanges of the Pradesh from time to time. Thus, this unique system of Employment Services helped both the job seekers in finding suitable>

Special Employment Exchange for Physically Handicapped:-

The Special Employment Exchange for the placement of physically disabled under the charge of Officer-In-charge (Placement) was set-up in the Directorate of Labour and Employment during the year, 1976. A special employment cell for Physically Handicapped is functioning at Dharamsala since, 1983. This cell renders assistance to the physically disabled candidate in the field of Vocational Guidance and also provided Employment assistance to the job seekers.

Industrial Relations & General Labour Situation

Maintenance of cordial Industrial Relations between the workers and management is a sine qua non for achieving optimum industrial production. The conciliation mechanism has proved very effective in stopping and sorting out Industrial Disputes. There are 4 Labour Officers at Distt. H.Q and 1 at Rampur who are functioning as Conciliation Officers. Elsewhere the District Employment Officers and Labour Inspectors (Where the number of workers is less than 200) are doing this work. Where these officers/officials are unable to achieve conciliation, the respective Labour Officers, Dy. Labour Commissioner, Joint Labour Commissioner or the Labour Commissioner-cum-Director of Employment intervenes in order to sort out the Industrial Dispute. In such Industrial Establishments where 100 or more workers are working. Workers Committees have been set up as per the provision of Section 3 of Industrial Disputes Act, 1947.

Labour Court/ Industrial Tribunal

It has been set up in Shimla. Since 1988 a District & Session Judge is appointed (on deputation) as the Presiding Officer. It is instrumental in deciding cases referred to it under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947. The Labour Court moves to other areas of the State so that the workers do not have to come to Shimla for redressal.

Employment Market Information Programme

Under this Programme information is regularly being collected from the Govt. and Pvt. Sector Establishments (only such Pvt. Sector Establishment which are employing 10 or more persons not engaged in agriculture).


The State Environment Protection & Pollution Control Board in Himachal Pradesh constituted under the provision of Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 has always endeavored to strike a rational balance between economic growth and environmental preservation. In the pursuit of attaining the objectives enshrined in Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution ) Act, 1981 and the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, the State Board has followed the principles of sustainable development. In addition to the above the State Board is also performing the functions prescribed under Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 and Hazardous Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules 1989 under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, 1989 and Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998.

The duties of the H . P. State Environment Protection & Pollution Control Board

  • Advise the State Government on matters concerning the prevention, control of water and air pollution and improvement of the quality of air and water.
  • Provide technical assistance and guidance in problems related to water and air pollution and control thereof.
  • Plan and cause to be executed state wide programs for prevention, control and abatement of water and air pollution.
  • Dissemination of data on environment quality in the State regarding lakes, rivers and ambient air.
  • Lay down standards for point as well as non-point sources of pollution. Evolving suitable>
  • Delimitation of Pollution Control areas.
  • Surveillance and monitoring of anti-pollution devices and regular assessment of environment quality indicators.
  • Creating mass-awareness through hoarding, seminars, symposium and distribution of simple and easily comprehensible literature/handouts.
  • Promotion and proliferation of the cause of the NGOs in the field of environment. A NGO cell has been created in the Board to attain maximum public participation and at the same time to create awareness at grass-root level.

The statutory activities of the Himachal Pradesh State Pollution Control Board are carried by more than 13 engineers and 14 scientist at time of reporting beside administrative support. The board has well equipped four laboratories in Himachal Pradesh. The board has ten air monitoring stations and 95 water monitoring station in Himachal Pradesh. The Contact person is Member Secretary.


The Department of Health Services functions under the administrative control of Health & Family Welfare Department of Government of Himachal Pradesh. The department is headed by Director of Health Services and has 3 zonal Hospitals, 2 Distinct Hospitals, 7 Regional Hospitals, only one woman hospital attached with Medical college in Shimla, one mental hospital in Shimla, Two Leprosy Sanitarium in Solan and Kandware, two Sanitorium for chest disease in Dharmpur and Tanda, 66 Community Health Centers, 439 primarily Health Centers and 22 all type of dispensary. There are two T.B. Hospitals in Dharmapur and Tanda having 500 beds also functions under the department. There are total 50 Hospitals having 8897 beds, 1340 doctors and 1319 staff Nurses in Himachal Pradesh.

