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Introduction

INTRODUCTION

The rapid advancement of science and technology has taken place with the globalization of economy, As a result transfer of technological knowledge has also taken place throughout the world at a very fast rate and has brought about a phenomenal change in the industrial scenario all over the world bringing in new chemicals, new processes and new effluents. This knowledge and its application have often led to benefits such as improved productivity and reduced physical exertion. Conversely the misapplication of such technology has given rise to hazards threatening safety and health aggravating the risk of industrial accidents and occupational health hazards. Therefore, the factory owners and the management have increased manifold in respect of accident prevention, maintenance of occupational health and protection of environment.

Both management and organized labour have agreed that safety and health on the job is the management responsibility. The duty of an employer is to protect employees against health hazards in addition to their safety. Therefore, a new safety management system begins to emerge and companies begin to move from reactive to proactive state, with increasing enthusiasm for safety. This necessitates designing of newer policies and programmes in respect of safety, health and environment. A system is an established arrangement of components that work together to attain a certain objective to prevent injuries and illness.

In the emerging scenarios, industries have to effectively deal with multitude of challenge like rapidly involving new technology, shorter life circle, globalization, increased competition and the need to substantially reduce the environmental impact. A national inventory on capabilities and management of occupational safety, health and environment will be of great help for designing and implementing various instruments to protect safety, health and environment of the large workforce working in various sectors of the economy. These requires on line assessment of the present statutes on occupational safety and health in the country. Presently information in this area is not up-to-date and also not readily available for the policy makers. As such a pilot project has been taken up for the state of Assam with the objective to collect and compile various information on occupational safety and health and dissemination of information regarding the extent of compilation with the important provisions under the Factories Act, 1948 and the rules framed there under including system of notification of occupational accidents and diseases as per ILO code of practice at the unit level and state level.

ACTIVITIES COVERED

The activities of this project have been divided in the following categories:

  • Background information about the state of Assam –
    Deals with the demographic and geographic characteristic of the state of Assam, population in different districts and major occupations of the people.
  • Economic activities
    Deals with the various aspects of economic sectors in the state, their value of production, employment generated and contribution to the GDP.
  • Activities in manufacturing sector
    Deals with the different activities carried out in the manufacturing sector as per the National Industries Code, value of production, employment generation, etc.
  • Occupational injuries and diseases
    Deals with the analysis of the occupational injuries – fatal and non-fatal and cases of occupational diseases in the manufacturing sector.
  • Management of occupational safety and health
    Deals with the infrastructure and resources available at the unit level and the state level for managing the crucial issue of occupational safety and health.
  • Resources available and needed for the management of occupational safety and health
    Based on the analysis of occupational injuries, diseases and the capabilities available in the state of Assam for the management of occupational safety and health, an attempt is made to assess the resources required for the better management of occupational safety and health.

The information pertaining to various economic sectors was collected by visiting each of the departments, having detailed discussions with the respective heads and referring to the annual returns of these departments. The information related with the manufacturing sectors were collected from the annual returns submitted by the factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948. The data related to the occupational injuries and studying the accident forms and recording them on to the data sheets specifically designed for this purpose analyzed diseases.

For the assessment of infrastructure available and capabilities of the organizations, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health, the profile programme on the similar lines as that developed by ILO was used.

Data collection and analysis could be efficiently completed in specific time frame because of active co-operation from various people involved with the project.

Background information

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES

LOCATION

Assam shares her border with Arunachal Pradesh in East, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Bangladesh in West, Arunachal Pradesh, Bhutan in North, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Tripura in South.Longitude: 88.250E to 96.00E Latitude: 24.50N to 28.00N

Physiography

A bird’s eye view shows that the entire area of Assam can be broadly divided into three well-defined geographical units --- the Brahmaputra Valley covering the main body of the State in the north, the Barak Valley in the narrow protruding south and the state’s hilly region that separates the two valleys

The Red River and its Valley

The alluvial Brahmaputra Valley, which commands a lion’s share of the territory, is the result of the erosion and depositional work of the river Brahmaputra and its many tributaries. It is a flat plain with a slope of only 12 cms every kilometer, 80-100 km wide in its upper reaches, narrow almost by half in the area where it passes the hilly region which demarcates it from the Barak Valley, and ballooning out again to form the as wide Kopili plains in the west.

The Brahmaputra in all its majesty

brahmaputra The 724 km-flow of the Brahmaputra through the entire length of the valley with more than a hundred tributaries flowing down from the surrounding hills to merge with it, is a spectacular phenomenon. Once the tributaries hit the valley, they lose their momentum, deposit the silt they carry, form ox-bow lakes and alluvial fans and branch out before picking up their courses again to join the Brahmaputra.

AREA

Total Geographical Area
(1991Census)
78,438 sq km

Rural
77,609.59 sq km

Urban
828.41 sq km

CLIMATE

Pleasant sub-alpine climate prevails in the hills. The plains however experience tropical climate making them uncomfortably humid especially during the rainy seasons. Winter sets in from around the end of the month of October and lasts till the end of February. The temperature drops to a minimum of 6 to 8 o Celsius,the nights and early mornings are foggy, and rain is scanty. Summer arrives in the middle of May accompanied by high humidity and rainfall. The temperature reaches a maximum of 35 to 38 o Celsius. The frequent rains however serveto push the mercury down. The Monsoons blow full blast during the month of June. Thunderstorms known as Bordoichilla is a frequent occurrence during the afternoons. Spring and autumn with moderate temperatures and modest rainfall are the best seasons.

Assam falls in a zone prone to earthquakes. Though mild tremors are familiar to the region, high-intensity earthquakes are rather infrequent. However, they do occur as in 1869 when the bank of the Barak sank by 15 ft, in 1897, and again in 1950 when an earthquake of unprecedented intensity ravaged a large part of the State.

DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Demographic Information as per census 1991

GENERAL Area(in Sq Km)No. of DistrictsNo. of TahsilsNo. of CD BlocksNo. of TownsNo. of Villages
TotalRuralUrbanStatutoryCensusInhabitedUn- inhabited
78,43877,61082823141137741924,685905

POPULATION

 No. of House holdsPopulationPopulation Density (per sq km)Decadal Variation 1981-91 (%)Sex RatioUrban Population (%)
PersonsMalesFemales
Total3,844,37022,414,32211,657,98910,756,333286NA92311.1
Rural3,364,15119,926,52710,304,1619,622,366257NA934 
Urban480,2192,487,7951,353,8281,133,9673,003NA838 

AGE DISTRIBUTION (in Percentage)

 0 - 4 years5 - 9 years10 - 14 years
PersonsMalesFemalesPersonsMalesFemalesPersonsMalesFemales
Total13.413.113.814.714.315.112.111.912.3
Rural13.913.614.315.114.815.512.212.112.3
Urban9.69.010.311.110.411.811.410.612.3
 15 - 44 years45 - 59 years60 years and above
Total45.345.244.48.89.48.05.45.65.0
Rural44.444.244.68.69.28.05.45.75.0
Urban52.653.251.99.911.38.35.05.04.9

LITERACY

 No. of Literates (in '000s)Literacy RateLiteracy Rate among 10 - 14 years age groupLiteracy Rate among 15 - 19 years age groupPercent population attending school in the age-group
6 -10 years11 - 13 years
Persons9,51652.968.364.946.064.6
Males5,82761.973.070.849.069.2
Females3,68943.063.358.742.959.7

EDUCATION

 Level of Education
Below PrimaryPrimary but below MiddleMiddle but below MatricMatric but below GraduateGraduate and above
Persons21.829.627.017.73.8
Males20.629.026.419.44.6
Females23.830.628.015.22.4

WORK PARTICIPATION RATE

 Total Main Worker (in '000s)TotalMarginalWorker(in '000s)Total Non- Worker (in '000s)Per cent Main Worker engaged in
CultivationAgricultural LabourLivestock, Forestry, etc.
Persons6,9921,09714,32650.912.110.5
Males5,6401245,89450.912.17.4
Females1,3529738,43250.912.023.5
 Per cent Main Worker engaged in
Mining & Quarry- ingManufac- turing etc., in House- hold IndustriesManufac- turing etc., in non- Household IndustriesConstruc-tionTrade & CommerceTransport, Storage & Communi- cationOther Services
Persons0.50.93.11.66.82.511.1
Males0.60.63.61.98.23.011.6
Females0.212.21.00.21.00.38.9

RELIGION

Distribution of population by Religion (in percentage)
HindusMuslimsChristiansSikhsBuddhistsJainsOthersNot States
67.1328.433.320.070.290.090.620.05

LANGUAGE

Distribution of 10,000 speakers by Languages
AssameseBengaliGujaratiHindiKannadaKashmiriKonkaniMalayalamManipuri
5,7812,1672462NNN257
MarathiNepaliOriyaPunjabiSanskritSindhiTamilTeluguUrdu
1193636NN1102

"N" represents negligible number of speakers

AMENITIES

 Total No. of House holds (in '000s)Per cent households having
Electri- citySafe Drinking WaterToiletElectricity & Safe Drinking WaterSafe Drinking Water & ToiletElectricity & ToiletAll the three facilitiesNone of the three facilities
Total3,79818.745.937.411.219.815.09.334.8
Rural3,32712.443.330.56.514.68.54.538.9
Urban47263.264.186.144.056.861.242.75.9

HOUSE TYPES

 PermanentSemi-PermanentTemporary
TotalServiceableNon- Serviceable
Total14.615.270.28.162.1
Rural10.513.476.18.867.3
Urban43.427.828.83.425.4

FERTILITY RATES (Source: Sample Registration System Data)

 19911995199619971998
Birth Rate30.929.327.628.227.9
Death Rate11.59.69.69.910.0
Natural Growth Rate19.419.718.018.317.9
Infant Mortality Rate8177747676
Total Fertility Rate3.53.53.23.2 

Source: Census Data: Census of India 1991

Fertility Data

Compendium of India's Fertility and Mortality Indicators 1971 - 1997 based on The Sample Registration

System (SRS). Registrar General, India, New Delhi: 1999 and SRS Bulletin October 2000, Vol 34 No. 2.

Provisional Population Totals: Assam 2001

The total population of Assam as at 0:00 hours of 1st March 2001 stood at 26,638,407 as per the provisional results of the Census of India 2001. As against decadal growth rate of 21.34% at the national level, the population of the State has grown by 18.85% over the period 1991-2001. The sex ratio of Assam at 932 females to 1000 males has increased from 923 during 1991 Census. Similarly, the literacy rate has increased to 64.28 from 52.89 in 1991.

Population:
Persons 26,638,407
Males 13,787,799
Females 12,850,608
Sex Ratio: 932
Decadal Growth 1991 – 2001
Persons : (+)18.85%
Males : (+)18.27%
Females : (+)19.47%
Population (0 - 6 years):
Persons 4,350,248
Males 2,215,104
Females 2,135,144
Sex Ratio:964
(0 - 6 years)
Percentage of Population (0-6) to Total Population:

 

Persons 16.33%
Males 16.07%
Females 16.62 %
Number of Literates:
Persons 14,327,540
Males 8,324,077
Females 6,003,463
Percentage of Literates to Total population:
Persons 64.28 %
Males 71.93%
Females 56.03 %

(Source: Provisional Population Totals: India. Census of India 2001, Paper 1 of 2001)

POPULATION

Census Figures

The 1991 Census puts the population of Assam at 2,24,14,322 with a sex ratio of 896 females per 1,000 males and a growth rate of +53.26 per cent in the two decades from 1971 to 1991. There are 16 Scheduled Castes and 23 Scheduled Tribes constituting 7.40 and 12.82 per cent respectively of the State’s population.

MINERAL RESOURCE

Coal, petroleum and natural gas, limestone and minor minerals are produced in Assam. Tertiary coal occurs in North Cachar Hills, Sivasagar and Lakhimpur districts. Assam coal is friable in nature and has a high sulphur content. Local railways, steamers, and hydro power stations mainly utilize it. Low moisture, low volatile cooking coal has been discovered in Hallidayganj Singrimari area. Deposits of banded magnetic quartzite occurs in Kamrup and Goalpara districts, Limestone occurs in Lakhimpur, North Cachar Hills, Karbi Anglong ,Nagaon and Sivasagar districts. Kaolin is found in Karbi Anglong and Lakhimpur district. The Digboi oil fields in Lakhimpur district and Moran and Rudrasagar oil fields in Sivasagar district are the major source of oil and gas. Hydrocarbons are struck in Borsilla, Changmaigaon, Kurgaon and Rajgarh in the past. Sillimanite bearing rocks occur in Karbi Anglong district. Assam continued to be the 3rd largest producer of Petroleum (crude) and natural gas in the country accounting for 16 % and 8% respectively of the total production of this mineral in the country.

Name of the minerals: Coal, Limestone, Granite, Iron ore, Quartzite, Sillimanite, Clay, and Feldspar.

INDUSTRIES

With its bountiful natural resources, conducive climate and its geographical location as the gateway to the entire Northeast, Assam has always been a State with vast potential for industrial development. But the State has lagged behind in industrial development. In the past, lack of infrastructure was a major deterrent to industrial growth. In the last few years however, the State Government has laid emphasis and concentrated on the building up of infrastructure facilities.

ssam’s economy is predominantly an agrarian economy .Tea industry, which occupies an important position in the States economy, and which is about 150 years old is basically a combination of agricultural and manufacturing activities. Still, the history of industrialisation of Assam dates back to the beginning of the nineteenth century when the British at Digboi in Upper Assam set up the country’s first petroleum refinery. After Tea and petroleum came the plywood industries. With the almost unending forest reserves dotting the landscape of Assam miles after miles , there was a proliferation of plywood and veneer mills in the upper Assam districts

few central sector projects like, Guwahati Refinery , Bokajan Cement factory , Oil India Ltd , ONGC Ltd , HFC Ltd , HPC , Bongaigaon Refinery and Petro Chemical projects and more recently Numaligarh Refinery etc were set up in Assam. as a result of economic planning in India . The State Government also chipped in the process by promoting a few large industries in pulp and paper, petrochemicals, Fertiliser, Sugar and Textile sector. In between there have been a sizeable numbers of small-scale units. More recently a good number of medium scale projects too had come up particularly with the support of State level financial Institutions

The fourth Economic Census, 1998 was carried out in the state along with the rest of the country during May, 1998 with a view to enumerate all types of entrepreneurial activities in rural as well as urban areas. The Economic Census covered establishment as well as own account enterprises of agricultural and non-agricultural activities excluding the activities under crop production and plantation.

Of the 5,82,873 enterprises in Assam, 18,227 enterprises are found under agricultural activities while 5,64,646 enterprises are found in non-agricultural activities, the percentage being 3.13 and 96.87 respectively.

The overall growth rate of enterprises during the period 1990-98 is estimated at 2.06% against the all-India growth rate of 2.23%. Among the districts, Tinsukia records the maximum growth rate followed by N. C. Hills and Kamrup.

Of the total enterprises, 3.99 lakh are located in the rural areas while 1.84 lakh are in urban areas. The growth rate in urban areas is maximum in Tinsukia district followed by Darrang and Nalbari.

Almost 18,000 enterprises constituting 3.13% are engaged in agricultural activities as per Economic Census 1998. The share of agricultural enterprises against total enterprises as per Economic Census 1990 was 3.25%.

21.99 lakh workers constituting 3.38% of total workers of all -India level are working in all enterprises. The annual growth rate of workers in the State during the period 1990-98 is 3.35%, which is much higher than that of the all-India growth rate of 1.30%. Tinsukia registers the highest growth rate followed by Goalpara and Golaghat. It is only in Darrang District negative growth rate of workers has been observed.

Of the total workers, 15.85 lakh are working in rural areas. The growth rate during the period 1990-98 is 4.43% per annum against the all-India growth rate of 1.62% per annum. Dibrugarh witnesses the maximum growth rate followed by Cachar and Golaghat. Negative growth rate has been observed in the districts of Hailakandi, Kamrup and Darrang.

In urban areas the number of workers is 6.14 lakh, which constitute 27.91% of total workers. The growth rate of workers per annum in urban areas during the period 1990-98 is only 0.93%, which is less than that of all-India level. Maximum growth rate has been recorded in Tinsukia followed by Darrang. Negative growth rate have been found in the districts of Karbi-Anglong, Dibrugarh, Kokrajhar, Sibsagar, Sonitpur and Cachar.

Of the total workers 13.99 lakh are hired workers. Of the 18.48lakh male workers, 71.40% is found in rural areas while 28.60% in urban areas. The percentage of female workers is 15.96% only in both the sectors. 11.95 lakh male workers are engaged in establishment while 31.31% in own account enterprises. Of the 2.99-lakh female workers, 1.80 lakh are engaged in establishment while 39.69% in own account enterprises.

Of the total agricultural workers, 76.77% is found in rural areas while 23.23% in urban areas.

The Fourth Economic Census was a joint endeavor of the Central Statistical Organization, Government of India and the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Assam.

Small Scale Industries Units (1998)

TypeAssemblingFarmingJob WorkManufac-turingProces-singRepairingSeason-ingServicing
Numbers51306946902794133833201

Manufacturing sector

MANUFACTURING SECTOR

INDUSTRIAL POLICY OF ASSAM

Aims And Objectives :

The Industrial Policy of Assam, 2003 is formulated to achieve the following aims and objectives:

  • To increase the share of the industrial sector to the State Domestic Product (SDP) from the present level of 13.29% to a level of at least 18% at the end of the terminal year of the Policy.
  • To generate more employment opportunities in the State.
  • To ensure development of adequate and appropriate infrastructures for industrial growth.
  • To make Assam one of the preferred destinations for investment for outside investors.
  • To encourage private investment in Industrial infrastructure projects.
  • To ensure industrial development in hitherto industrially backward regions of the state.
  • To create avenues for sustained growth and development of the Small Scale and tiny sectors.
  • To catalyze administrative and legal reforms with a view to simplify the procedure and to ensure time bound disposal of matters.
  • To take steps to promote rural handicrafts so as to conserve and enrich cultural heritage, traditions and customs of the state.
  • To promote establishment of medium and large-scale mother industries to create an industrial base, offering large-scale employment opportunities through backward and forward linkages.
  • To promote Information Technology, high-tech, knowledge based and biotech industries.
  • To promote export oriented industrial units.
  • To take steps to revive the potentially viable sick Public Sector Undertakings and to make the Public Sector Undertakings economically viable.
  • To provide Single Window Clearance system for fast track clearance of industrial proposals.

GENERAL STATISTICS OF ASSAM

Geographical

Area78,43,800 Hectares
Total population2.66 crores (Male 1.38 crores Female 1.28 crores)
Male female ratio (sex ratio)1000:932
Population density340 per sq.kms.
Population under poverty line36 %(India-27%)
Urban Population20 %
Birth Rate (per 1000)26.9
Death Rate (per 1000)9.6
Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000)7.6
Literacy rate64.28%
Urban Literacy86%

Political

No. of districts24
No. of towns93
No. of blocks219
No. of revenue circles146
No. of villages25590 (Inhabited- 24685 & Uninhabited-905)
No. of Gaon Panchayat2489

Production of Important Crops (2001-2002) in thousand tons

Rice3854
Wheat85
Pulses66
Total food grains4023
Sugracane1011
Jute674
No. of tea estates39139 (as on 2000)
Area under tea cultivation269 thousand hectare (as on 2001)
Production of Tea450132 thousand kg (as on 2001)
Horticulture cropsGinger,Orange, Citrus fruits,Banana,Pineapple,Arceanut, Coconut, Guava, Mango and Jackfruit
Total Crop area4087 hectare

Forest Information

Forest area25.65% of geographical area
No. of National Parks5
No. of Wildlife Sanctuaries15

Industrial Infrastructure

EPIP1
Growth Centre3
IIDCs6
Industrial Estates14
Industrial Area7

SSI units (as on 31.3.2003)

Number of SSI45193
Number of people employed in SSI188110
Value of production in SSI207660.38
Major IndustriesTea, Jute, Silk, Petrochemical, Oil Refining, Paper, Cement, Polyester yarn, Food processing, Handloom & Handicraft

Industrial Production (2001)

Petroleum Crude5145000 tons
Natural Gas1890 MCM
Coal701000 tons
Limestone487000 tons
Petroleum Refinery product2468000 tons
Matches362000 GB
Plywood188000 sq. metre
Fertilizer12000 tons
Jute Textiles5306 tons
Cement292000 tons
Important industriesJute, Silk, Chemical fertilizers, tea, Petrochemicals, oil refining, Paper, Matchsticks, Cement, Ghee, Re-rolling of iron products, Iron pipes, Asbestos sheets & pipes, Pan Masala, Cosmetics, Plastics processing and moulded articles, Polyester yarn, Acrylic yarn
No. of Co-operative Societies8826(as on 1999-2000)
Total no. of State level public enterprises49

General Infrastructure

National Highways2044 Kms
State Highways2028 Kms
Other PWD roads29271 Kms
Airways(6 Civil airports)Guwahati, Tezpur, Jorhat, Dibrugarh, Silchar and North Lakhimpur
Telecommunication269 Telephone exchanges, Cell phone service of Reliance and BSNL
Hospitals161
Primary Health Centres610
Dispensaries323
Sub-Centres5109
Commercial Bank branches1232
Regional Rural Bank branches405
Population per bank branches22000
No. of Universities5(Gwauhati University, Dibrugarh University,Tezpur University, Assam University, Assam Agriculture University)
No. of small and different types of fisheries188971
Big Fisheries1169

Net State Domestic Product (at factor cost) 2001-02

At current price (Rs. in Crores)29198
Per Capita Income10951

1. Major Industries

Number of registered factories in the state of Assam is 2406(2000) and the average daily numbers of industrial workers are 98480. The distribution of employments in organized sector of Assam are given below:

Central Government3.75%
State Government:1.00%
Private Sector:95.25%

The status of the same industrial sectors are given below:

 1999-20002000-20012001-2002
Mining0.00%0.03%0.07%
Manufacturing4.15%96.85%96.95%
Electricity0.78%0.71%0.66%
General2.41%2.38%2.30%

2. Major Industrial Companies In The State

CompanyOwnership /GroupIndustryLocation
Indian Oil Corpn.Central Govt.Petroleum ProductsKamrup, Tinsukia
Oil & Natural Gas Corpn.Central Govt.CrudeAssam
Bongaigaon RefineryCentral Govt.Petroleum productsBongaigaon
Hindustan Paper Corpn.Central Govt.PaperMorigaon, Cachar
Hindustan Fertilizer Corpn.Central Govt.FertilizersDibrugarh
Cement Corpn. of
India
Central Govt.CementNagaon
Brooke Bond Lipton IndiaUni LeverTeaDibrugarh
Tata TeaTata tea GroupTeaNagaon, Sibsagar, Dibrugarh, Darrang
Kit ply IndustriesGoenka S.P.Plywood & boardsTinsukia
Meleod Russel (India)Williamson MagorTeaSonitpur, Sibsagar
George WilliamsonWilliamson MagorTeaDarrang
Bihnauth Tea Co.WilliamsonTeaDarrang
Monica ElectronicsOnida GroupColour TVKarimganj
Jay Shree Tea & Inds.Birla B.K. GroupBlack Tea, PlywoodSibsagar, Cachar,Jorhat
Assam Co.Mehta MahendraTeaDibrugarh, Nagaon, Sibsagar, Jorhat
National Plywood Inds.Private (Indian)PlywoodTinsukia, Kamrup
Warren TeaGoenka S.P. GroupTeaDibrugarh
A F T IndustriesApeejayTeaDarrang, Dibrugarh
S K SPrivate (Indian)Non-ferrousKarimganj
WimcoJatia GroupMatchesGoalpara
Prag Bosimi SyntheticsJoint SectorPFYDarrang
Dhunseri Tea & Inds.Dhanuka S.L.\ C.K.Tea wasteDibrugarh, Darrang
AssambrookPrivate (Indian)TeaDarrang
Indian CarbonHimatsingka GroupPetroleum CokeKamrup
Bengal Tea & FabricsPrivate (Indian)Black TeaSibsagar, Cachar, Lakhimpur
Bharat General & TextileBirla B.K. GroupCotton yarnDarrang
Tezpore Tea Co.Dhanuka S.L./C.K.TeaDarrang
GoodrickeGoodrickeGroupTeaDarrang

3. Major Industrial Concentration Distribution

The state of Assam consists of 23 districts in total. The distribution of industrial concentration is given in the following table.

Distribution of Registered Factories in the District of Assam
DistrictYear (1999)Year (2000)
Barpeta3233
Bongaigaon2929
Cachar113119
Dibrugarh255260
Darrang8288
Dhemaji33
Tinsukia326335
Dhubri4444
Goalpara88
Golaghat177180
Hailakandi2324
Jorhat164173
Kamrup453490
Karimganj5960
Karbianglong2324
Kokrajhar3031
Marigaon99
Lakhimpur2224
Nagaon107108
Nalbari1010
N.C.Hills2022
Sibsagar119122
Sonitpur200210
Total23082406

 

4. Small Scale Industries Units: -

There are more than 25000 number of small Scale and tiny sector registered units (both of SIDO and Non - DIDO) in the State. According to the last SSI census, generally 45% of the units are either closed or untraceable. The detail of the unit in operationaccording to type of work is given below

Small Scale Industries Units (1998)

TypeNumbers
Assembling5
Farming1
Job Work3069
Manufacturing4690
Processing2794
Repairing1338
Seasoning33
Servicing201

5. Workers Participation in Industrial growth

21.99 lakh workers constituting 3.38% of total workers of all -India level are working in all enterprises. The annual growth rate of workers in the State during the period 1990-98 is 3.35%, which is much higher than that of the all-India growth rate of 1.30%.Of the total workers 13.99 lakh are hired workers. Of the 18.48-lakh male workers, 71.40% is found in rural areas while 28.60% in urban areas. The percentage of female workers is 15.96% only in both the sectors. 11.95 lakh male workers are engaged in establishment while 31.31% in own account enterprises. Of the 2.99-lakh female workers, 1.80 lakh are engaged in establishment while 39.69% in own account enterprises.

6. Human Resource Development

Lack of skilled manpower is one of the most important factors for industrial backwardness of the State of Assam. To develop the skills among the local people and to up-grade the skill on a continuous basis, the Government is planning to review the performance of out-dated training programme and new training module suitable>

7. Women Entrepreneur

Women constitute half of the population of the State and they have been entering in every field of economic activity now a day. The Government of Assam is aware of the fact that the women entrepreneur should get due priority for their economic development as well as to meet ends of social justice. To encourage the woman entrepreneurs as well as for generation of employment among the women, the Government is giving preference to them while allotting industrial sheds, developed plots in Industrial Area/Estate/ Growth centre to the extent of 30%. The Government is also opening a Women Cell in each and every DIC to cater to the need of the women entrepreneurs in addition to women cell already functioning in the Directorate of Industries. Apart form that providing of additional incentives to the women entrepreneurs for setting up of industries are in the future plan of the Government.

8. List of ISO 9000 Certified Organisations in Assam are given Below:

Sl. No.Nature of IndustriesName of the Industries
01Petrochemical & GasBongaigaon Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd ( BRPL), Dhaligaon , Bongaigaon
02- Do -Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Guwahati Refinery Division, Noonmati. Guwahati
03- Do -Indian Oil Corporation Ltd
(Assam Oil Division), Digboi Refinery
Digboi
04- Do -India Oil Corporation Ltd ( Assam Oil Division) LPG Bottling Plant ,
North Guwahati
05- Do -Assam Gas Company Ltd, Duliajan
06- Do -Aila Indane Distributor, Sivasagar
07- Do -IOC(AOD) Petrol Filling Centre, Dispur
08Paper & PulpNagaon Paper Mills Ltd ( A unit of HPC)Jagiroad,Morigaon
09- Do -Cachar Paper Mills Ltd ( A unit of HPC)Panchgram,Hailkandi
10Health CareGuwahati Neorological Research Centre Guwahati
11- Do -Down Town Hospital, Guwahati
12EngineeringNorth Eastern Cables Pvt Ltd Industrial Estate,Chinnamora,Jorhat
13- Do -Central Workshop Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd, Sivasagar
14.- Do -1 Advance Base Workshop, C/0 99 APO
15.- Do -Trade & Industry Ltd, Tezpur
16.- Do -Bimal Auto Agency, Guwahati
17.TeaHatiali Tea Estate, Tinsukia

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES DURING THE YEAR 1999-2002 IN THE STATE OF ASSAM

YearNo. of LockoutsNo. of Workers InvolvedNumber of Mandays LostWages Lost (in Rs.)Production Loss (in Rs.)
123456
1999528263451811060729569250
2000-----
20011912456055765846000
2002219801443040037390000

Manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT & BOILERS ACT

TABLE - 1

List of Major Accident Hazard Factories under Assam Factories (Control of Major Accident Hazard) Rule

Sl. No.Name of the FactoryNo. of Workers Employed
01)Bongaigaon Refinery & Petrochemical, P.O. Dhaligaon, Dist, Kokrajhar – 783 3851216
02)Brahmaputra Fertilizer Corporation Ltd., Namrup Unit, P.O. Parbatpur, Dist. Dibrugarh – 786 6231737
03)Hindustan Paper Corporation Ltd., Nagaon Paper Mill, Jagiroad, Dist. Nagaon – 782 4101112
04)Hindustan Paper Corporatioin Ltd., Cachar Paper Project, P.O. Panchgram, Cachar949
05)Indane Bottling Plant, Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Assam Oil Division, P.O. Jaritola Bazar, Dist. Cachar – 788 12662
06)Indane Bottling Plant, North Guwahati, Dist. Kampur – 781 031130
07)Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Guwahati Refinery, P.O.Noonmati, Guwahati – 201171
08)Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., BRPL, LPG Bottling Plant, Dhaligaon, Dist. Kokrajhar – 783 381185
09)Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., (Assam Oil Division) Digboi, Dist. Tinsukia – 786 171676
10)Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., (Assam Oil Division) Tap Off Point Ex GSPL, Betkuchi, P.O. Sewkuchi, Guwahati – 781 01827
11)Gas Authority of India Ltd., P.O Lakwa, Dist, Sibsagar200
12)Numaligarh Refinery & Petrochem Ltd., P.O. Numaligarh, Dist. Golaghat.252

TABLE – 2

List of Districts where district crisis Groups have been constituted

Sl. No.DistrictNo. of M. A. H Factories
1)Kamrup3
2)Dibrugarh1
3)Golaghat1
4)Morigaon1
5)Cachar1
6)Hailakandi1
7)Bongaigaon1
8)Tinsukia1
9)Sibsagar1

TABLE – 3

Region-wise distribution of Industries in Assam

Regional OfficeDistricts
GuwahatiKamrup, Nagaon, Cachar, Hailakandi, N. C. Hills, Karbi-Anglong, Goalpara, Morigaon, Karimganj.
JorhatJorhat, Sibsagar, Golaghat.
DibrugarhDibrugarh, Tinsukia
BongaigaonBongaigaon, Borpeta, Nalbari, Kokrajhar, Darrang, Sonitpur, Dhubri, Lakhimpur, Dhemaji, Chirang, Baska, Udalguri.

TABLE – 4

Industries Handling Hazardous Chemicals

Sl. No.CategoryAs raw materials
1Oil RefineryAmmonia, Chlorine, Sulpher-dioxide, Tetraethyl lead.
2Paper Manf.Liquid Chlorine, Hydrochloric Acid, Sodium Chlorate, Hydrogen (Gas)
3FertilizerArsenic Trioxide, ammonia Arsenic, Pent oxide
4LPG BottlingLPG

TABLE – 5

List of Hazardous Industries in Assam in 2000-2002

YearNo. of IndustriesNo. of Workers
2000789433
2001799683
2002829921

The Inspector of Boiler is the enforcement authority of different provisions under Boilers Act, 1923 and rules framed there under. The provisions of different Boiler Act and Rules administered by the Inspectorate of Boilers are given below:

  • Indian Boiler Act, 1923.
  • Indian Boiler Rules, 1950.
  • The Assam Boiler Rules, 1935.
  • The Assam Economizer Rules, 1956.
  • The Assam Boiler Attendance Rules, 1954.
  • The Assam Boiler Operation Engineer Rules, 1962.

Head office of Inspector of Boilers is at Guwahati with zonal office at Dibrugarh, Bongaigaon and district office at Silchar and Sivsagar.

The Organ gram of Chief Inspector of Boiler, Assam is given below:

img1111

Bar-Chart showing the No. of Boilers inspected certified and recommended for repairs during the period 1999 to 2003

img1112

Bar-Chart showing the No. of Economizers inspected, certified and recommended for repairs during the year 1999 to 2003.

image1113

Bar-Chart showing Revenue Receipts during the 1997-2003.

image1115

image1116

Pie-Diagram showing population of Boilers based on working pressure

image1117

Pie-diagram showing population of Boilers based on age.

Occupational injuries in manufacturing activities (covered under Factories Act 1948)

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIESIN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES(COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 ( AMENDED 1987 ) 1948)

5.1. Chief Inspector of Factories

Te details of the officers working in Chief Inspector of Factories, Assam are given in Table No. 1.There is one post of Joint Chief Inspector of Factories and 3 posts of Additional Chief Inspector of Factories in the office of CIF.

TABLE – 1

Officers under the Chief Inspector of Factories
DesignationNo. of sanctioned post
Joint Chief Inspector of Factories & Boilers1
Additional Chief Inspector of Factories3
Senior Inspector of Factories4
Inspector of Factories22
Medical Inspector of Factories1
Certifying Surgeon3

5.2. Registered Factories

The No. of Registered Factories from 1998 to 2002 are given in Table No. 2. The No. of Factories is increasing from year to year. The break up of factories under Section 2m (i), 2M (ii) and 85 of Factories Act is not readily available.

TABLE - 2

Number of registered factories
Category of factories199819992000200120022003
Factories under Section 2(m)(i) (Manufacturing Process with power employing 10 or more workers).19161982-21622292Comp-ilation work not yet completed

 

Factories under Section 2(m)(ii) (Manufacturing process without power employing 20 or more workers)237270-301354
Factories notified under Section 855656-4949
Total22092308240625122695 

5.3. Distribution of new factories

The details of registration of new factories in the year 2003. are given in Table no 3. 159 new factories are registered during 2003 out of which maximum no. of new factories registered have workers strength less than 20.

TABLE - 3

Distribution of new factories registered during 2002

(A = Number of factories; B = Number workers)

Category of factoriesUp to 19 workers20 or more but less than 50 workers50 or more but less than 100 workers100 or more but less than 500 workers500 or more workersTotal
ABABABABABAB
Section 2 (m)(i)8210033999526138011118717001595225

5.4. No. of Factories inspected by the Inspectors

No. of factories inspected by the Inspectors during 1999-2003 have increased during the years. Visits include registered factories, non-registered factories, non-available factories details of which are given in Table No. 4.

TABLE - 4

Number of visits to factories by the Inspectors

YearRegistered factoriesUnregistered factoriesNon-amenable factoriesTotal
U/S 2 (m)U/S 85U/S 2(m)U/S 85
1999903-3--2308
200060918--2406
2001110419198--2512
2002846-81--2695
2003650-92---

5.5. Approval of Plans

Plans approved by Chief Inspector of Factories, Assam during the years 1998 to 2003 are given in Table No. 5.

TABLE – 5

Approval of Plans

YearNew constructionAdditional installation of plans/machineryExtensionOthersTotal
1998167-168-335
1999104-245-349
200099-121-220
2001128-179-307
2002191-49-240
2003163-255-418

5.6. Workers employed in major industrial groups

Details of average daily employment of workers as defined under section 2(i) of Factories Act, 1948 for the year 1997-2002 are given below in Table No. 6. In some group of industries it is increasing and in some groups it is slowly decreasing.

TABLE – 6

Average daily number of workers employed in major industrial groups in statutory returns furnished by the employers

Item199719981999200020012002
Rice918737720708614611
Tea569225742755382556825479453716
Cotton textile13331131789784535535
Jute1236123612071057388388
Paper and paper products360827902973260227292640
Training & Allied Industries840840758112310141014
Rubber and rubber products151522222222
Chemicals and Chemical Products400438223448317132593321
Glass & Glass Products-1212121212
Engineering623988993826822788
Ship Building & Repairs-2424242424
Electricity225622172395235723541361
Other industries341662932030115301123274931599

5.7. District-wise average daily number of workers employed in factories

District-wise average daily employment of workers have been detailed in Table No. 7. It is interesting both whereas the no. of factories have increased during 1997-2002 average daily employment is decreasing.

TABLE - 7

District-wise average daily number of workers employed in factories

(Submitting returns)

A = Number of factories submitting returns;

B = Average daily number of workers employed.

Name of the DistrictAverage daily number of workers employed (submitting returns)
199719981999200020012002
ABABABABABAB
Barpeta383073229532282332923330233287
Bongaigaon355317296550296297296153336023344873
Cachar11635201094193134204119413712241851464150
Dibrugarh280161292511575325515274260157802671524528714819
Darrang933708763790823314883333893324913137
Dhemajee9108369369375375365
Dhubri511565431246441056447674374643768
Goalpara29211811481148827907113
Golaghat15951601605069177495180549418750691945080
Hailakandi232893232251232237242206252182252053
Jorhat205542615748651644972173489818147401954468
Kamrup44410766427963545310165490197415231279057311948
Karimganj591336561346591320601239641260641240
Karbianglang9313362110782310752410832496424968
Kokrajhar40202830614301232316292857429584
Lakhimpur291643221585221494241558241562241561
Morigaon111727917379172491556211572211574
Nagaon12935791113567107348210836021143509  

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES (COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948 ( AMENDED 1987 ) 1948)

5.1. Chief Inspector of Factories

Te details of the officers working in Chief Inspector of Factories, Assam are given in Table No. 1.There is one post of Joint Chief Inspector of Factories and 3 posts of Additional Chief Inspector of Factories in the office of CIF.

TABLE – 1

Officers under the Chief Inspector of Factories
DesignationNo. of sanctioned post
Joint Chief Inspector of Factories & Boilers1
Additional Chief Inspector of Factories3
Senior Inspector of Factories4
Inspector of Factories22
Medical Inspector of Factories1
Certifying Surgeon3

5.2. Registered Factories

The No. of Registered Factories from 1998 to 2002 are given in Table No. 2. The No. of Factories is increasing from year to year. The break up of factories under Section 2m (i), 2M (ii) and 85 of Factories Act is not readily available.

TABLE - 2

Number of registered factories
Category of factories199819992000200120022003
Factories under Section 2(m)(i) (Manufacturing Process with power employing 10 or more workers).19161982-21622292Comp-ilation work not yet comp-leted
Factories under Section 2(m)(ii) (Manufacturing process without power employing 20 or more workers)237270-301354
Factories notified under Section 855656-4949
Total22092308240625122695 

5.3. Distribution of new factories

The details of registration of new factories in the year 2003. are given in Table no 3. 159 new factories are registered during 2003 out of which maximum no. of new factories registered have workers strength less than 20.

TABLE - 3

Distribution of new factories registered during 2002

(A = Number of factories; B = Number workers)

Category of factoriesUp to 19 workers20 or more but less than 50 workers50 or more but less than 100 workers100 or more but less than 500 workers500 or more workersTotal
ABABABABABAB
Section 2 (m)(i)8210033999526138011118717001595225

5.4. No. of Factories inspected by the Inspectors

No. of factories inspected by the Inspectors during 1999-2003 have increased during the years. Visits include registered factories, non-registered factories, non-available factories details of which are given in Table No. 4.

TABLE - 4

Number of visits to factories by the Inspectors

YearRegistered factoriesUnregistered factoriesNon-amenable factoriesTotal
U/S 2 (m)U/S 85U/S 2(m)U/S 85
1999903-3--2308
200060918--2406
2001110419198--2512
2002846-81--2695
2003650-92---

5.5. Approval of Plans

Plans approved by Chief Inspector of Factories, Assam during the years 1998 to 2003 are given in Table No. 5.

TABLE – 5

Approval of Plans

YearNew constructionAdditional installation of plans/machineryExtensionOthersTotal
1998167-168-335
1999104-245-349
200099-121-220
2001128-179-307
2002191-49-240
2003163-255-418

5.6. Workers employed in major industrial groups

Details of average daily employment of workers as defined under section 2(i) of Factories Act, 1948 for the year 1997-2002 are given below in Table No. 6. In some group of industries it is increasing and in some groups it is slowly decreasing.

TABLE – 6

Average daily number of workers employed in major industrial groups in statutory returns furnished by the employers

Item199719981999200020012002
Rice918737720708614611
Tea569225742755382556825479453716
Cotton textile13331131789784535535
Jute1236123612071057388388
Paper and paper products360827902973260227292640
Training & Allied Industries840840758112310141014
Rubber and rubber products151522222222
Chemicals and Chemical Products400438223448317132593321
Glass & Glass Products-1212121212
Engineering623988993826822788
Ship Building & Repairs-2424242424
Electricity225622172395235723541361
Other industries341662932030115301123274931599

5.7. District-wise average daily number of workers employed in factories

District-wise average daily employment of workers have been detailed in Table No. 7. It is interesting both whereas the no. of factories have increased during 1997-2002 average daily employment is decreasing.

TABLE - 7

District-wise average daily number of workers employed in factories

(Submitting returns)

A = Number of factories submitting returns;

B = Average daily number of workers employed.

Name of the DistrictAverage daily number of workers employed (submitting returns)
199719981999200020012002
ABABABABABAB
Barpeta383073229532282332923330233287
Bongaigaon355317296550296297296153336023344873
Cachar11635201094193134204119413712241851464150
Dibrugarh280161292511575325515274260157802671524528714819
Darrang933708763790823314883333893324913137
Dhemajee9108369369375375365
Dhubri511565431246441056447674374643768
Goalpara29211811481148827907113
Golaghat15951601605069177495180549418750691945080
Hailakandi232893232251232237242206252182252053
Jorhat205542615748651644972173489818147401954468
Kamrup44410766427963545310165490197415231279057311948
Karimganj591336561346591320601239641260641240
Karbianglang9313362110782310752410832496424968
Kokrajhar40202830614301232316292857429584
Lakhimpur291643221585221494241558241562241561
Morigaon111727917379172491556211572211574
Nagaon129357911135671073482108360211435091413421
Nalbari1610171062710543105191049910492
N. C. Hill274542040020495225072250220505
Sibsagar132650512261811196495122637113261961386218
Sonitpur200105841871018220096442109685209987421410025
Tinsukia361205913151941332618395335180303501803437917682

5.8. Total employment

Total employment during 1999-2002 has been given in Table No. 8. It was maximum in 2001 but the same in 2002 showed a downward trend.

Table – 8

Total employment
ITEM1999200020012002
Total employment    
Employment in new factories registered during 20024361399767729146
Employment in old factories registered during 200294477944839254486885
Total employment in factories registered during 200298838984809931696031

5.9. Employment of women in factories

Average daily employment of women worked during 1997 to 2001 has been given in Table No. 9. The no. of woman workers had been reduced to 1440 in 2001 from 2178 in 2000.

Table – 9

Employment of women in factories
YearNumber of factories where women workers are employedAverage daily number of women workers employed
1997 3141
1998 2524
1999 1737
2000 2178
2001 1440

5.10. Accidents in Factories

Details of no. of accidents, frequency rate, severity rate have been given in Table No. 10. It will be seen that No. of accidents have come down in 2002 as compared to 2001.

Table – 10

Accident in factories
YearNumber of accidentsIncidence rate per 1000 workersFrequency rate per 1 million man-hours worked (%)
 FatalNon-fatalTotalFatal (%)Non-fatal (%) 
198797427510.3428.492.80
198876766830.2726.793.81
1989115645750.4221.712.35
199025295310.0719.762.75
1991104644740.3717.362.42
1992184464640.7318.262.70
1993153793940.6015.322.21
199463533590.2313.981.6
1995132782910.4910.681.23
1996132052180.487.641.22
199781671750.316.610.92
199851001050.224.520.66
199971261330.305.450.83
200051371420.205.690.98
2001151341490.595.331.14
2002963720.332.330.59

5.11. Industry-wise accidents

Industry-wise accidents figures for the year 1989 to 2002 have been given in Table No. 11. Accidents in engineering industries are generally more as compared to accidents in either chemical or cotton industries.

Table-11

Industry-wise Accidents
YearJuteEngineeringCottonChemical
 TotalIncidence rate (per 1000 workers)TotalIncidence rate (per 1000 workers)TotalIncidence rate (per 1000 workers)TotalIncidence rate (per 1000 workers)
198923 38 187 60 
19902 61 180 55 
19915 77 138 60 
19924 55 109 71 
1993- 40 98 70 
19941 37 69 60 
19951 38 50 34 
1996- 17 37 33 
1997- 25 35 21 
1998- 28 21 9 
1999- 14 23 6 
2000- 47 21 29 
2001- 47 21 33 
2002- 46 21 35 

Cause-wise Accidents

Figures for cause-wise accidents were distribution of accidents for the year 1992 to 2002 have been given in Table No. 12. Accidents due to machinery, stretch by falling body are persons falling account for majority of accidents.

Table – 12

Cause-wise distribution of accidents
Causes19921993199419951996199719981999200020012002
Machinery4974628671361539524123
Struck by falling body7426604412312810143012
Stepping on or striking against object1142019126--2156
Handling of goods11271242133666
Persons falling (PFA+PEL+PFP)4153243528251218282111
Hand tools7185542--951
Fires Gassing8312421811136
Others270179163946764595955337

5.13. Agency-wise distribution of fatal accidents

Figures for agency-wise distribution of fatal accidents for the year 1997 to 2002 are given in Table No. 13. Fatal accidents due to persons falling are more than those due to other agencies.

Table – 13

Agency-wise distribution of fatal accidents
Agencies1997199819992000200120022003
Other machinery moved by mechanical power121--1Under compilation
Other vehicles----1-
Electricity----4-
Fires1---11
Struck by falling bodies1---71
Persons falling514--4
Stepping on or striking against the object-----1
Handling goods or articles-----1
Others-22-2 
Total857-159 

5.14. Industry-wise distribution of fatal accidents

Figures for industry-wise distribution of fatal accidents for the year 1994 to 2002 are given in Table No. 16. Fatal accidents occur more in industries manufacturing food products.

Table - 14

Industry-wise distribution of fatal accidents
IndustryNo. of fatal accidents in the year
199419951996199719981999200020012002
Manufacture of food products535634143
Manufacture of cotton textiles        1
Manufacture of textile products       2 
Manufacture of wood and wood products, furniture and fixtures. 12      
Manufacture of paper and paper products and printing, publishing and allied industries14--1-1-4
Manufacture of rubber, plastics, petroleum and coal products.-221-123-
Manufacture of non-metallic mineral products-11---161
Basic metal and alloy industries-22--2---
Manufacture of machinery and equipment other than transport equipment including electrical machinery.--1------
Electricity generation, transmission and distribution---1-----
Storage and warehousing services.----1----
Total613138575159

5.15. Employment position of Safety Officers in Factories

Figures for employment of Safety Officers for the years 1998-2002 are given in the Table No. 15. Safety Officers actually employed are more than the required.

Table –15

Employment position of safety officers in factories
YearNumber of factories notified for employment of safety officersNumber of safety officers requiredNumbers of safety officers actually employed
199851135
199951645
20004422
200181618
20024922

Industrial Hygiene,Occupational diseases and poisoning in manufacturing activities

OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES AND POISONING IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE CELL

The industrial hygiene cell of the Inspectorate of Assam was established under the 7th five-year plan with the objective to recognize harmful exposures and to bring them under control before workmen experiences injury or any adverse signs and symptoms. This was achieved by measuring the concentration limits of exposures, evaluating their probable effects by existing toxicological and hygiene standards and utilizing sensitive biological examination of exposed persons to discover the entrance of harmful materials in to the human system. For these purposes a well-equipped industrial hygiene laboratory was set-up in the Head Office. Three officers of the Inspectorate, One Joint Chief inspector of factories, one senior inspector of factories and one chemical inspector of factories were posted and trained on the subject.

IMPORTANT ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN / IN PROGRESS DURING 2002-03

The Industrial Hygiene cell conducted four (4) surveys during the year 2002-03 in hazardous chemical industries. The total number of workers covered 2968.

SURVEYS OF TOXIC/HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS: 4

SURVEY/STUDY OF TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS DUST; 2

The industrial hygiene cell conducted four surveys in work environment of different factories for assessment of levels of air borne concentration found to be normal for the following toxic hazardous dusts.

A Coal - 1 No

B. Asbestos dust - 1 No

FIRE AND EXPLOSION RISK SURVEY DURING THE YEAR

Survey in respect of fire and explosion risk was carried out in 3 factories.

  • M/s. Numaligarh Refineries Ltd.,
  • M/s. LPG, Bottling plant
  • M/s. Guwahati Refineries (IOL)

SURVEY OF PHYSICAL STRESS PARAMETERS: 3

During the year 2002-03 the cell conducted two studies/surveys with the help of manufacturers’ equipments and laboratory facilities for physical parameter as shown below:

 Stress parameterNo. of surveys conducted
1Stress parameterNo. of surveys conducted
1Heat stress2 No’s
2Noise2 No’s
3Illumination2 No’s

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

ILO code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases defines occupational diseases as “ a disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activity ”. Under Section 89 of Factories Act, 1948 where any worker in a factory contracts any disease specified in the Third Schedule, the manager of the factory shall send a notice thereof to such authorities and in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.

Any Medical Practitioner attending on a person who is or has been employed in a factory and is suffering from diseases specified in the Third schedule shall also without delay send a report in writing to the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories of the respective state.

The working environment has got direct effect on the health of the person who are working in the factories. The environment may be responsible for the cause of occupational diseases or other non-occupational diseases. The Inspectors, Directorate of Factories and boilers Govt. of Assam examined the environmental factors such as presence of contaminants in the air, hazards like humidity, noise, light etc., and suggested preventive measures. However, the Medical Inspector of Factories and the Certifying Surgeons examined and certified persons engaged in factories involving dangerous/hazardous processes.

CLINICAL AND LABORATORY EXAMINATIONS:

Table-I shows the details of pathological & radiological examinations carried out in 2000, 2001 & 2002 on workers of an Asbestos factory of Assam but no occupational disease was detected

TABLE – I

Clinical & Laboratory Examinations of workers during 2000 , 2001 & 2002

No.Nature of Laboratory examination200020012002
1Pathological   
 i) Blood1019995
 ii) Urine1019995
 iii) Stool---
2Radiological (X-Ray)-99-
3Pathological   
 i) Lung function test1019995
 ii) Sputum test---
 iii) Liver function test---
4Audiometric Exam---
5Occupational diseases suspected---
6Occupational diseases detected---
7No.of workers declared unfit for further work---
8Others (clinical exam)---

Guwahati Refinery Ltd

The Guwahati Refinery Ltd., Assam has a full-fledged Occupational Health Center operating since 1994. The center is equipped with latest clinical, pathological and other diagnostic equipment along with trained doctors and paramedical staff.

The occupational Health Centre of Guwahati Refinery performed number of statutory and innovative activities including regular health check up of employees. Table II shows the health check up were carried out during the year 2003-04.

TABLE - II

Health Check up at a glance
Type of check up2003-04
Statutory81
Non-statutory11
Well person screening559

Table-III shows the detailed medical examinations conducted by the Occupational Health Centre, M/s. Guwahati Refinery Ltd., Assam in 2000, 2001, 2002 & 2003.

TABLE – III

Name of Exam.Year-2000Year-2001Year-2002Year-2003
A.Pre-Employment2752729
B.Periodical(>40)295238226496
C.Pre-retirementNA81120
C. Statutory    
Chlorine areas134107
Noise areas38223434
Equipment operators13101411
Loco operatorsNA214
DriversNA2218
WeldersNANA1210
Radiographers2113

NA =Data is Not Available

Table-IV shows the details of pathological & radiological examinations carried out in 2000, 2001 & 2002 on workers of an Guwahati Refinery Ltd., Assam but no occupational disease was detected.

TABLE – IV

Clinical & Laboratory Examinations of workers during 2000 , 2001 & 2002

No.Nature of Laboratory examination200020012002
1Pathological   
 i) Blood334263229
 ii) Urine230256220
 iii) Stool136200120
2Radiological (X-Ray)334263229
3Pathological   
 i) Lung function test334263229
 ii) Sputum test---
 iii) Liver function test1686
4Audiometric Exam169124164
5Occupational diseases suspected---
6Occupational diseases detected---
7No.of workers declared unfit for further work---
8Others (clinical exam)---

Table – V shows detailed Occupational Health Oriented programme conducted in the state of Assam by Industrial Medicine Division, Regional Labour Institute, Kolkata :

TABLE - V

Programme on Occupational Health

Name of programmeYear- 2001Year-2002Year-2003
Occupational Health Survey--1
Inplant Trg. Programme  1

Table-VI shows the total number of Plant Medical Officers of the state of Assam availed Associate Fellow of Industrial Health (AFIH) from Regional Labour Institute, Kolkata :

TABLE - VI

No. of PMO availed AFIH Course at RLI, Kolkata

Name of CourseYear
200220032004
Name of Post Graduate Course for Doctors212
Associate Fellow of Industrial Health (AFIH)   

 

ESI CORPORATION: ASSAM

Employees’ State Insurance Scheme of India is an integrated social security scheme tailored to provide social protection to workers and their dependants in contingencies, such as, sickness, maternity and death or disablement due to an employment injury or occupational hazard.

The ESI Act, (1948) applies to following categories of factories and establishments in the implemented areas:-

  • Non-seasonal factories using power and employing ten(10) or more persons
  • Non-seasonal and non power using factories and establishments employing twenty (20) or more persons.

The "appropriate Government" State or Central is empowered to extend the provisions of the ESI Act to various >

ESI HOSPITALS IN ASSAM
Sl. No.Place/AddressTel. No.
1.GUWAHATI
Medical Supdt. ESI Hospital
Beltola, Guwahati.
561082
2.TINSUKIA
Medical Supdt, ESI Annexe, Tinsukia
Bordoloi Nagar, TINSUKIA - 786125.
22392

ESI HOSPITAL-CUM-ODC, JOKA :

As per policy decisions of the Corporation taken on 8.12.88 and 24.2.93, the ESI Corporation has set up five zonal Occupational Disease Centre with a view to providing facilities for early detection and diagnosis of Occupational Diseases among ESI beneficiaries. These Zonal Occupational Disease Centre cater to the needs of ESI beneficiaries of the neighboring States also. The States concerned refers the suspected cases of Occupational Diseases to these Centres. This Zonal Occupational Disease Centre for Eastern India is situated at Kolkata.

The ESI Hospital-cum-ODC situated at Joka, Kolkata is the only OD Centre/Hospital being run by ESI Corporation directly in the Eastern States of India. The Hospital was commissioned with effect from 1.10.1994 for the benefit of IPs of Assam as also for the IPs scattered in various States of Eastern Zone to cater to the treatment for occupational disease. The Hospital is a referral hospital in nature and normally caters to specialist treatment. It is a 300-bedded hospital, which includes 250 general beds and 50 beds for ODC. This hospital has been taken over w.e.f. 1.2.94. The OPD started on 1.10.94. Indoor and ODC started w.e.f. 23.6.95.

Occupational Disease Centres :

As per policy decisions of the Corporation taken on 8.12.88 and 24.2.93, the ESI Corporation has set up five zonal Occupational Diseases Centres with a view to providing facilities for early detection and diagnosis of Occupational Diseases among ESI beneficiaries. These Zonal Occupational Diseases Centres cater to the needs of ESI beneficiaries of the neighbouring States also. The States concerned refers the suspected cases of Occupational Diseases to these Centres. Location of these centres and their respective catchment areas are indicated below:

DELHI
(North Zone)
ESI Hospital Basaidarapur
For the states of Delhi, UP, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Chandigarh, ODC at ESI Hospital, Basaidarapur was commissioned on 24.2.94. It is a 600 bedded Hospital and 50 beds have been earmarked for Occupational Diseases cases.
CHENNAI
(South Zone)
ESI Hospital
K.K. Nagar
Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Pondicherry.
The administration of ESI Hospital, K.K. Nagar, Chennai was taken over by ESI Corporation w.e.f. 1.4.91. It is a 330 bedded Hospital, with 280 general beds and 50 for ODC. The ODC was commissioned w.e.f. 16.6.95.
CALCUTTA
(East Zone)
ESI Hospital
Thakurpukur
West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Assam and Meghalaya. It is a 300 bedded hospital, which includes 250 general beds and 50 beds for ODC. This hospital has been taken over w.e.f 1.2.94. The OPD started on 1.10.94. Indoor and ODC started w.e.f. 23.6.95.
MUMBAI
(West Zone)
ESI Hospital
Chinchwad,Pune
Maharashtra, Gujarat and Goa
The ESI Hospital at Chinchwad has been selected for ODC with 50 beds earmarked for ODC.
NAGDA
(Central Zone)
ESI Hospital
Nagda
An ODC cum 50 bedded ESI Hospital was commissioned at Nagda in Madhya Pradesh on 5th June, 1999. The Hospital cum ODC caters to about 18000 IP family units in the catchment area.

Regional Office( RO) in Assam - Addresses & Tel. Nos.

DirectorAddressTel No.(Office) &
Email Address
Romen SaikiaESI Corporation, Panchdeep Bhawan,
P.O.Bamuni Maidan,
Guwahati-781021.
550357
esic(at)gul.dot.not.in
ESI LOCAL OFFICES IN ASSAM
Sl. NoPlace/AddressTel. No.
1Bongaigaon
Local Office, ESI Corporation
R.K. Choudhuri Road
North Bongaigoan, Bongaigoan
 
2Chandrapur
Local Office, ESI Corporation
Chandrapur
 
3Dhubri
Local Office, ESI Corporation
A.C. Das Gupta Road
Tetultola, Dhubri
 
4Guwahati
Local Office, ESI Corporation
Bamynimaidan, Guwahati
550945
5Jorhat
Local Office, ESI Corporation
K.K. Path, Jorhat
 
6Nagaon
Local Office, ESI Corporation
P.O. Haibargaon, Kutikatlia
P.W.D. Colony, Nagaon
 
7Shillong
Local Office, ESI Corporation
Lower Lachumari, Shillong
224614
8Tezpur
Local Office, ESI Corporation
Kamarchubari. P.O.
Kacharigaon, Tezpur
 
9Tinsukia
Local Office, ESI Corporation
P.O. Sukanpukhuri, Tinsukia
20519

Management of occupational safety and health at unit level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT UNIT LEVEL

This Chapter deals with the management of Occupational Safety and Health at unit level i.e. manufacturing units. The state has total number of 2695 registered factories, the breakup of which according to factories registered under section 2(m), section 85 of the Factories Act, 1948 is given in Chapter 5. In order to have a fair idea, about the safety and health status in these units, the following aspects on safety and health have been covered under the chapter:-

  • Safety Policy
  • Appointment of safety officers
  • Safety Committee
  • Welfare
  • On-site emergency plans
  • Hazardous Factories
  • Annual Return
  • Approval of Plans

There are some statutory requirements as provided under the Factories Act, 1948 and Rules framed there under, for each of the aspects stated above.

7.1.SAFETY POLICY

Sections 7A(3) & 41-B(2) of the Factories Act,1948 requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by the factories meeting of the following criteria:-

  • Units covered under Section 2(m) (i) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.
  • Units covered under section 2(m) (ii) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 100 workers.
  • Units covered under Section 87 of Factories Act, 1948.
  • Units covered under section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948.

In addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories of class or description of factories to comply with the above requirements of Safety Policy if in his opinion it is expedient to do so.

As per the details available, MAH units & units employing 250 or more workers required preparation of Safety Policy are given below.

TABLE – I

Declaration of Safety Policy during 2001 & 2002

YearMAH UNITSFactories employing 250 0r more workers
Factories RequiringFactories HavingFactories RequiringFactories Having.
200113132513
200213131813

7.2. APPOINTMENT OF SAFETY OFFICERS

As per the provisions of Section 40B of the Factories Act, 1948, Safety Officer is required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria:

Units employing more than 1000 workers wherein any manufacturing process or operation is carried on involving any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or diseases or any hazard to health. As per the details available, the Safety Officers required to be appointed in various factories in the State are given below.

TABLE – II

Status of Safety Officer in the Factories during 2001 & 2002
YearFactories requiring SO under 40B1(i)SO required under 40B1(i)Factories appointing SO under 40B1(i)SO appointed under 40B1(i)Factories

 

requiring SO under 40B1(ii)

SO required under 40B1(ii)Factories appointing SO under 40B1(ii)SO appointed under 40B1(ii)
2001676814141414
200249922----

7.3. SAFETY COMMITTEE

Section 41 and 41G of the Factories Act, 1948 require constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:-

  • Units employing 250 or more workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.
  • Units the covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.

As per the information the units required constitution of Safety Committee are given below.

TABLE - III

Constitution of Safety Committee during 2001 & 2002

YearMAH UnitsFactories employing 250 or more workers
Factories RequiringFactories HavingFactories RequiringFactories Having
200113132513
200213131813

7.4 WELFARE

Chapter V of the Factories Act, 1948 require the following welfare measures for the workers employed in the factories:

  • Washing facilities
  • Facilities for storing and drying cloths
  • Facilities for sitting
  • First aid appliances
  • Shelters, rest room and lunch room (if more than 150 workers are ordinarily employed)
  • Canteen (if more than 250 workers are ordinarily employed)
  • Crèche (if more than 300 women workers are ordinarily employed)
  • Ambulance room (if more than 500 workers are ordinarily employed).
  • Welfare officers (if more than 500 workers are ordinarily employed).

7.4.1 Canteen, Shelters, Rest Rooms and Crèches provided by the industry are given below.

TABLE – IV

Canteen, Shelters, Rest Rooms and Crèches

YearCanteenShelter, Rest Room,Crèche
Factories RequiringFactories HavingFactories RequiringFactories HavingFactories RequiringFactories Having
2003161646682040

7.4.2 EMPLOYMENT OF WELFARE OFFICERS IN FACTORIES (2000-2002)

TABLE - V

Welfare Officer 2000 - 2003

YearFactories RequiringFactories HavingOfficers RequiredOfficers Appointed
2000282889197
200182417100
200219015187
20038813185

7.5. ONSITE EMERGENCY PLAN

As per the provisions of Rule 13 of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard Rules, 1989” an occupier who has the control of the industrial activity as described under the Rule shall prepare an on-site emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on site on which industrial activity is carried on.

The No. Of MAH installations required to prepare the on-site emergency plan & the no of MAH installations have prepared the plans and submitted to the Director of Factories are given below.

TABLE – VI

On-site Emergency Plan (In respect of MAH Units) as on 2001, 2002 & 2003

YearFactories required to drawFactories having drawn
20011313
20021313
2003138

7.6. Hazardous Factories

As per 2(cd) for the Factories Act, 1948 “Hazardous Process” means any process or activity in relation to an industry specified in the First Schedule where, unless special care is taken, raw materials used therein or the intermediate or finished products, bye-products, wastes or effluents thereof would –

  • Cause material impairment to the health of the persons engaged in or connected therewith, or
  • Result in the pollution of the general environment

TABLE – VII

Hazardous Factories during the year 2000, 2001 & 2002

YearNo. of Hazardous FactoriesNo. of Workers
200020028000
2001139232
2002134681

7.6. Annual Return

Section 110 of the Factories Acts requires that owners, occupiers or managers of the registered factories will submit periodical returns in respect of Occupational Safety and Health. The numbers of registered factories required to submit such returns and the number of factories submitted the annual returns are given below:

TABLE – VIII

Annual Return during the year 2001 & 2002

YearNo. Of Industries required to submit annual returnNo. Of Industries submitted annual return
20011225386
20022406396

7.8. Approval of Plans

Section 6 of the Factories Act 1948 requires submission of plans for approval of the Chief Inspector of Factories for construction, extension, modification, of any factory in the state. No of such plans received and approved by the Chief Inspector of Factories during the period 2000—01 are given below.

TABLE - IX

Approval of Plans
YearPlans submitted for new constructionsPlans submitted for extension alteration modification etc.TotalPlans approvedTotalReturn back for re-submission
New constructionsExtension
20009912122099121220-
2001128179307128179307-
20021914924019149240-

7.5.8. SAFETY REPORTS

As per the provision of rule 10 of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard Rules, 1989” it is mandatory for an occupier to prepare and submit to the Chief Inspector before the commencement of an industrial activity the Safety Report of the industrial activity to which these rules apply. The Safety Report is to be submitted in prescribed format. Further, it is advisable that all the units after the commencement of the industrial activity shall carry out an independent Safety Audit of the respective industrial activities with the help of an expert not associated with such industrial activities. This will help the management to know the weak points in their system and to take suitable>

7.5.9 RISK ASSESSMENT STUDIES

The HAZOP study (Hazard and operability studies) are carried out in advance on any plant to examine the process or at least the relevant parts of the process to discover how deviation from the intention of design can occur and to decide whether such deviations can give rise to hazardous conditions.

The technique aims to simulate the imagination in a systematic way and is useful in identifying potential hazards in advance and allows the user to take corrective measures. No information is available to this effect at the Directorate of Factories.

Management of occupational safety and health at state level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT STATE LEVEL

Assam’s economy is predominantly an agrarian economy .Tea industry occupies an important position in the State’s economy and which is about 150 years old is basically a combination of agricultural and manufacturing activities. Still, the history of industrialisation of Assam dates back to the beginning of the nineteenth century when the British at Digboi in Upper Assam set up the country’s first petroleum refinery. After Tea and petroleum came the plywood industries. With the almost unending forest reserves dotting the landscape of Assam miles after miles, there was a proliferation of plywood and veneer mills in the upper Assam districts. A few central sector projects like, Guwahati Refinery, Bokajan Cement factory, Oil India Ltd, ONGC Ltd, HFC Ltd, HPC, Bongaigaon Refinery and Petro Chemical projects and more recently Numaligarh Refinery were set up as a result of economic planning in India. The State Government also chipped in the process by promoting a few large industries in pulp and paper, petrochemicals, Fertiliser, Sugar and Textile sector. In between there have been a sizeable numbers of small-scale units. More recently a good number of medium scale projects too had come up particularly with the support of State level financial Institutions.

There are 23 District Industries Centres (DIC) in the State and the Government recognised the vital roles to be played by the DICs for development of SSI and Tiny sector Industries. The Government strengthen the DICs with adequate and basic facilities. The newly created six DICs of Bongaigaon, Morigaon, Golaghat Tinsukia, Dhemaji and Hailakandi has been upgraded to full fledged DIC at the earliest. Each DIC will have a Udyog Sahayak Cell to guide the entrepreneurs in the matter of setting up of Industries including selection of industries/ entrepreneurs, preparation of project report and arrangement of finance for projects. There is also a Women Cell in each DIC to give special attention to the women entrepreneurs. Steps taken to prepare viable project profiles for each DIC and make them available to the entrepreneurs. The Date Bank is created in each DIC for benefit of the entrepreneurs. The District Advisory Committee is reconstituted for monitoring the working of the District Industries Centres.

CATEGORY OF INDUSTRIES

  • Small Tiny and Ancillary Industries - There are more than 25000 numbers of small Scale and tiny sector registered units in the State. According to the last SSI census, generally 45% of the units are either closed or untraceable.
  • Large and Medium Industries - The Government encourage environment friendly Industries and projects in the State. The AIDC Ltd. has identified several viable projects for the coming years.
  • HANDLOOM AND HANDICRAFT INDUSTRIES - The State of Assam is traditionally known for its rich Handloom and Handicraft products and the Government ensure promotion of this sector through various development schemes. The State Government takes all possible steps for getting Financial and Technical assistance from the Government of India for implementation of various schemes. The State Government conducts survey on various Handicraft products and registration of Handicraft unit by DICs of Assam. The Government strengthen the Handicraft Research and Design Centre, Cottage Industries Training Institute in the State. All possible measures taken to assist the craftsmen, artisans of various crafts and also the Non Governmental Organisations (NGO)/ Co-operative Societies for development of Handicraft Industries in the State. The Government takes necessary measures to export the Handicraft products to out side the country and also participate in exhibitions at various parts of the country to give exposure to the Handicraft products.
  • RURAL NON-FARM SECTOR - The Rural Non-Farm Sector (RNFS) has a tremendous scope for development in the State. In a recently conducted survey, NABARD has identified 10 sectors for development which includes sectoral schemes like Agriculture, Fish rearing and processing, Rural Retail Trade, Sericulture & Silk Textile, fibre products, Construction, Small Plantation products, Handloom, handicraft mainly cane, bamboo and wood products, These activities are developed for creation of additional employment in the rural areas. The development Department like Agriculture, Handloom and Textile, Sericulture, Fishery, Veterinary, Panchayat and Rural Development etc. are associated to implement these schemes within a definite time frame.
  • AGRO AND FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES - There is ample scope for development particularly in the rural areas for processing of cereals, fruits, vegetables, milk, meat and other agricultural products like Jute, Ramie etc. The Government encourage development of Agro and Food processing industries by providing possible basic infrastructure to the industries. The Government of Assam encourage setting up of Fruit Processing, Vegetable Processing, Spice Processing, Aquaculture, Horticulture based projects in the State. Apart from that, Government will take necessary action to motivate the investors for commercial exploitation and processing and setting up of projects on medicinal herbs, aromatic plants, rubber plantation and processing, Small Tea garden etc. The Government of Assam is very much aware about the viability of setting up of Industries like diversified Jute products and Ramie based Industries in Assam by prospective entrepreneurs. The Government of Assam provides necessary support for setting up of such units in the State.
  • ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY - In the Electronic sector Government of Assam declare the Assam Electronic Development Corporation Ltd. (AEDC Ltd.) as a Nodal Agency for over all development of Electronic industries in the State. The AEDC Ltd. prepares a detail action plan for setting up of Software Technology Park, Optical Fibre project and other viable projects including skill development, raw material assistance to the other smaller units. The Government provide necessary incentives to these units under the policy.
  • PLASTIC BASED INDUSTRIES - Plastic are fast replacing the conventional metal and wood item in our day to day life. Their uses have been more pronounced in industrial sectors. The Government of Assam has attached considerable importance for development of this sector. All possible efforts have been mobilised for development of this sector providing necessary incentives under the policy.
  • GAS CRACKER AND REFINERY DOWNSTREAM INDUSTRIES - In a bid to tap the vast resources of oil and gas, the fourth oil refinery at Numaligarh has already been set up and works are going on. The much-awaited Gas Cracker project is also in the way. The State Government takes necessary measures to establish feasible down stream/ancillary industries in the State based on these two mega projects. It is proposed to be engaged in the manufacture or production of parts, components, sub-assemblies, tooling or intermediates or rendering of services, undertaking supplies or renders or proposes to supply or renders not less than 50% of its production or services as the case may be, to one or more other industrial undertaking and whose investment in fixed assets in plant and machinery whether held on ownership terms or on lease or on hire purchase, ELIGIBLE UNIT means only New Units set up on or after 1.4.97 and existing units undergoing expansion/diversification at the same place in the State of Assam on or after 1.4.97 shall be eligible for the incentives under 1997 incentives scheme provided that :
    A unit shall have employment of 80% people of Assam in the managerial cadre and 90% people of Assam in the non-managerial cadre and that over a period of 5 years from the commencement of commercial production such units would take all effective steps to ensure 100% employment of people of Assam in non-managerial cadre and at least 90% in managerial post.

The management system of OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH at the STATE LEVEL may be broadly grouped as under for our discussion purpose of this report..

  • Legislative Activities
  • Government Departments-Central.
  • Government Departments-State
  • Other Organizations

Legislative Activities :

Administration and enforcement of Occupational Safety, Health and Welfare is primarily vested with the State Government because the instruments like policies, legislation etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues at State Level in order to fulfill the aspirations of the State and related needs.. Apart from the Factories Act 1948, there are other legislations dealing with better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities.

These act grants OSH authorities, among other things, (a) to promulgate, modify and revoke safety and health standards, (b) to conduct inspections and investigations and to issue citations including proposed penalties (c) to require employees to keep records of safety and health data (d) to petition the courts to restrain imminent danger situations and (e) to approve or reject state plans for programme under the act.

The safety and health at workplace is governed by various statutes in the state depending on the nature of workplace, manufacturing activity and specific aspect of safety and health. Some of the important statutes / Legislations are given below:

  • The Factories Act, 1948 and the Rules framed there under (The Assam Factories Rules),
  • Indian Boilers Act 1923 and Rules framed there under.
  • The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation Act, ) 1986 and the Rules made there under
  • The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989.
  • Indian Electricity Act and Rules Framed there under.
  • Dangerous machines (Regulations) Act.
  • Indian Explosive Act.
  • Petroleum Act and Rules.
  • Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels Rules.

There are different departments of Central Government and State Government entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes. The other organization such as training and research institution, employers associations, employee’s organization etc. also supplementing the efforts of enforcement agencies in promoting occupational safety and health in the state directly or indirectly.

The Following major industrial companies and Non-Government organization have a system of OSH management by conducting training programme on Occupational Safety and Health for its workers and Supervisors, conducts Safety Audit at a regular intervals arrange Safety Competition, Seminars and Workshop on OSH etc.

  • Indian Oil Corporation, Guwahati, Refinery Division, Noonmati, Guwahati.
  • Indian Oil Corporation (Assam Oil Division), Digboi Refinery, Digboi.
  • Indian Oil Corporation, LPG, Bottling Plant, North Guwahati
  • Assam Gas Company Ltd., Duliajan
  • Bongaigao, Refinery
  • Hindustan Paper Corporation
    • Nagaon Paper Mills Ltd., Jagirroad, Morigaon
    • Cachar Paper Mills, Ltd. Panchgram, Hailakundi
  • National Productivity Council, Khanapara, Guwahati - 22

Activities of INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD. in respect of Occupational Safety and Health management in the State of Assam are given below:

Training Programme

YearNo. of Training Programmes conductedNo. of Industries ParticipatedNo. of Participants Attended the Training Programme
20002138
20012128
20021121
20031134

Seminar/Workshops

YearTitle of the Seminars/WorkshopsVenueNo. of Participants attended the Seminars/Workshop
2000Refresher Course on Occupational Health for Plant Medical OfficerKolkata1
2001Smoking & TobaccoGR (Med. Deptt.)

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT STATE LEVEL

Assam’s economy is predominantly an agrarian economy .Tea industry occupies an important position in the State’s economy and which is about 150 years old is basically a combination of agricultural and manufacturing activities. Still, the history of industrialisation of Assam dates back to the beginning of the nineteenth century when the British at Digboi in Upper Assam set up the country’s first petroleum refinery. After Tea and petroleum came the plywood industries. With the almost unending forest reserves dotting the landscape of Assam miles after miles, there was a proliferation of plywood and veneer mills in the upper Assam districts. A few central sector projects like, Guwahati Refinery, Bokajan Cement factory, Oil India Ltd, ONGC Ltd, HFC Ltd, HPC, Bongaigaon Refinery and Petro Chemical projects and more recently Numaligarh Refinery were set up as a result of economic planning in India. The State Government also chipped in the process by promoting a few large industries in pulp and paper, petrochemicals, Fertiliser, Sugar and Textile sector. In between there have been a sizeable numbers of small-scale units. More recently a good number of medium scale projects too had come up particularly with the support of State level financial Institutions.

There are 23 District Industries Centres (DIC) in the State and the Government recognised the vital roles to be played by the DICs for development of SSI and Tiny sector Industries. The Government strengthen the DICs with adequate and basic facilities. The newly created six DICs of Bongaigaon, Morigaon, Golaghat Tinsukia, Dhemaji and Hailakandi has been upgraded to full fledged DIC at the earliest. Each DIC will have a Udyog Sahayak Cell to guide the entrepreneurs in the matter of setting up of Industries including selection of industries/ entrepreneurs, preparation of project report and arrangement of finance for projects. There is also a Women Cell in each DIC to give special attention to the women entrepreneurs. Steps taken to prepare viable project profiles for each DIC and make them available to the entrepreneurs. The Date Bank is created in each DIC for benefit of the entrepreneurs. The District Advisory Committee is reconstituted for monitoring the working of the District Industries Centres.

CATEGORY OF INDUSTRIES

  • Small Tiny and Ancillary Industries - There are more than 25000 numbers of small Scale and tiny sector registered units in the State. According to the last SSI census, generally 45% of the units are either closed or untraceable.
  • Large and Medium Industries - The Government encourage environment friendly Industries and projects in the State. The AIDC Ltd. has identified several viable projects for the coming years.
  • HANDLOOM AND HANDICRAFT INDUSTRIES - The State of Assam is traditionally known for its rich Handloom and Handicraft products and the Government ensure promotion of this sector through various development schemes. The State Government takes all possible steps for getting Financial and Technical assistance from the Government of India for implementation of various schemes. The State Government conducts survey on various Handicraft products and registration of Handicraft unit by DICs of Assam. The Government strengthen the Handicraft Research and Design Centre, Cottage Industries Training Institute in the State. All possible measures taken to assist the craftsmen, artisans of various crafts and also the Non Governmental Organisations (NGO)/ Co-operative Societies for development of Handicraft Industries in the State. The Government takes necessary measures to export the Handicraft products to out side the country and also participate in exhibitions at various parts of the country to give exposure to the Handicraft products.
  • RURAL NON-FARM SECTOR - The Rural Non-Farm Sector (RNFS) has a tremendous scope for development in the State. In a recently conducted survey, NABARD has identified 10 sectors for development which includes sectoral schemes like Agriculture, Fish rearing and processing, Rural Retail Trade, Sericulture & Silk Textile, fibre products, Construction, Small Plantation products, Handloom, handicraft mainly cane, bamboo and wood products, These activities are developed for creation of additional employment in the rural areas. The development Department like Agriculture, Handloom and Textile, Sericulture, Fishery, Veterinary, Panchayat and Rural Development etc. are associated to implement these schemes within a definite time frame.
  • AGRO AND FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES - There is ample scope for development particularly in the rural areas for processing of cereals, fruits, vegetables, milk, meat and other agricultural products like Jute, Ramie etc. The Government encourage development of Agro and Food processing industries by providing possible basic infrastructure to the industries. The Government of Assam encourage setting up of Fruit Processing, Vegetable Processing, Spice Processing, Aquaculture, Horticulture based projects in the State. Apart from that, Government will take necessary action to motivate the investors for commercial exploitation and processing and setting up of projects on medicinal herbs, aromatic plants, rubber plantation and processing, Small Tea garden etc. The Government of Assam is very much aware about the viability of setting up of Industries like diversified Jute products and Ramie based Industries in Assam by prospective entrepreneurs. The Government of Assam provides necessary support for setting up of such units in the State.
  • ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY - In the Electronic sector Government of Assam declare the Assam Electronic Development Corporation Ltd. (AEDC Ltd.) as a Nodal Agency for over all development of Electronic industries in the State. The AEDC Ltd. prepares a detail action plan for setting up of Software Technology Park, Optical Fibre project and other viable projects including skill development, raw material assistance to the other smaller units. The Government provide necessary incentives to these units under the policy.
  • PLASTIC BASED INDUSTRIES - Plastic are fast replacing the conventional metal and wood item in our day to day life. Their uses have been more pronounced in industrial sectors. The Government of Assam has attached considerable importance for development of this sector. All possible efforts have been mobilised for development of this sector providing necessary incentives under the policy.
  • GAS CRACKER AND REFINERY DOWNSTREAM INDUSTRIES - In a bid to tap the vast resources of oil and gas, the fourth oil refinery at Numaligarh has already been set up and works are going on. The much-awaited Gas Cracker project is also in the way. The State Government takes necessary measures to establish feasible down stream/ancillary industries in the State based on these two mega projects. It is proposed to be engaged in the manufacture or production of parts, components, sub-assemblies, tooling or intermediates or rendering of services, undertaking supplies or renders or proposes to supply or renders not less than 50% of its production or services as the case may be, to one or more other industrial undertaking and whose investment in fixed assets in plant and machinery whether held on ownership terms or on lease or on hire purchase, ELIGIBLE UNIT means only New Units set up on or after 1.4.97 and existing units undergoing expansion/diversification at the same place in the State of Assam on or after 1.4.97 shall be eligible for the incentives under 1997 incentives scheme provided that :
    A unit shall have employment of 80% people of Assam in the managerial cadre and 90% people of Assam in the non-managerial cadre and that over a period of 5 years from the commencement of commercial production such units would take all effective steps to ensure 100% employment of people of Assam in non-managerial cadre and at least 90% in managerial post.

The management system of OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH at the STATE LEVEL may be broadly grouped as under for our discussion purpose of this report..

  • Legislative Activities
  • Government Departments-Central.
  • Government Departments-State
  • Other Organizations
Legislative Activities :

Administration and enforcement of Occupational Safety, Health and Welfare is primarily vested with the State Government because the instruments like policies, legislation etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues at State Level in order to fulfill the aspirations of the State and related needs.. Apart from the Factories Act 1948, there are other legislations dealing with better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities.

These act grants OSH authorities, among other things, (a) to promulgate, modify and revoke safety and health standards, (b) to conduct inspections and investigations and to issue citations including proposed penalties (c) to require employees to keep records of safety and health data (d) to petition the courts to restrain imminent danger situations and (e) to approve or reject state plans for programme under the act.

The safety and health at workplace is governed by various statutes in the state depending on the nature of workplace, manufacturing activity and specific aspect of safety and health. Some of the important statutes / Legislations are given below:

  • The Factories Act, 1948 and the Rules framed there under (The Assam Factories Rules),
  • Indian Boilers Act 1923 and Rules framed there under.
  • The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation Act, ) 1986 and the Rules made there under
  • The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989.
  • Indian Electricity Act and Rules Framed there under.
  • Dangerous machines (Regulations) Act.
  • Indian Explosive Act.
  • Petroleum Act and Rules.
  • Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels Rules.

There are different departments of Central Government and State Government entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes. The other organization such as training and research institution, employers associations, employee’s organization etc. also supplementing the efforts of enforcement agencies in promoting occupational safety and health in the state directly or indirectly.

The Following major industrial companies and Non-Government organization have a system of OSH management by conducting training programme on Occupational Safety and Health for its workers and Supervisors, conducts Safety Audit at a regular intervals arrange Safety Competition, Seminars and Workshop on OSH etc.

  • Indian Oil Corporation, Guwahati, Refinery Division, Noonmati, Guwahati.
  • Indian Oil Corporation (Assam Oil Division), Digboi Refinery, Digboi.
  • Indian Oil Corporation, LPG, Bottling Plant, North Guwahati
  • Assam Gas Company Ltd., Duliajan
  • Bongaigao, Refinery
  • Hindustan Paper Corporation
    • Nagaon Paper Mills Ltd., Jagirroad, Morigaon
    • Cachar Paper Mills, Ltd. Panchgram, Hailakundi
  • National Productivity Council, Khanapara, Guwahati - 22

Activities of INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD. in respect of Occupational Safety and Health management in the State of Assam are given below:

Training Programme

YearNo. of Training Programmes conductedNo. of Industries ParticipatedNo. of Participants Attended the Training Programme
20002138
20012128
20021121
20031134

Seminar/Workshops

YearTitle of the Seminars/WorkshopsVenueNo. of Participants attended the Seminars/Workshop
2000Refresher Course on Occupational Health for Plant Medical OfficerKolkata1
2001Smoking & TobaccoGR (Med. Deptt.)50
2002Occupational Health for Nurses Health/Medical AssistantMumbai2
2003Life Style Management for Senior ExecutivesAwareness Programme on AsthmaTobacco and its ill effectsGR (Med Dept.)GRTC GR-DDCS Control Room50 50 60

Industrial Hygiene Studies

YearArea of Activity (e.g. Noise, Illumination, Ventilation study)No. of Studies Conducted
2000Noise4
2001Noise4
2002Noise4
2003Noise4

National Productivity Council (NPC)

NCP is a national level organisation to promote productivity culture in India, Established as a registered society in 1958 by the Government of India. It is an autonomous, tri-partite, non-profit organisation with equal representation with equal representation from the government, employers and workers’ organisations, apart from technical and professional institutions and other interests on its governing council. Besides providing training, consultancy and undertaking research in the area of productivity, occupational safety and health. NPC also implements the productivity promotion plans and programmes of the Tokyo based Asian Productivity Organisation (APO), an inter-governmental body of which the Government of India is a founder member.

Activities of National Productivity Council in respect of Occupational Safety and Health in the State of Assam are given below:

  • Consultancy Services for Conduct of Safety Awareness Survey a BRPL - Bongaigaon (Assam), which is based on OISD guidelines and will cover around 1700 employees from different levels.
  • OHSAS 18001 : 1999 implementation at North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Ltd., Shillong. (Which covers awareness training, complete documentation guidance, conduct of Internal Safety Audit etc.).

Resources available and needed

RESOURCES AVAILABLE AND NEEDED FOR MANAGEMENT OF OSH

During the study, the team visited departments and organizations dealing with occupational safety and health in the manufacturing sector with a view to establish inventory of occupational safety and health information in the state of Assam. The activities of the departments, resources available at their disposal were examined to determine the problems faced by the organizations in the matters of occupational safety and health and further resources needed in order to effectively manage occupational safety and health at the state level.

The scope of the study was limited to cover the organizations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident forms. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, Site appraisal Committee, details of safety reports, crèches, etc. as per the provisions of the Factories Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was outside the defined scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, the more elaborate in-depth study is required to be taken up to get comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.

The findings and recommendations as brought out by the study are summarized below:

RECOMMENDATIONS

  • In the State, there are 2392 factories registered under Section 2(m) of the Factories Act. In addition 49 factories are notified under Section 85, which are essentially employing less than 10/20 workers. Only 17% of the factories have submitted annual returns, half yearly returns etc. as per section 110 of Factories Act and Assam Factories Rules. As the Annual Returns contains basic information such as employment, man hours employed, accidents, man-hours lost due to accidents, provision of welfare facilities, appointment of welfare officers and safety officers, occupational health facilities, etc. which are essential for compilation of state level data on occupational safety and health it is desirable that submission of Annual Returns should be insisted upon all the factories.
    It is recommended that efforts should be made to ensure compliance with the requirement of submission of annual returns in prescribed format by registered factories. It is also recommended that the occupier/manager of the factories should be advised to submit complete details in the annual returns. Noncompliance with such provisions can be brought to the notice of the occupier by issuing notice by the inspecting officials.
  • 9 Nos. of fatal accidents occurred during the year 2002. Of them 5 accidents occurred due to falling from height (Persons falling) Therefore, during the inspection, care should be taken by the Factory Inspector to ensure that the workers are provided with suitable personal protective equipment while working at height.
  • 23 accidents occurred under the causation of machinery. Occupiers should be asked to replace old machines which itself create hazards. All moving machineries should be adequately fenced and workers should be trained in safe operating procedure. Further, the occupiers may be directed to introduce some motivational scheme to promoting safety at work place. Specific hazards while working in the factories could be identified and the precautions to be taken could be disseminated through various modes such as training programmes, leaflets, booklets, lectures, etc.
  • 46 accidents occurred in engineering industry and 35 accidents occurred in chemical industry. Material handling; tools, implements, appliances used on the shop floor; machines and indoor, and unsafe work practices are the major agencies of causing accidents.
    It is therefore suggested that the occupiers/ managers of the factories should be advised on:
    • Design, maintenance and proper use of material handling equipment
    • Safe use of tools, appliances and equipment
    • Adequate guarding of machinery, and
    • Proper house keeping.
  • As regards to preparation of safety policy, 18 MAH factories were required to prepare safety policy. Of them 13 factories prepared safety policy. Therefore the level of compliance is not satisfactory. And 18 factories were required to constitute safety committees. Of them 13 factories constituted safety committee, the level of compliance with the provision is also not satisfactory. It is recommended that on the basis of the provisions of the Factories Act and the criteria laid down in Factories Rules, all units requiring preparation of safety policy and constitution of safety committee should be clearly identified. Thereafter, the compliance with these provisions should be improved through strict enforcement and inspection.
  • 13 factories were required to appoint qualified safety officer, of them 31 factories appointed qualified safety officer. Therefore, it is satisfactory level of compliance as far as the appointment of safety officer in factories is concerned. However, the reports of accidents in Form 24, furnishing details of the accidents, identifying causes of accidents and agencies involved therein, non use of personal protective equipment etc. indicate that the safety officers have not been effectively trained in discharging their duties. It is therefore suggested that safety officers in all the factories should be trained and retrained through refresher courses on:
    • Technique of safety audit
    • Establishment of safety management system
    • Costing of accidents, and
    • Leadership for safety and health

    It is also recommended that there should be better interaction between Factory Inspectors and Safety Officers through discussions on the ways and means for improving the safety, health and working conditions in their factories. This may lead to better status of safety and health management in factories

  • The provisions under the Factories Act and Rules provides for medical examination of workers employed in certain categories of factories by certifying surgeon. It is practically impossible to cover these factories only by a Medical inspector of factories employed in the Directorate of Factories.
    Therefore, it is suggested that on the lines of what is being done in other states such as Maharashtra, private Medical Practitioner could be appointed as certifying surgeon for particular areas, in order to conduct medical examination of workers and issue certificate of fitness as required under the Factories Act and the Rules.
  • Statistics regarding number of visits to factories by the Inspectors during 2002 reveals that 846 factories notified under section 2(m) and 81 factories notified under section (85) were inspected by Inspector of Factories. Total no. of registered factories in Assam during 2002 was 2695. Nearly 34% factories are inspected by the officers of the Directorate of Factories, therefore no of visits may be increased.
  • Almost all the factories in the state are employing labour on contract basis. The contract worker is to be provided adequate safety and health in the factory premises. It is often observed that the occupier/manager of the factory tend to ignore this responsibility. The office of the Labour Commissioner in the State enforces the Contract Labour Act. It is also seen that many contract workers try to ignore the safety aspects/instructions issued to them by the managements. In order to ensure that adequate attention given to safety, health and welfare by workers & by the occupiers, a programme for enforcement of safety and health provisions for the benefit of contract labour employed in the factory can be jointly undertaken by Directorate of Factories and Office of the Labour Commissioner and trade unions. This programme can also include awareness improvement and training and education in the area of safety and health.
  • Department of Environment among other things is responsible for clearing industrial projects from environmental angle. There is a provision for Site Appraisal Committee under the Section 41-A of the Factories Act. These two committees are having similar objectives i.e., clearing the location of industry from safety, health and environment angle. It is therefore suggested that these two committees should work in close coordination with each other in order to avoid duplication of efforts to facilitate faster clearance of industrial projects and to reduce the inconvenience to the industries and promote economic growth. These committees shall also invite experts from organizations like RLI etc.
  • There are good numbers of small-scale industrial units in the state. These units are registered with Department of Industries. The licensing, development, training, marketing and financial aspects in respect of these units are looked after by different govt., semi govt. & non-govt. agencies.. However, they do not adequately cover the safety, health and welfare of workers. For this purpose, the training module developed by DGFASLI in collaboration with ILO could be used which is aimed not only to enhance productivity but also takes care of safety and health aspects like handling of hazardous chemicals, productive machine safety, material handling & storage lighting, ventilation. Layout, welfare measures etc. This module ensures the participation of both owners/managers and workers
  • The Health Services in the State are provided through District general hospitals and ESI hospitals. These hospitals are mainly concentrating on diagnosis, prevention, control and treatment of the common diseases. However, ESI HOSPITAL has a system of diagnosis of Occupational diseases. In addition to this, the basic health care support is also given through:-
    • Medical college hospital.
    • Primary Health Centers
    • Private hospitals
    • Private Practioners.
    • Voluntary health organization.
    • C.G.H.S. dispensary etc.

    None of the agencies has specialist knowledge on O. H. and the syllabus of MBBS course do not have basic module on O. H. Therefore, all doctors (both in govt. & Pvt.) MBBS students, nursing course students, nursing staff employed in industries are to be educated in a systematic and standard manner to install a root level mechanism to improve health aspects and to improve skill in early detection or diagnosis of occupational diseases and in recommending suitable> This will surely lead into improving sick free man-days and thereby directly contributing to more industrial production and the status of occupational health of the workers employed in factories will have a positive jump. Preparation of uniforms syllabus, training module may be entrusted to DGFASLI/RLI, Kolkata.

  • The programme on control of major hazard could be strengthened further. This programme should include effective formulation and use of mutual-aid scheme and establishments of emergency response centers in various industrial pockets of the states. These centers can also take care of transport accidents involving chemicals.
  • The non-government organizations, various employers association in the state should also take up the activities in the field of safety and health on a large scale to ensure basic training course on safety and health through DGFASLI (RLI/CLI) & , State Labour Department (Who look after vocational training) for the teaching members of polytechnics and ITI in the state. This will help the prospective technical persons to be safety cultured leading to reduction of loss in the industrial economy.
  • In order to promote safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories, special training courses are organized for increasing the awareness level of union leaders in the field OSH through DGFASLI, RLI/CLI. The unit level union leaders should be able to function as faculty since workers will readily accept safety measures/techniques by union leaders. Therefore, the existing 3 days training programme module by RLI/CLI, may be used.
  • For collecting the statistics, the information was not being compiled and sent to the Headquarters in time due to many reasons like shortage of time manpower etc. As a result the collected information could not be processed and the trends regarding various parameters on occupational safety and health could not be established. It is therefore suggested that all field level offices should be equipped with suitable> Close co-ordination between various statutory, non-statutory, other organizations who are connected with OSH requires to be monitored through Ministry of Labour preferably through DGFASLI who has network of field offices as well as expertise. This arrangement will also improve the communication among the offices leading to effective implementation of the orders issued under the provisions of the Factories Act and various other acts.
    All the occupiers may be directed to send a copy of these statistics to all RLI (where computer and communication facilities are available) for quick compilation and analysis to feed the Ministry of Labour to enable them to take decisions at national and international levels.
  • All industries should have their own Safety Bench Marking standards
  • Each Industry should establish one OSH (Occupational Safety and Health) information center equipped with computerized data bank on hazardous substances, major accident hazard installation and gas dispersion characteristics etc.
  • Industries in Assam may consider for installation of OSHMS (Occupational Safety & Health Management System) for the industries as existing in other states i.e. West Bengal Goa, Karnataka etc.
  • Regular health check up of all employees should be carried out in all industries, especially the chemical/hazardous plants. However, periodicity may vary from industry to industry.
  • Regular training of Medicos and Para-Medicos including Nursing Students has become imperative.
  • Communication system to be strengthened to effectively monitor the disaster control measures.
  • Annual ‘Safety Audit’ and ‘Environment Audit’ should be conducted by external agencies, particularly in the hazardous or hazard prone industries.
  • Computerization of Health data should be made mandatory for all organizations.
  • Chemical and poison information centers should be established in each industry/plant.
  • lant Medical Officers of Hazardous Industries should attend at least three months post graduate Certificate Course on “Occupational Health”.
  • All the First-aid boxes should contain DGFASLI’s First Aid leaflets along with other essential tools and medicines.
  • All the food-handlers should be tested annually with some essential pathological examination.
  • It is suggested that Chief Inspector of Factories should develop their own Industrial Hygiene Laboratory facilities; Instruments available with the Directorate should be installed and used at a regular interval.
  • All hazardous industries should arrange for industrial hygiene study in respect of Work Environment Monitoring, Air Sampling, Analysis and Interpretation. Further, regular training programme should be arranged to this effect or employees may be sent to Regional Labour Institute, Kolkata/Central Labour Institute, Mumbai to attending programme on Industrial Hygiene.

Source of Information

SOURCE OF INFORMATION

  • Chief Inspector of Factories, Government of Assam.
  • Chief Inspector of Boilers, Government of Assam.
  • Census Data : Census of India 1991
  • System Register General, India, New Delhi, 1999 and SRS. Bulletin October, 2000, Vol. 34 No. 2
  • Compendium of Indian fertility and Mortality Indicators 1971 – 1997 based on the sample Registration.
  • Provisional Population Totals: India. Census of India 2001, Paper 1 of 2001).
  • National Productivity Council
  • Indian Oil Corporation, Guwahati, Assam
  • Hindusthan Paper Corporation.
  • Directorate of Small Industries.
  • Official Website of Government of Assam http://assamgovt.nic.in/

  • Employees State Insurance Corporation & Official Website of Employees State Insurance Corporation http://www.esicindia.org/
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