The main function of the department is public health care in a wholesome manner and the attainment of Family Welfare including maternal and child health care. The activities of the department centered round the programmes oriented towards preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitation aspect of public health. To carry out these activities a five tier delivery system function with Government dispensaries and those converted as a new Public Health Center to serve the population. Block primary Health Centers, Taluk headquarter Hospitals, Community Health Centers and Government Hospitals provide health services and treatment at different tier delivery system. Certain institutions function exclusively for special treatment of the cases of Leprosy, T.B., Mental disease etc. Beside these, the department also functions for the control of communicable disease, rendering of family welfare services including mental and child health services, implementation of national control/eradication programmes.

State Council For Science, Technology and Environment

The State Council For science, Technology and Environment has, over the year become an integral part of strategic planning with regard to rural areas of the state. The council provides vital inputs for the implementation of remote sensing techniques for monitoring, mapping natural resources, identifying reasons for natural disasters, temporal changes in land use, and glacial wealth are some of the most important assignments in its mandate. Science popularization, constructing inventory of vital flora and fauna wealth, identification of endangered species, preparation of state of Environment Report, collection of science, Technology and Environment information and its dissemination among public in general and end users are other areas of its operation. It also plays an advisory role in bringing up contemporary developments in the notice of the state government apart from providing active support in drafting guidelines/ policies for mitigating environment problems.

H.P.State Council For science, Technology and Environment came into being in 1985 under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh and was registered as a Society under Societies Act 1860 in the Year 1985. The initial functions of the Council were listed as under

  • Prepare an inventory of voluntary agencies, education and R&D institutions, individuals involved in popularization, and doing science, Technology and Environment related works.
  • Identification of new technology for Agriculture, Industry, Power, Horticulture, Environment, Energy etc.


  • To advise state government on science & technology policy issues & interventions.
  • To transfer, develop & demonstrate appropriate technologies for hilly regions.
  • To exchange scientific knowledge with national & international scientific institutions/organisations.
  • To promote, popularise and disseminate science & technology.
  • To create and strengthen science & technology facilities in the state.
  • To promote research & development studies relevant to state needs.
  • To establish linkages with state universities, research & development institutions.
  • To provide consultancy services in successfully demonstrated/developed technologies
Consultancies Provided by the Council
  • Solar Passive House Technology
  • Low Cost Green House Technology
  • Ground Water Exploration by Remote Sensing Techniques
  • Micro Hydel Power Development-Prefeasibility Data
  • Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting


Himachal Pradesh Fire Force was set up in 1972 to prevent the loss of life and property from the fire hazard. Beside the State Head Quarter at Shimla the Himachal Pradesh Fire Force has 11 Regional offices at Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Kullu, Mandi, Sirmaur, Solan and Una. There is no fire station Lahula-Spitebala. High altitude.

Himachal Pradesh Fire Force is responsible for fire protection and rescue operation. These activities are carried out by 585 technical officials supported by 40 administrative officials and 85 fire fighting vehicle. There are 14 town in Himachal Pradesh with fire hydrant system. The contact person is Director fire services.

Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board

Himachal Pradesh has high altitude ranging from 350 to 6975 meters with climate conditions varying from semi-tropical to semi-arctic. The total population of Himachal Pradesh as per 1991 census was 51,70,877 with population density being 93 persons per sq. Km. However, there are wide variations in area and population figures of the districts and district-wise density varies from 2 persons per sq. km. in Lahaul Spiti to 330 persons.

Electric supply at the time of formation of the state in 1948 was available only in the Capitals of the erstwhile princely states and the connected load at the time was less than 500 kW. Thus the organization of the power utility in the state began relatively recently and first electrical division was formed in August, 1953 under the Public Works Department. Subsequently a department of M.P.P. & Power was formed in April, 1964 after realizing the need for exploiting the substantial hydel potential available in the river basins. Thereafter, the State Electricity Board in accordance with the provisions of Electricity Supply Act (1948) was formed in the year 1971. Accordingly , all functions of the Department of Multipurpose projects, Power such as generation, execution of hydro electric projects except functions of flood control and minor irrigation were transferred to the Board. Since then the State Electricity Board has made long strides in executing the targets entrusted to it and at present is fully competent in organization and infrastructure to take up any challenges.

Hydro power status in Himachal Pradesh

Total Identified Potentia20787.07 MW
Harnessed so Far6045.07 MW
Under Execution3442.5 MW
For Which DPR Ready2267.5 MW
Under Investigation2094.5 MW
Projects Identified6187.5 MW
Him Urja750 MW


Labour Bureau is responsible for the collation, collection and publication of statistics and related information on wages, earnings, productivity, absenteeism, labour turn-over, industrial relations, working and living conditions and evaluation of working of various labour enactments etc. It is a storehouse of important economic indicators like Consumer Price Index Numbers for Industrial, Agricultural and Rural Labourers; wage rate indices and data on industrial relations, socio-economic conditions in the organized and unorganized sector of industry etc.

Resources available and needed for management of OSH


During the study, the team visited departments and organisations dealing with occupational safety and health in the manufacturing sector with a view to establish inventory of occupational safety and health information in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The activities of these departments, resources available at their disposal were examined to determine the problems faced by the organisations in the matters of occupational safety and health and further resources needed in order to effectively manage occupational safety and health at the state level.

The scope of the study was limited to cover the organisations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident forms. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, availability of safety reports, crèches, etc. as per the provisions of the Factories Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was outside the defined scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, the more elaborate in-depth study is required to be taken up to get a comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.

The findings and recommendations as brought out by the study are summarized below :


  • There are a large number of small scale industrial units in the state. These units are registered with Department of Industries .The department look after the licensing, development, training and financial aspects in these units. However, the safety, health and welfare of workers are not adequately covered by this department. For educating the owner- Managers as well as the workers of small-scale units, the training module developed by Central labour Institute in collaboration with ILO could be used. For this purpose RLI Faridabad could play a lead role in training the owner-managers and workers of the small scale units.
  • At present the Department of Labour & Employment has to carry out combined responsibility of looking after the implementation of the provisions of various Labour Acts and also the Factories Act. For implementing the provisions of the Factories Act the department is not equipped with sufficient manpower. With the advancements and development in the technological field, new machineries, chemicals are increasingly being employed by the industry. This has made the safety and health issue more complex and challenging. Therefore it is necessary that trained manpower is available to deal with the complex issues of occupational safety and health. It is therefore recommended that few posts of officers may be created including those with chemical and medical background.
  • The Department of Health Service in the state has 89 hospitals and ESI has one hospital. The medical practitioners appointed in these hospitals are mainly concentrating on diagnosis, prevention, control and treatment of the common diseases. It is suggested that all medical practitioners in these hospitals also be exposed/ trained in occupational health.
  • In order to promote safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories, seminars, workshop and exhibitions should be organized for increasing the awareness level of workers and union leaders in the field of Safety & Health. If required, Regional labour Institute, Faridabad can also be associated extensively in these efforts.
  • The programme on control of Fire incidents could be prepared in collaboration with Fire Brigade Department, Industrial associations and Labour department. This programme should include, formulation of mutual aid scheme, mock drill and establishment of emergency response centers in various industrial pockets of the states.
  • The M.S.E.Van available with DGFASLI should be used for increasing the awareness level of workers in the field of occupational Safety and health.


  • Economic Survey, 2003-04 , Himachal Pradesh Department of Economics & Statistics.
  • Report on the third all India Census of Small Scale Industrial Units, Govt. Of Himachal Pradesh , Department Of Industries.
  • Statistical Outline , 2002-03. Himachal Pradesh.
  • State statistical Abstract of Himachal Pradesh, 2002-03
  • Annual Repot ,2003-04, H.P. State Environment & Pollution Control Board
  • Factories Act, 1948
  • Indian Standards IS 3786 on Method for Computation of Frequency and Severity Rates for Industrial Injuries and classification of industrial accidents
  • Himachal Pradesh Web Site.
  • Districts in figures 2003, Himachal Pradesh.



THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 ( AMENDED 1987 ), 1948

THE THIRD SCHEDULE (See section 89 and 90)

List of notifiable diseases

  • Lead poisoning including poisoning by any preparation or compound of lead or their sequelae.
  • Lead tetra-ethyl poisoning.
  • Phosphorous poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Mercury poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Manganese poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Arsenic poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Poisoning by nitrous fumes.
  • Carbon bisulphide poisoning.
  • Benzene poisoning, including poisoning by any of its homologues, their nitro or amido derivatives or its sequelae.
  • Chrome ulceration or its sequelae.
  • Anthrax.
  • Silicosis.
  • Poisoning by halogens or halogen derivatives of the hydrocarbons, of the aliphatic series.
  • Pathological manifestation due to : -
    • radium or other radioactive substances.
    • X-rays.
  • Primary epitheliomatous cancer of the skin.
  • Toxic anaemia.
  • Toxic jaundice due to poisonous substances.
  • Oil acne or dermatitis due to mineral oils and compounds containing mineral oil base.
  • Byssionosis.
  • Asbestosis.
  • Occupational or contact dermatitis caused by direct contract with chemical and paints. These are of types, that is, primary irritants and allergic sensitizers.
  • Noise induced hearing loss (exposure to high noise levels).
  • Beryllium poisoning.
  • Carbon monoxide.
  • Coal miners' pneumoconiosis.
  • Phosgene poisoning.
  • Occupational cancer.
  • Isocyanides poisoning.
  • Toxic nephritis.





Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Infectious and parasitic diseases contracted in an occupation where there is a particular risk of contamination.
  • All work involving exposure to health or laboratory work;
  • All work involving exposure to veterinary work;
  • Work relating to handling animals, animals carcasses, part of such carcasses, or merchandise which may have been contaminated by animals or animal carcasses;
  • Other work carrying a particular risk of contamination.
2.Diseases caused by work in compressed air.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
3.Diseases caused by lead or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Poisoning by nitrous fumes.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Poisoning by organphosphorus compoundAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned


Sl.No.Occupational diseaseEmployment
1.Diseases caused by phosphorus or toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.Diseases caused by mercury or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Diseases caused by benzene or its toxic homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Diseases caused by nitro and amino derivatives of benzene or its homologues.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Diseases caused by chromium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
6.Diseases caused by arsenic or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
7.Diseases caused by radioactive substances and ionising radiations.All work involving exposure to the reaction of radioactive substances or ionising radiations.
8.Primary epithelomatous cancer of the skin caused by tar, pitch bitumen, mineral oil, anthracene or the compounds, products or residues of these substancesAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
9.Diseases caused toxic halogen derivatives by hydrocarbons (of the aliphatic and aromatic series).All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
10.Diseases caused by carbon disulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
11.Occupational cataract due to infra-red radiations.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
12.Diseases caused by manganese or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
13.Skin diseases caused by physical, chemical or biological agents not include in other items.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
14.Hearing impairment caused by noise.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
15.Poisoning by dinitrophenol or a homologue or by substituted dinitrophenol or by the salts of such substances.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
16.Diseases caused by beryllium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
17.Diseases caused by cadmium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
18.Occupational asthma caused by recognised sensitising agents inherent to the work process.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
19.Diseases caused by fluorine or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
20.Diseases caused by nitroglycerine or other nitroacid esters.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
21.Diseases caused by alcohols and ketones.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
22.Diseases caused by asphyxiants; carbon monoxide, and its toxic derivatives, hydrogen sulphide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
23.Lung cancer and mesotheliomas caused by asbestos.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
24.Primary neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder or the kidneys or the ureter.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned


Sl.NoOccupational diseaseEmployment
1.Pneumoconiosis caused by sclerogenic mineral dust (silicosis, anthraoosilicosis asbestosis) and silico-tuberculosis provided that silicosis is an essential factor in causing the resultant incapacity or death.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
2.BagassosisAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned
3.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by cotton, flax hemp and sisal dust (Byssinosis)All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
4.Extrinsic allergic alvoelities caused by the inhalation of organic dusts.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned
5.Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by hard metals.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned