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Introduction

INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Introduction

The technological advancements and development of complex and hazardous processes, the management of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) has become a vital issue. The threat of occupational hazards, particularly in the chemical and petrochemical industries is of great concern, specially, for the people who are responsible for policy planning and designing of instruments and other interventions for protecting the large workforce in the country. The major problem faced by the policy planners is the non-availability of timely information on vital areas such as occupational injuries and diseases, infrastructure available at the unit and the state level for taking up awareness, promotional and developmental programs.

The Directorate General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) is relied upon by Central and State Governments for a variety of information pertaining to occupational safety and health. At present the facilities available in our country do not allow as quick a response as is often needed. Further, substantial increase in the number of registered factories, introduction of sophisticated modern technology and complexities in plant and equipment design have brought many constraints in the area of Occupational Safety and Health policy making at national level. For planning of effective strategy on control of accidents and ill-health, timely and reliable information is vital.

The Ministry of Labour has been deeply concerned over the non-availability of occupational safety and health information for policy planning. To overcome this deficiency the scheme “Setting up of a Data Bank-cum-Information Centre” at Central Labour Institute, Mumbai was proposed during the 7th Five Year Plan. The scheme was approved by the Planning Commission in the 7th Plan.

The scheme was continued in the modified form during the 8th Plan period with the title “Development of Safety & Health Information System and Data Bank”. During this period information systems were installed at the Central Labour Institute and the 4 Regional Labour Institutes. Data bases in the area of Major Accident Hazard Installations, hazardous chemicals, national specialist, ship inspection, Parliament question, FAS Proforma, Factories Act Amendment, Awards, etc. were developed. Information on Material Safety Data Sheets was disseminated to the industries and agencies related to occupational safety and health.

During the 9th Plan period DGFASLI website was launched. Abstracts of safety and health technical reports of DGFASLI were prepared, a national directory of organization profile was compiled, the statutes related to safety and health were computerized and ported on the website. Publication of INDOSHNEWS a quarterly news bulletin of this organization was started and till date 14 issues have been published, work related to translation of International Chemical Safety Cards in three Indian languages—Hindi, Tamil and Bangla was initiated with a view to make the cards available on the website.

1.2 The Project

The present Plan Scheme “Development of Safety & Health Information System and Data Bank” being operated during the 10th Plan envisages creation of the National Inventory on Occupational Safety and Health Information to widen the information base and making available the information at one source to help in the activities specially those related to policy planning directed at improving the occupational safety and health of the workers.

The national inventory besides having OSH information state-wise collected through respective State Inspectorate will also include the following:

  • Abstracts of OS&H national literature
  • OS &H literature acquired from abroad
  • Factory Advice Service databases
  • Dock Safety related databases
  • Details of MAH installations, hazardous chemicals, national specialists, etc.
  • Scanner based data base on accident events, etc.
1.3 The Objectives of the Project

To develop all the five Labour Institutes under the DGFASLI Organisation as the action resource centers for collection, processing and dissemination of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Information with a view to create an Inventory on OSH Information for the prevention of Occupational Injuries and health problems in the country

1.4 The Scope of the Project

The proposed scheme will have the following components:

  • Development of Occupational Safety and Health national inventory and connectivity between State Factory Inspectorate and DGFASLI. The inventory will cover information pertaining to manufacturing activities covered under the Factories Act 1948, Occupational injuries and diseases in the sector, management of OSH at unit and state level.
  • Creation of occupational safety and health information action resource centers at five labour Institutes by providing them with computer hardware and software facilities and also by involving other organizations specialized in the field of safety, health and environment to participate in the project.
  • Human Resource Development of personnel attached to action resource centers.
  • Dissemination of information through electronic media using the latest information technology for creating public awareness about safety, health and environment.
  • Dissemination of information through conventional media to reach the large workforce including decision makers not having access to the information technology. This will include publication of newsletter, technical reports, safety cards etc.
  • Creation of databases containing information on handling of containers and dangerous goods, hazardous installations, inland container depots, minor and intermediate ports, competent persons, panel of doctors in ports, etc. Dock Safety division will participate by way of providing raw data collected from the field.
  • Developing infrastructure for occupational safety and health e-self learning centers at all action resource centre in the labour institutes.
  • Effective implementation of the 12 point Minimum Agenda for E-Governance. This includes providing computers upto the level of Section Officers, setting up of LAN, training of all staff on computers, procure and use office automation software, website updating and maintenance, developing software packages for delivery of services and information, etc.
  • As information technology is developing very fast, the latest hardware and software available during the plan period will be acquired.
1.5 The Methodology

In order to create a national inventory of OSH information, the following activities are envisaged to be carried out in each State:

  • Identification of support information
  • Location of sources of information
  • Creation of suitable mechanism for information collection
  • Selection and use of appropriate technology for processing and storage of information.
  • Development of procedures for user friendly dissemination of information.

     

  • Development of suitable infrastructure for achieving the above.
1.6 The Project Team

The various activities under the Project are being carried out by the five Labour Institutes as nodal agencies. The Regional Labour Institute, Faridabad, is the nodal agency for the five states viz., National Capital Territory of Delhi, Union Territory of Chandigarh, Haryana and states of Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh.

After the successful completion of study in the NCT of Delhi, the Union Territory of Chandigarh was taken up for the collection of data during the year 2003-04. Subsequently the States of Haryana, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh will be taken up for the similar type of study.

The Task Force comprising of the following officers and staff of Regional Labour Institute, Faridabad and the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories, Chandigarh, was constituted for carrying out the study in hand.

I. Regional Labour Institute (RLI), Faridabad

  • Shri Moinul Haque, Director-in-Charge, RLI-Faridabad
  • DR. Avneesh Singh, Deputy Director (Ind. Psy.) - Coordinator
  • Shri S. C. Sharma, Asst.Director (Safety)

II. Management Information System (MIS), DGFASLI, Mumbai

  • Shri S.N. Borkar, Dy.Director(Prod.)
  • Shri P.N. Patil, Tech.Asstt.
  • Smt Jaya Vimalan, Stenographer Gr.III
  • Smt Pramila Ajila, Stenographer Gr.III

III. Inpsectorate of Factories, NCT of Delhi

  • Shri R. N. Khola, Chief Inspector Factories
1.7 Activities under the Project

The present project aims at studying the existing system of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases at unit, district and UT level in the UT of Chandigarh, identifying the areas for improving and establishing the system, which is in line with the systems existing in other countries.

The activities of the project have been divided in the following categories:

  • Background information about Union Territory of Chandigarh - Deals with the demographic and geographic characteristics of Union Territory of Chandigarh, population in different districts and major occupations of the people.
  • Economic activities - Deals with the various aspects of economic sectors in the state, their value of production, employment generated and contribution to the GDP.
  • Activities in manufacturing sector – Deals with the different activities carried out in the manufacturing sector as per the National Industrial Code, value of production, employment generation, etc.
  • Occupational injuries and diseases- Deals with the analysis of the occupational injuries–fatal and non-fatal and cases of occupational diseases in the manufacturing sector.
  • Management of occupational safety and health - Deals with the infrastructure and resources available at the unit level and at the state level for managing the crucial issue of occupational safety and health.
  • Resources available and needed for the management of occupational safety and health.

Based on the analysis of occupational injuries and diseases and the capabilities available, an attempt is made to assess the resources required for the better management of occupational safety and health in the Union Territory of Chandigarh.

Background information

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

2.1 INTRODUCING CHANDIGARH

Chandigarh derives its name from a temple Chandi Mandir in the vicinity of the site selected for the city (deity Chandi, goddess of power), and a fort or Garh beyond the temple, called Chandigarh.

Chandigarh was conceived as the capital of Punjab, in lieu of the lost capital of Lahore. But Punjab was divided a second time in 1966, and Chandigarh is today the capital of the states of both Punjab and Haryana. However, the city does not belong to either. Chandigarh is a Union Territory, administered by the Government of India.

Initially the Government of Punjab approached American town planner Albert Mayer who doing with architect Mathew Nowicki become the key planners for the new city. The master plan conceived by them had a fan- shaped outline filling the site between the two seasonal river– beds. At the northen edge of the city was the capital complex against the panoramic backdrop of the Shivalik hills.

The Open Hand is the official emblem of the city. The design of this emblem as of the monument was conceived entirely by Le Corbusier. There is probably no city emblem in the world quite like this one. ’Open to give and open to receive’ presumes an open mind.

Besides being the Union Territory, Chandigarh is also the capital of two important states viz., Punjab and Haryana, has gained importance among the most important cities of India.

2.1. PHYSICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL STRUCTURE

The Union Territory of Chandigarh, with a population of more than 7.5 Lacs, is spread over in the 114 sq kms. The Union Territory of Chandigarh is comprising of 48 sectors. The sectors are known not by names, but by numbers. There is no sector 13 in Chandigarh. All the sectors are quite similar to the concept of ”Moholla”. Typically, each sector measures 800metres by 1200metres,or 250 acres. Each sector is surrounded broad roads, with no buildings opening on to them, The inner roads usually link with the shopping areas /other conveniences located within the sector.

2.1.1 Land area

The Union Territory of Chandigarh comprising 48 sectors is spread over in the 114 sq kms. The details of the land area with division is given in Table -2.1

Table 2.1: CLASSIFICATION OF LAND

.

ItemsArea in Acres (1 Acre=0.40468 Hectare) Period (2001- 02)
Total Reported area according to village papers17361
Forest525
Not available for Cultivation11908
Other Un-Cultivated Land excluding fallow lands596
Current fallow Land79
Fallow land other than current Fallow241
Net area sown4012
Total Cropped area6080

(Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Chandigarh 2002)

The Union Territory of Chandigarh being the planned city is full of trees. As per the details of the forest area and trees planted given in Table -2.2 reflect that 3245.30 hectors of land is declared as forest. During 2001 –02, 30104 number of seedlings were supplied to and 121024 trees were planted.

Table 2.2: FOREST AREA

ItemsUnits in Hectare/Nos.* 2001-02
Land under Forest3245.30
Supply of seedings to public30104
Trees Planted121024

(Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Chandigarh 2002)

2.2 DEMOGRAPHIC CONTEXT

2.2.1 Population

As per the Statistical Abstract (2002) published by Directorate of Economics & statistics, Chandigarh the population of Union Territory of Chandigarh is 7.5 Lacs,

The data shown in the Table 2.3 indicate that 808796 (approximately 90%) population (9024954) of UT of Chandigarh is living in the urban area. As compared to this only 92118 (approximately 10%) of the total population is living in the rural area. However, the density of the population is higher 10194 (Per Sq. Kms.) in the urban area as compared to rural area (2658).As far as the sex ratio is concerned the number of females per thousand male is higher i.e. 792 in the urban area as compared to the rural area i.e. 621 . The Union Territory of Chandigarh is having more than 80% literacy rate . The males are more literate than female and the difference is around 10%. In the rural area, on the 67% females, are literate as compared to male (81%). The data reveal that the rural females are less educated as compared to their urban counterparts. As far as the comparison of rural and urban male population is concerned, there is less than 5% difference in the level of literacy rate.

Table 2.3: POPULATION DATA 2001- CENSUS (P)

Population TotalRuralUrban
Population as per 2001 censusPersons9009149211808796
 Males5082245683751387
 Females3925903528157409
Decennial PopulationGrowth 1991-2001Absolute25863925932232967
 %age- 40.33-39.18-40.46
 %age- 40.33-39.18-40.46
Density of PopulationPer Sq. Kms.7903265810194
Sex ratioNos. of773621792
 Females   
 Per 1000   
 Males   
Population of 0-6 years*
(i) Absolute
Persons1092931400795286
 Males59238756251676
 Female50055644543610
(ii)Percentage of total PopulationPersons12.1315.2111.78
 Males11.6613.3011.45
 Females12.7518.2712.20
Literacy : (i) AbsolutePersons64720859547587661
 Males38456340178344385
 Females26254519369243276
(i) Literacy RatePersons81.7676.2382.36
 Males85.6581.5486.16
 Females76.6567.1777.53

*6- years means completed 0-6 years as on 01.01.2001

As per Table 2.3 the area-wise male-female sex ratio of the total population of the UT of Chandigarh is 773 female per thousand male. The rural area is having the lower number of females i.e., 621 per thousand male. The higher number of females (792) is with Urban area.

2.2.2 Birth, Death, Infant Mortality Rate

As per the Statistical Abstract (2002) published by Directorate of Economics & statistics, Chandigarh there are 5 large hospitals having 2110 number of beds and 44 dispensaries manned with 635 registered doctors. The data reflects that out of 3554 number of sterilization cases the male contribute to only 92. The birth rate of the Union Territory of Chandigarh is 21.49 per thousand. As compared to urban i.e. 23.39 the rural area is having very low birth rate i.e. 4.79. Similarly, the death rate is only 1.97 in the rural areas as compared to 10.41 in the urban areas. As regards, infant mortality rate in urban areas it is 35.70 which is very high as compared to rural areas i.e. 2.25. The possible interpretation of these findings may be that most of the cases of death, birth may not be reported.

Table : 2.4 Health And Family Welfare
ITEMSYEAR
Hospitals5
Dispensaries44
Beds2110
Registered Doctors635
STERLIZATION
Males92
Males92
Females3462
Total3554
Total3554
BIRTH RATE (Per Thousand)
Rural04.78
Urban23.39
UT Chandigarh21.49
DEATH RATE (Per Thousand)
Rural01.97
Urban35.70
UT Chandigarh34.94
2.2.4. Employment (Government)

Though the areawise Chandigarh is not a large city however, it is the capital of 2 States and U.T. Therefore, the large number of Government employees i.e. 22463 are working in the U.T. of Chandigarh. Out of these 398 are the Group A officials followed by 1063 Group B officials, 16192 are Group C, 3216 are Group D and 1604 are the work charged employee.

Table : 2.4 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES

ItemsNumber of Employees During the Period (2001-02)
Group-A398
Group-B1063
Group-C16192
Group-D3216
Work Charged 
Employees1604
Total22463
2.2.5 TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

The total length of roads in the city of Chandigarh is 1489 kilometers. As per the data in the year 2001-02 there were 417 C.T.U. Buses were available for the people of Chandigarh. As far as the vehicle population is concerned there are 8549 number of four wheelers are registered and 15597 two wheelers are registered in the U.T. of Chandigarh.

Being a modern city there are 12 main telephone exchanges supported by 30 sub-exchanges and 2 offices. There are 206819 telephone connections and 3847 public call offices. For the postal services there are 53 offices in the city of Chandigarh.

ItemsLength of Road in Kms. During the Period(2001-02)
Length of Road
Road Length (city) Urban Roads1489
C.T.U. Buses417
Vehicle Population
Car, Jeep & Summos8549
M. Cycle, Scooter & Moped15597
Post offices53
Telephone Connection206819
Public Call Office(PCU)3847
Telephone Exchange
(A) Main Exchange12
(B) Sub- Exchange30
Telephone Office2
Internet connection779
TOTAL capacity247496
Mobile Phone Connections152735

Manufacturing sector

MANUFACTURING SECTOR

3.1. MAJOR INDUSTRIES

The sector wise distribution of the major industrial units located in the UT of Chandigarh was 528 in the year 2000 which came down to 487 in the year 2001 and 492 in the year 2002. During the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 the number of Central sector and Cooperative sector industries remain unchanged. In the year 2002 only one State sector unit was added. The number of private sector industries in the UT of Chandigarh was only 470 in the year 2002 as compared to 506 in the year 2000.

TABLE – 3.1 Major Industries
Major Industries200020012002
Central sector111
State sector191819
Cooperative sector222
Private sector506466470
Total528487492

3.2 ANNUAL SURVEY OF INDUSTRIES

As per annual survey of industries, during the year 2001-2002, the total number of registered factories in the Union Territory of Chandigarh was 528 out of this 323 factories are registered under Section 2m(i) and 2m(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948. The fixed capital of these industries is 25693 and the working capital is 16918. The production capital of these industries 42611 and invested capital is 41043. In all there are 7171 workers are working. The other related details are given in the Table 3.2.

Table 3.2:ANNUAL SURVEY OF INDUSTRIES
ItemsNumber of Factories
During the Period
(2001-02)
Factories Registered528
Factories Covered *323
Fixed Capital25693
Working Capital16918
Production Capital42611
Invested Capital41043
Invested Capital41043
Workers7175
All Employees11304
Wages to Workers(Rs. in Lakh)3898
Total Emoluments(Rs. in Lakh)8277
Total Input(Rs. in Lakh)100501
Total Output(Rs. in Lakh)121550
Value added by manufacturer(Rs. in Lakh)18230
Factor Payments(Rs. in Lakh)2454
Net Income(Rs. in Lakh)15776

* Factories registered under section 2m(i) and 2m(ii) of the Factories Act,1948.

As per the data displayed in Table 3.2 during the year 1999-2000, 200-2001 and 2001-2002 there is no growth of employment in the manufacturing units categorized as food products, woolen textiles, silk, synthetics including art silk hosiery, wooden and wood products for furnitures and fixtures, chemicals and chemical products (except products of petroleum, non-metallic mineral products, metal products and machinery (except electrical machinery). On the other hand, paper and paper products printing, publishing and allied industries, leather/fur products, electrical machine apparatus, transport equipments and parts and repair and personal services have shown significant growth in the number of workers. There is no industries showing decline in the number of workers employed therein.

Regarding the production we find that the industries like food products, woolen textiles, silk, synthetics including art silk, hosiery, wooden and wood products for furnitures and fixtures, non-metallic mineral products and machinery (except electrical machinery) have shown no change in the amount of production.

3.3 Production and Employment of Manufacturing Industries in Chandigarh

A: Production in Lakh Rs., B: Workers in No.

Industry Code/Industry1999-20002000-20012001-2002
 ABABAB
1234567
20-21 Food Products2642.7016042642.7016042642.701604
22 Beverages Tabacco & Tabacco Products000019.1510
23 Cotton Textile000000
24-26 Woolen Textiles, Silk, Synthetics including Art Silk Hosiery2298.0019602298.0019602298.001960
27 Wooden/Wood Products Furniture & Fixtures2470.3512322470.3512322470.351232
28 Paper & Paper Products, Printing, Publishing & Allied Industries3715.1016523734.2516523734.251760
29 Leather/Fur Products (Except Repair)248.95304248.95304287.25720
30 Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum & Coal Products4940.7021644940.7021644959.852172
31 Chemicals & Chemical Products (Except products of Petroleum)670.25780689.40788689.40788
32 Non-Metallic Mineral Products766.00720766.00720766.00720
33 Basic Metal & Alloy Industry134076013407601397.45868
34 Metal Products18728.70782418767.00784018767.007840
35 Machinery Except electrical machinery1685.209341685.209341685.20934
36 Electrical Machine Apparatus Appliances Supplies & parts3102.0012963102.2012963121.451504
37 Transport Equipment & parts5247.1022925247.1022925285.402298
38 Other Industries3944.9019483944.9019483964.051956
96-97 Repair & Personal Services5476.992885515.2030045515.203006
Total57277.642775857392.452849857602.7029372

3.4 Small Scale Industries

During the year 1999-200, there were 3034 industries falling under the category of small scale which went up to 3069 in the year 2000-2001 and in the year 2001-2002 it further went up to 3100. Accordingly, the number of employers also have gone up from 27758 to 29373 giving rise to production of Rs. 576.03 crores from Rs.572.78 crores in the year 1999-2000. The details are given in the table 3.4.

Table 3.4: Information Relating to Working Small Scale Industries in Chandigarh
YearNo.of UnitsFixed Capital
(Crores) Rs.
Employees No.Production
(Crores) Rs.
12345
1999-2000303479.4927758572.78
2000-2001306980.4128398574.19
2001-2002310081.2229373576.03

3.5 Large and Medium Industries

The data given in the table> period of three years i.e. 1999-2002 there is no growth of large and medium industries in the U.T. of Chandigarh. However, the employment has gone up from 3970 in the year 1999-2000 to 4595 in the year 2001-2002. Surprisingly, the production has come down from 271.91 crores in the year 1999-2000 to 371.10 crores in 2001-2002.

Table 3.5: Information Relating to Working Large/Medium Industries in Chandigarh
YearNo of UnitsFixed Capital
(Crores) Rs.
Employees No.Production
(Crores) Rs.
1999-20001532.403970271.91
2000-20011534.105270335.50
2001-20021534.454595371.10

3.6 Registered working Factories and workers employed therein

There is no factory in the U.T. Chandigarh which is employing more than 1000 workers however, there is only one factory which has employed more than 500 workers but less than 1000 workers. In all there is a moderate decline in the number of registered working factories during the year 1999-2002. The trend of data indicate that either the industries have reached the stagnation point of growth or the entrepreneurs are no more interested in establishing new units.

Table 3.6 : Registered working factories(A) and workers employed therein (B)

(A- Registered working factories, B- workers employed therein)

Average Number of Workers199920002001
 ABABAB
1234567
Less than 1097104897104886995
10 or more but less than 20163172816217281451488
20 or more but less than 50134537813053781194990
50 or more but less than 100124684812468481236773
100 or more but less than 5001402424142424132214
500 or more but less than 1000176417641764
1000 or more but less than 5000000000
Total533181905281819048717224
3.7 Khadi & Village Industries

As per the data given in the table 3.7 regarding the Khadi & Village Industries it is found that there is a gradual increase in the employment. During the 1999-2000 it was 724 which increased to 760 in the year 2000-2001 which further went up to 770 in the year 2001-2002.

The annual production of industrial goods has also shown a consistent growth from 4.44 crores in the year 1999-2000 to 5.51 crores in the year 2001-2002.

Table 3.7: Khadi & Village Industries
ItemsUnits in Nos.( During the Period)
 1999-20002000-012001-02
Employment provided724760770
Annual Production of Industrial Goods (Rs. In Crores)4.444.825.51

Manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948

4.1 Registered working factories under Section 2m(i), 2m(ii) and 85 of the Factories Act, 1948

As per data obtained through Statistical Abstract of Chandigarh (2002), the number of working registered factories under 2m(i), 2m(ii) and 85 of the Factories Act, 1948 (at the beginning of the year) it was 531 in the year 1999 which went up to 533 in the year 2000 and came down to 528 in the year 2001. In the year 1999, there were two new registration of the industries (under Section 85) and there was no fresh registration in the year 2000 but 9 new industries were registered in the year 2001. These 9 industries were registered under 2m(i).

In the year 2001, 50 industries opted for deletion from the list of registered factories. However, no deletion were made in the year 1999 and only 5 industries opted for the deletion in the year 2000. Because of the major deletion in the year 2001, at the end of the year only 487 registered factories were left.

The data further reveals that in the Union Territory of Chandigarh, there is no factory registered under the Section 2m(ii). At the end of the year 2001, there were 406 industries registered under the Section 2m(i) and under the Section 85 there were 81 factories.

Table 4.1 Registered working factories under Section 2m(i), 2m(ii) and 85 of the Factories Act, 1948
Item199920002001
No. of working factories at the beginning of year531533528
Registered During the year209
2m(i)--9
2m(ii)---
Section 852--
Deletion made during the year-550
2m(i)-548
2m(ii)---
Section 85--2
Total No. of Factories at the end of the year533528487
2m(i)450445406
2m(ii)---
Section 85838381

Source: Statistical Abstract (2002) Directorate of Economics & Statistics Union Territory of Chandigarh

4.2 REGISTERED FACTORIES

Working Factories:

Chandigarh being a well planned and fully developed Union Territrory there is no major growth in the number of working factories. If you look at the data laid in table 4.1, in all the category there is a declining trend in the number of industries, however only the industries classified under basic chemicals and chemical products (except products of petroleum and coal) indicate no change.

TABLE –4.2
IndustryNo.of factories
 200020012002
1. Food Products494041
2. Non-metallic mineral products110808
3. Wood and wood products,
furniture and fixtures
818080
4. Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum &
Coal products
110409
5. Basic chemicals & chemical
products(except products of
petroleum & coal)
171717
6. Paper & paper products &
printing, publishing & allied
industries
371515
7. Cotton Textiles090707
8. Metal products & parts except
machinery and equipment
135122124
9. Machinery and equipment other than transport equipment504949
4.3 Employment in registered factories:

The data given in the table 4.3 indicate that the highest number of workers are employed with industry classified as machinery and equipment other than transport equipments. This number is followed by food product industry and then paper and pulp products and printing publishing. During the year 2000, 2001 and 2002 no female workers were employed with industries such as cotton textile; rubber, plastic, petroleum and coal products; and wood and wood products. The highest number of females are employed with machinery and equipment other than transport equipments.

TABLE –4.3 Employment in registered factories
IndustryAverage number of persons employed
200020012002
MFTMFTMFT
1. Food Products798118091515121527136091369
2. Non-metallic
mineral products
144-144117-1171151116
3. Wood & Wood
products
525-525520-520474-474
4. Machinery &
equipment
otherthantransport
equipment
179753185014255314781553451598
5. Rubber, plastic,
petroleum &
coal products
129-129104-104147-147
6. Basic chemicals
& chemical
products
298233213321734932212334
7. Cotton textiles332-332257-257253-253
9. Paper & paper
products &
printing
publishing
10401810589981810161003191022

Occupational injuries in manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES COVERED UINDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948

Union Territory of Chandigarh has got total number of 25603 registered factories under the Factories Act, 1948. As per the data given in Table 5.1 during the year 1999 & 2000 there were no accidents except 2 fatal accidents in the manufacture of Engineering products in the year 1999 and 1 accident in the year 2000. In the year 2001 and 2002 there were no fatal injuries in all type of industries.

TABLE –5.1: INDUSTRY-WISE FATAL INJURIES
Industry1999200020012002
 No.of accidentsNo. of AccidentsNo.of AccidentsNo.of Accidents
Manufacture of food products----
Manufacture of cotton textiles----
Manufacture of wood and wood products----
Manufacture of paper and paper products----
Manufacture of basic chemicals
and chemical products
----
Manufacture of rubber, plastic,
petroleum and coal products
----
Manufacture of non-metallic
mineral products
----
Repair of capital goods----
Manufacture of Engineering products21--

There were 2 fatal injuries in the year 1999 and the cause of these was explosion. In the year 2000 there was only one fatal injury and the cause of this was fire. In the year 2001 and 2002 there were no fatal injuries .

TABLE – 5.2: CAUSE WISE FATAL INJURIES
Type of AccidentNo. of accidentsNo of AccidentsNo. of accidentsNo. of accidents
 19992000200120002
Fall of persons----
Fall of objects----
Stepping, striking, struck against----
Caught in between objects----
Expo. to or contact with extreme temp.----
Explosions2---
Fire-1--
5.3 Agency wise:

The 2 fatal accidents which took place in the year 1999, the agency involved was pressure vessel. The accident which happened in the year 2000 the agency involved was electrical installation. As there was no accident during the years 2001 and 2002 so there was no agency reported responsible for the occurrence of fatal accident.

TABLE – 5. 3: AGENCY WISE FATAL INJURIES

 

Agency involved1999200020012002
 No. of accidentsNo. of accidentsNo. of accidentsNo. of accidents
Transmission machinery----
Other means of trans.----
Pressure vessels2---
Electrical installations-1--
Other equipments----
Explosives----
Dust, gases, liquid
& chemicals
----
Flying objects----
Other materials & subs----
Indoor----
Other agencies----
5.4 NATURE WISE FATAL INJURIES

The accidents which took place in the year 1999, the nature of 2 fatal injuries was burns. Another accident which occurred in the year 2000, the cause of fatality was also burns.

TABLE –5. 4: NATURE WISE FATAL INJURIES

Nature of injury1999200020012002
 No..of AccidentNo..of AccidentNo..of AccidentNo..of Accident
Concussions & other internal injury----
Other wounds----
Contusions & Crushings----
Burns21--
Asphyxia----
Effects of electrical currents----
Multiple injuries of different nature----
Others and
unspecified injuries
----

5.5 LOCATION WISE FATAL INJURIES

As per the data given in the table 5.5, all the 3 accidents which took place in the year 1999 and 2000, led to unspecified location of injury.

TABLE – 5.5 : LOCATION WISE FATAL INJURIES

Location of1999200020012002
 No. of accidents injuryNo. of accidents injuryNo. of accidents injuryNo. of accidents injury
Head----
Trunk----
Upper limb----
Multiple locations----
General injuries----
Unspecified locations of injury21--

 

5.6(A) SEX WISE FATAL INJURIES

Data given in the table 5.6(A) reveal that males were involved in all the 3 accidents which took place in the year 1999 and 2000.

TABLE –5.6(A) : SEX WISE FATAL INJURIES

Sex1999200020012002
 No. of accidentsNo. of accidentsNo. of accidentsNo. of accidents
Male21--
Female----

5.6(B)INSURED/UNINSURED FATAL INJURIES

Regarding the insurance of the workers involved in the accidents leading to fatal injuries it is found that all the three victims were insured.

TABLE –5.6(B): INSURED/UNINSURED FATAL INJURIES

Insured/Uninsured1999200020012002
 No.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidents
Insured21--
Uninsured----

5.6(C)AGE WISE FATAL INJURIES

As per the data given in table>

TABLE – 5.6(C):AGE WISE FATAL INJURIES

 

Age1999200020012002
 No.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidents
18 to < 3621--
36 to < 51----
51 to < 61----
61 & above----

5.7 INDUSTRY WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

In the year 1999 there was only one accident leading to non-fatal injury and this occurred in the industry classified as chemical industry. In the year 2000, the total number of non-fatal injuries occurred are 10. Out of these, one occurred in the manufacture of transport equipment and parts. One non-fatal injury occurred in the chemical industry and another in the printing press. The remaining 7 non-fatal injury took place in the industries classified as other manufacturing industries.

TABLE – 5.7: INDUSTRY WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

Industry description1999200020012002
 No.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidents
Manufacture of food products----
Manufacture of cotton textiles----
Manufacture of jute and other vegetable>----
Manufacture of paper and
paper products
----
Manufacture of basic chemicals
and chemical products
----
Manufacture of rubber, plastic, petroleum and coal products----
Manufacture of non-metallic mineral products----
Basic metals and alloys industry----
Manufacture of metal products and parts----
Manufacture of machinery and equipment----
Manufacture of transport equipments and parts-1--
Chemical Industries11--
Printing Press-1 -
Other manufacturing industries-7--

5.8(A) SEX WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

As per table> In these incidences only males were involved

TABLE – 5.8(A): SEX WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

Sex1999200020012002
 No. Of accidentsNo. Of accidentsNo. Of accidentsNo. Of accidents
Male110--
Female----

5.8(B) INSURED/UNINSURED NON-FATAL INJURIES

As per table> In the year 2000 there were 10 workers suffered non-fatal injuries and all of them were insured.

TABLE – 5.8(B) :INSURED/UNINSURED NON- FATAL INJURIES

Insured/Uninsured1999200020012002
 No. Of accidentsNo. Of accidentsNo. Of accidentsNo. Of accidents
Insured110--
Uninsured----

5.8(C) AGE WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

All the workers suffered non-fatal injuries during the year 1999 and 2000 were in the age group of 18-36. Non of the workers in the higher age group was sufferer of any type of non-fatal injury.

TABLE –5.8(C): AGE WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

Age1999200020012002
 No. Of accidentsNo. Of accidentsNo. Of accidentsNo. Of accidents
15 to < 18----
18 to < 36110--
36 TO < 51----
51 to < 61----
61 & above----

5.9 CAUSE WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

During the year 1999 only one person suffered non-fatal injury and the cause of that was explosion. In the year 2000, out of 10 non-fatal injuries, one injury was because of stamping, striking, struck against; the four non-fatal injuries were because of caught in between objects; one was because of exposure to or contact with extreme temperature; one because of amputation; another one because of flash (spark); the other one because of hit of flying objects and one because of other causes.

TABLE – 5.9: CAUSE WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

Type Of Accident1999200020012002
 No.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidents
Fall of persons----
Fall of objects----
Stepping, striking, struck against-1--
Caught in between objects-4--
Over-exertion or wrong movements----
Expo. to or contact with extreme temp-1--
Expo. to or contact with harmful substances.----
Explosion1---
amputation (Cut)-1--
Flash (Spark)-1--
Hite by Flying object.-1--
Others-1--

5.10 AGENCY WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

In the year 1999, the agency involved in the non-fatal injury was fire. In the year 2000, one more injury occurred because of fire, one each because of other equipments; tools, implements, appliances; electrical installations; and 6 because of metal working machine.

TABLE –5.10: AGENCY WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

Agency1999200020012002
 No.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidents
Prime Movers----
Transmission machinery----
Metal working machine-6--
Other machines----
Other wheeled Means of Trans.----
Electrical installations-1--
Tools, implements
& applns.
-1--
Ladders, mobile ramps----
Scaffolding----
Other equipments-1--
Dust, gases, liquid
& chemicals
----
Flying objects----
Other materials
& subs.
----
Indoor----
Animals----
Fire11--
Other agencies----

5.11LOCATION WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

Location wise non-fatal injuries indicate that only accidents occurred in the year 1999 involved the upper limb of the worker. Whereas in the year 2000, 6 workers suffered the upper limb injury, 2 suffered low limb injury and one each suffered multiple locations injury and unspecified locations of injury

TABLE –5.11: LOCATION WISE NON-FATAL INJURIES

Location of injury1999200020012002
 No.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidents
Head----
N Neck----
Trunk----
Upper limb16--
Lower limb-2--
Multiple locations-1--
General injuries----
Unspecified locations of injury-1--

5.12.1 NATURE OF INJURIES

The only accident occurred during the year 1999 caused burns injury. During the year 2000, 5 injuries lead to amputation and enucleations, 2 lead to other wounds, 2 lead to burns and one occurred which is classified as others and unspecified injuries

TABLE –5.12: DISTRIBUTION OF INJURIES

Nature of injury1999200020012002
 No.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidentsNo.of accidents
Fractures----
Dislocations----
Sprains and
strains
----
Amputations &
Enucleations
-5--
Other wounds-2--
Superficial injuries----
Contusions &
Crushings
----
Burns12--
Acute poisoning----
Multiple injuries
of different nature
----
Others &
unspecified injuries
-1--

Occupational diseases and poisoning in manufacturing activities

OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

ILO Code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases defines occupational diseases as “a disease contracted as a result of an exposure of risk factors arising from work activity”. Under Section 89 of the Factories Act, 1948 where any worker in a factory contracts any of the diseases specified in the Third Schedule (Annexure-1), the manager of the factory shall send a notice thereof to such authorities and in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.

Also any medical practitioner attending on a person who is or has been employed in a factory and is suffering from diseases specified in the Third Schedule shall without delay send a report in writing to the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories.

In the Union Territory of Chandigarh there was no reporting of occupational disease during the last three years. As there is post of Chief Inspector of Factories, Medical , therefore no visit carried out. No pathological investigation and X-rays were carried out because of lack of facilities available with the department.

Management of occupational safety and health at unit level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT UNIT LEVEL

7.1 Introduction

The management of occupational safety and health at the unit level, i.e. manufacturing units, involves the following aspects:

  • Safety Policy
  • Appointment of Safety Officers
  • Safety Committee
  • Occupational Health Centers (FMO, Ambulance)
  • Welfare Measures (WO, Canteen, crèche, lunch room, shelter etc.)
  • On-site Emergency Plan
  • Safety Reports
  • Safety Audits
  • HAZOP studies

As on today there is no Major Accident Hazard installation in the Union Territory of Chandigarh. There are 2 factories where the Safety Officers are employed. Welfare officers are employed by 4 factories and one factory is equipped with ambulance room.

There is only one factory where the safety committee is constituted. However, there is no installation having safety policy and no installation has carried out the safety audit. The details of on-site emergency plan, mock drill are also not available.

Management of occupational safety and health at state level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT STATE LEVEL

8.1 Introduction

The management of occupational safety and health at the Union Territory level is more complex than at the unit level. At unit level the problems are relatively simple and unit specific depending upon the type of industry. However, at the Union Territory level the management of occupational safety and health is not unit or industry specific and the instruments such as policies, legislation, etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues in all type of occupations. Apart from the Factories Act, 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities. These legislations are enforced by various departments such as the Chief Inspector of Factories, the Labour Commissioner, etc. functioning under the Union Territory Government.

LIST OF IMPORTANT LABOUR LEGISLATIONS BEING IMPLEMENTED BY THE LABOUR DEPARTMENT OF UNION TERRITORY OF CHANDIGARH

  • Factories Act, 1948;
  • Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961;
  • National and Festival Holidays (Casual & Sick Leave) Act, 1965;
  • Punjab Shops and Commercial Establishment Act, 1958;
  • Payment of Wages Act, 1936;
  • Minimum Wages Act, 1948;
  • Payment of Bonus Act, 1965;
  • Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
  • Punjab Labour Welfare fund Act, 1965;
  • Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923;
  • Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972;
  • Industrial Disputes Act, 1947;
  • Trade Union Act, 1926;
  • Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1986;
  • Child Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1986;
  • Working Journalists and other Newspaper Employees (Conditions of Service and Miscellaneous Provisions), 1956;
  • Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1979;
  • Sales Promotion Employees (Condition of Service) Act, 1976;
  • Inter-State Migrant Workmen’s (Regulation of Employment & Condition of Service) Act, 1979;
  • Maternity Benefit Act, 1961;
  • Building and other Contract Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996;
  • Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976.

There are different departments under various ministries of Central and UT Government, NGOs and institutions working for the safety and health of the people at work. Some of the important departments /institutions are as under:

INSPECTORATE OF FACTORIES OF LABOUR DEPARTMENT

The Inspectorate of Factories, Labour Department, Government of Union Territory of Chandigarh, enforces the following legislations pertaining to occupational safety, health, welfare, working hours etc. of workers working in factories located within the Union Territory of Chandigarh covered under the Factories Act, 1948.

1. The Factories Act, 1948

The Factories Act, is a social legislation which has been enacted for occupational safety, health and welfare of workers at work places. This legislation is being enforced by the officers, i.e. Inspectors of Factories, Dy. Chief Inspectors of Factories who work under the control of the Chief Inspector of Factories and the Labour Commissioner.

Applicability:- It applies to factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948. The industries in which ten (10) or more than ten workers are employed on any day of the preceding twelve months and are engaged in manufacturing process being carried out with the aid of power or twenty (20) or more than twenty workers are employed in manufacturing process being carried out without the aid of power, are covered under the provisions of this Act.

Administrative Machinery:-

The enforcement of this legislation is being carried out on district basis by the district Inspectors of Factories. After inspection, improvement notices are issued to the defaulting managements and ultimately legal action is taken against the defaulting managements. The Inspectors of Factories file challans against the defaulters, conduct and defend them in the Courts of Metropolitan Magistrates.

The work of Inspectors of Factories is supervised by the Assistant Labour Commissioner on district basis. The Inspectorate is headed by Labour Commissioner cum Chief Inspector of Factories, who works under the administrative control of the Labour Commissioner and then Secretary (Labour), Government of Union Territory of Chandigarh. The organisational chart of the Labour Deptt. is as under.

machinery

CHANDIGARH FIRE SERVICE

Chandigarh Fire Force was set up in 1958, to prevent the loss of life and property from the fire hazard. Chandigarh fire service has seven fire stations.

Chandigarh Fire service is responsible for fire protection and rescue operation. These activities are carried out by 268 technical officials with the help of 26 fire tenders. They are conducting two to three training programmes and Mock Drills in a year to create awareness among the persons. The contact person is Chief fire officer.

Like other parts of the country the Fire Service Week is observed from 14th to 20th April to commemorate the memory and pay homage to those gallant and brave officers and men of different fire services in the country who laid down their lives, while discharging their duties during the fire fighting and rescue operations. The day 14th April is observed as on this day about 66 officers and men of Mumbai Fire Brigade lost their lives while fighting dock fire in the year 1944. During the week activities for creating the awareness among the people of Chandigarh are carried out.

Fire Precautions in Industries

Owing to the rapid growth of industries complexities of fire risk have increase enormously. Incidents of such fires not only result in huge loss of life and property but also cause dislocation of work, loss of production. Unemployment and so many other kinds of suffering. If adequate fire prevention measures are taken the losses can be minimized.

Do’s :

  • Store flammable liquids, gases, solvents, chemicals in stable racks, correctly labeled;
  • Keep chemicals in cool and dry place away from heat. Where hazardous chemicals are used, stored;
  • Ensure adequate ventilation and prohibit smoking;
  • Maintain good house keeping;
  • Ensure cigarettes are extinguished before disposal;
  • Use fuses and circuit brakers of correct capacity;
  • Before welding operation, all traces of flammable material must be removed must be removed to a safe distance;
  • Welding/ hot work should be carried out under proper fire watch;
  • Keep all machinery clean and lubricate it to avoid friction and overheating; and
  • Regular fire drills should be carried out.

Don’ts:

  • Don’t smoke in prohibited area;
  • Don’t place obstructions in means of escape;
  • Don’t use damaged cords and avoid temporary connections; and
  • Don’t plug too many electrical appliances in one socket.

POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD

Chandigarh Pollution Control Board is a statutory authority for planning, supervising and implementing comprehensive programmes for prevention and control of pollution in the union territory of Chandigarh.

The Board is the environmental protection authority and is responsible for controlling water, air, noise and land pollution for maintaining the wholesomenesess of environment. The Board is competent in the areas of environmental protection, environmental monitoring, policy and standard, training & educations, environmental legislations and laboratory analysis.

LABOUR BUREAU, CHANDIGARH

Labour Bureau is responsible for the collation, collection and publication of statistics and related information on wages, earnings, productivity, absenteeism, labour turn-over, industrial relations, working and living conditions and evaluation of working of various labour enactments etc. It is a storehouse of important economic indicators like Consumer Price Index Numbers for Industrial, Agricultural and Rural Labourers; wage rate indices and data on industrial relations, socio-economic conditions in the organised and unorganised sector of industry etc.

The functions/activities of Labour Bureau can be >

  • Labour Intelligence
  • Labour Research
  • Monitoring and evaluation studies under the Minimum Wages Act 1948.

1. Labour Intelligence:

(1) Construction and maintenance of various series of index numbers:

  • Consumer Price Index Numbers (CPI) for (i) Industrial Workers (ii) Rural Workers and (iii) Agricultural Labourers.
  • Wage Rate Indices in respect of industries covered under the Occupational Wage Surveys.
  • Index Numbers of (i) Money Earnings and (ii) Real Earnings
  • Productivity Indices.
  • Retail Price Indices for 31 Essential Commodities in Urban Areas.

(2) Providing serial statistics on Absenteeism, Labour Turnover, Labour cost, Employment, contract workers Earnings and industrial disputes.

2. Labour Research:

Conducting research studies/ surveys and bringing oout publications on labour related matters in organized and unorganized sector. These include:

  • Unorganised sector,SC/ST Labour both in Urban and Rural Areas, Women workers;
  • Occupational Wage Survey in the organized sector
  • Family Budget Enquiries.
  • Rural Labour Enquiry.
  • Survey of Labour conditions
  • Contract Labour Surveys
  • Annual Survey of Industries.
  • Digest of Indian Labour Research.
  • Statistical Profile on women Labour

3. Monitoring and Evaluation: Collects, Compiles and disseminates statistical information on various aspects of labour based on statutory and voluntary returns under different Labour Acts and surveys conducted. Details of information collected under the Acts are give on web page- Statutory / Voluntary Returns)

Publication of Labour Bureau

  • Indian Labour Journal (Monthly)
  • Indian Labour Statistics (Annual)
  • Pocket Book of Labour Statistics (Annual), and
  • Indian Labour Year Book (Annual)

DEPARTMENT OF EXPLOSIVES

The Department of Explosives came into existence during 1898 at SHIMLA under Home Department of British India Government. The Headquarters was subsequently shifted from SHIMLA to Calcutta during 1920 and thereafter to New Delhi during 1945. Finally the headquarters was shifted to NAGPUR during 1958.

The Explosives Department is headed by the Chief Controller of Explosives, Nagpur. The office of the Dy. Chief Controllerof Explosives is situated in Sector –22-B, Chandigarh.

AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY

The authority and responsibility of department of explosives,Sub circle Office, Chandigarh are as under:-

  • Grant/Amendment of licences for petroleum Road Tankers and permissions for storage of petroleum Class ‘C’ upto 45 KL.
  • Renewal of licences under petroleum Rules 1976 and the Gas Cylinder Rules, 1981 under their jurisdiction.
  • Routine inspections of licences premises under their jurisdiction.
  • Participation in seminars/workshops/and delivering lectures on safety.
  • Destruction of unserviceable explosives.
  • Gas free testing and certification of the ships and motor vessels.

Resources available and needed

RESOURCES AVAILABLE AND NEED FOR MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, HEALTH & ENVIRONMENT SYSTEM

The aim of present study is to assess the capabilities available with the Union Territory of Chandigarh and also the emergency preparedness of the State in case of any major industrial disaster or accident.

In this study different Central & State Government institutions, NGOs were surveyed. Only the institutions working in the area of occupational safety, health & environment are covered. As the study is conducted in the Union Territory of Chandigarh only, institutions /organizations working for the /in the other neighbouring states not were covered.

MAJOR FINDINGS

The data collected by the study team members were analysed. The major findings are as under :

  • The Union Territory of Chandigarh being the capital of two states and Union Territory the major activities of the state are of administrative nature not the industry oriented.
  • There is no major hazard installation located in the area of Union Territory of Chandigarh.
  • In the year 1999, there were 2 fatal accidents and in the year 2000 only one fatal accident was reported.
  • In the year 1999, there was only one non-fatal injury occurred and 10 non-fatal injuries occurred during the year 2000.
  • There is no reported accident leading to fatal or non-fatal injuries during the year 2001 and 2002.
  • There is no installation in the Union Territory of Chandigarh employing more than 1000 workers. However, there is only one installation employing more than 500 workers.
  • There are only 2 factories where the Safety Officers are employed. Welfare officers are employed by 4 factories and one factory is equipped with ambulance room.
  • There is only one factory where the safety committee is constituted. However, there is no installation having safety policy and no installation has carried out the safety audit. The details of on-site emergency plan, mock drill are also not available.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  • The Union Territory of Chandigarh is having no Major Accident Hazard Installation. But there is a large number falling under small, medium and large industries. For these installations there is no competent person or qualified person available in the Chief Inspectorate Factories Office who can give technical advise and guidance in the area of occupational safety and health aspects to the workforce.
  • Therefore, it is suggested that the organizations specially working in the area of small scale sector should take up the issue of developing and suggesting basic minimum guarding in the existing and new machineries.
  • Organisations like National Small Industries Corporation Limited who are running hire purchase scheme for a specific group of owner/managers should ensure about the occupational safety aspect of machines and tools hired and purchased by them.
  • The industrial associations and other organizations can develop a common platform where matter of occupational safety and health can be discussed and policies at the State level may be formulated which may be followed as a model by the other States.
  • In order to achieve this objective a 1-2 day Seminar may be organized by Regional Labour Institute, Faridabad. During the seminar /workshop specialist and experts working for the organizations involved for improving the safety and health of the people at work.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES

  • Statistical Abstract of Chandigarh (2001), Directorate of Economic & Statistics Chandigarh Administration.
  • Statistical Abstract of Chandigarh (2002), Directorate of Economic & Statistics Chandigarh Administration.
  • Chandigarh Guide (1998), CITCO
  • Factories Act 1948

Appendix I

APPENDIX-I

Occupations Declared Dangerous under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948
  • Manufacture of aerated water and processes incidental thereto
  • Electrolytic plating or Oxidation of metal by use of an Electrolytic containing chromic acid or other chromium compounds
  • Manufacture and repair of electric accumulators
  • Glass manufacture
  • Grinding and treatment of lead grinding and glazing of metal
  • Manufacture and treatment of lead and certain compounds of lead
  • Generating gas from dangerous petroleum
  • Cleaning or smoothing of articles by a jet of sand, metal shot or grid or other abressive propelled by a blast of compressed or a steam
  • Liming and tanning of raw hides and skins and process incidental thereto
  • Manufacture of Pottery and ceramics
  • Carrying on a certain processes of lead and lead material in printing presses and type foundries
  • Chemical works
  • Manufacture of articles from refractory materials
  • Handling and processing of asbestos from manufacture of any article of asbestos and process of manufacture or otherwise in which asbestos is used in any form
  • Handling and manipulation of corrosive substances
  • Compression of oxygen and hydrogen produced by the Electrolysis of water
  • Process of extracting of oil and facts from extracting plants
  • Manufacture of manipulation of manganese and its compounds
  • Manufacture of manipulation of dangerous pesticides
  • Manufacture, handling and use of benzene and substances containing benzene
  • Manufacturing process or operation in carbon-disulphide plants
  • Manufacture and manipulation of carcenogenic dye intermediates
  • Operation involving compressed gases
  • Highly flammable compressed gases
  • Operations in foundries
  • Manipulation of stone or any other material containing free silica

Appendix II

APPENDIX-II

Prohibition of Employment of the Child Labour under Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986

Employment of children below the age of 14 years is prohibited in the following processes carried out in a workshop where section 67 of the Factories Act, 1948 is not applicable

  • Bidi making
  • Carpet weaving
  • Cement-manufacture, including bagging of cement
  • Cloth printing, dyeing and weaving
  • Manufacturing of matches, explosives and fire works
  • Mica cutting and splitting
  • Shellac manufacture
  • Soap manufacture
  • Tanning
  • 10. Wool cleaning
  • Building and construction industry

Appendix III

APPENDIX-III

STATE CRISIS GROUP FOR NATIONAL CAPITAL TERRITORY OF DELHI
DUTIES OF VARIOUS AUTHORITIES DURING OPERATION OF AN OFF-SITE EMERGENCY PLAN FOR CHEMICAL DISASTER IN DELHI

General

Chemicals are a vital component of every day life and occupy an important position in our economy. There has been a rapid increase in recent times in their use in industry and house-hold. Many of these chemicals are toxic, highly reactive, explosive or flammable, or have combination of these characteristics. Due to these properties, they have potential to cause damage to human beings, other living creatures, plant, property and the general environment. It is therefore, necessary to take utmost care, while handling such chemicals at all stages of manufacture, processing , treatment, storage, transportation, use, or sale.

The potential for major accidents caused by the increasing production, storage and use of hazardous substances implies that a well defined systematic approach is required if major disasters are to be avoided. Although such an emergency may be caused by a number of factors e.g., plant failure, human error, earth quake, vehicle crash or sabotage, it will normally manifest itself in any of three basic forms viz. fire, explosion or toxic release.

Unlike natural disasters which can not be prevented the occurance of emergencies caused through chemical accidents can be minimized by proper planning and preparedness. Such a planning can be successful, only if those responsible for handling hazardous substances are aware about hazards and have a concern about it. This has to be supported by the local authorities, State Government and the Central Government.

Statutory Provisions

The Government of India has enacted legislations for safe handling, storage, use and transportation of hazardous and toxic chemicals. These rules are enforced by various agencies at Central and State Government levels. These agencies include, Controller of Explosives(Government of India), Central Pollution Control Board(Government of India), Delhi Pollution Control Committee, Factories Inspectorate, transport authorities and local health authorities.

Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 has been supplemented by the "Manufacture Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules,1989." These Rules, which have been enacted by the Central Government for managing chemical accidents, the "Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996 “compliment the Manufacture Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, 1989. It provides for a four tier crisis management system to be setup at Local, District, State and Central level. The rules were notified on 2nd August, 1996 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, under the Environment Protection Act, 1986.

These Rules provide for a statutory back-up for setting up of Crisis Groups at Local, District, State and Central Level which have Major Accident Hazard (MAH) installations. As per provisions of these Rules, the Government of India has constituted a Central Crisis Group, to deal with major chemical accidents and provide expert guidance for handling major chemical accidents in the country besides other functions mentioned in Office Order No. 3-15/91-HSMD dated 27.09.1996.

The Rules provide for keeping public informed on chemical accidents, prevention, preparedness and mitigation. These Rules will enable preparation of Off-site Emergency Plan, updation, and conduct of mock-drill. It will further enhance the implementation of Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, for providing relief to the victims

Institutional Framework

State Governments are required to constitute (i) State Crisis Group (SCG) (ii) District Crisis Groups (DCGs) and (iii) Local Crisis Groups (LCGs) to plan and respond to chemical accidents in the state. The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi vide Order dated 12.10.1998 of the Secretary(Revenue), Government of Delhi has constituted the State Crisis Group, nine District Crisis Groups and District Emergency Authorities.

"Central Crisis Group" is the apex body in the country to deal with and provide expert guidance for planning and handling of chemical accidents in the country. The Central Crisis Group shall continuously monitor the post -accident situation and suggest measures for prevention of reoccurrence of such accidents. It is required to meet once in six months and respond to queries from State Crisis Groups and District Crisis Groups .

The Chief Secretary of the Government of NCT of Delhi is the ex-officio chairperson of the " State Crisis Group", which is the apex body of the Government of Delhi, consisting of government officials, technical experts and industry representatives. This group is required to deliberate on planning, preparedness and to provide guidance for handling of chemical accidents, with a view to reducing the extent of loss of life, property and ill- health. The State Crisis Group will review all the Off-site

Emergency Plans for chemical disaster for its adequacy. This group is required to meet one in three months.

The Dy. Commissioner is ex-officio chair-person of the "District Crisis Group" and this Group is the apex body at the district level and is required to review all On-site emergency plans prepared by the occupiers of the Major Accident Hazards(MAH) installations for preparation of the District offsite Emergency plan which shall also include hazards due to transportation of hazardous chemicals by road and by pipelines. The District Crisis Group is required to meet once in a 45 days and conduct one full scale mock-drill of the District Offsite Emergency Plan, on a site every year.

Management of Emergencies due to hazardous chemicals

Fighting emergency arising out of a Chemical Accident calls for a concerted effort at Local, District, State and Central Level and utilisation of the available resources within shortest possible time. That is the key to success in overcoming the crisis.

Central Crisis Group - Constitution and functions

By an order number 3-15/91-HSMD dated 27th September, 1996, the Central Crisis Group (CCG) has been set up by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. This is an apex body comprising senior officials of the Government and technical experts.

The functions of the Group shall be as follows:-

  • To deal with major chemical accidents and provide expert guidance for handling major chemical accidents in the country.
  • Continuously monitor the post-accident situation arising out of a major chemical accident and suggest measures for prevention and to check recurrence of such accidents.
  • Conduct post-accident analysis of such major chemical accidents and evaluate responses.
  • Review District Off-site Emergency Plans with a view to examining its adequacy in accordance with, the Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 and suggest measures to reduce risks in the industrial pockets.
  • Review the progress reports submitted by the State Crisis Group.
  • Respond to queries addressed to it by the State Crisis Group and District Crisis Group .
  • Publish a State-wise list of experts and officials who are concerned with the handling of chemical accidents.
  • Render in the event of a chemical accident in a State, all financial and infrastructural help as may be necessary.

The CCG shall meet once in every six months in the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Paryavaran Bhawan, New Delhi. The Group may co-opt any person whose assistance or advice is considered useful in performing any of its functions.

The CCG deals only with major chemical accidents in the country where State Governments require marshalling of resources from other States as well as from the Central Government. The Chief Secretary, the District Magistrates of the concerned State/Districts should immediately inform the CCG about the accidents. It will meet as soon as possible after the accidents. It will meet as soon as possible after the receipt of information about the accident in carrying out its task, it shall consult experts, coordinate activities of the State Governments and the Central Ministries Departments/Agencies and keep the Cabinet Secretariat and appropriate authorities in the Government of India constantly informed about development.

State Crisis Group - constitution and functions

By an order No. F-36(401)/98/CA/Estt./2682-2704 dated 12.10.98 the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi has constituted State Crisis Group (SCG) which shall be the apex body to deal with the Major Chemical Accidents and provide guidance for handling such accidents in the National Capital Territory of Delhi.

The functions of the State Crisis Group shall be as follows :-

  • To review all district off-site emergency plans in the National Capital Territory of Delhi with a view to examine their adequacy in accordance with the Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules,1989 and forwards a report to the CCG once in three months;
  • To assist the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi in the planning, preparedness and mitigation of major chemical accidents at a site in the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
  • To assist the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi in managing chemical accidents at a site;
  • To continuously monitor the post accident situation arising out of a major chemical accident in the National Capital Territory of Delhi and forward a report to the Central Crisis Group.
  • To review the progress reports submitted by District Crisis Groups.
  • To respond to queries addressed to it by District Crisis Groups.
  • To publish a list of experts and officials in the National Capital Territory of Delhi who are concerned with the management of chemical accidents.

Composition of State Crisis Group

The composition of State Crisis Group is as follows:

1Chief Secretary, Govt. of NCT of DelhiChairperson
2Secretary (Labour), Govt. of NCT of DelhiMember Secretary
3Secretary (Environment), Govt. of NCT of DelhiMember
4Secretary (Home), Govt. of NCT of DelhiMember
5Secretary (Industries), Govt. of NCT of DelhiMember
6Secretary (Health), Govt. of NCT of DelhiMember
7Chairperson, Delhi Pollution Control Committee,Govt. of NCT of DelhiMember
8Commissioner (Transport) Govt. of NCT of DelhiMember
9Chief Inspector of Factories Govt. of NCT of DelhiMember
10Chief Fire Officer, Govt. of NCT of DelhiMember
11Commissioner of Police,DelhiMember
12One Representative of Oil Companies(to be appointed later on)Member
13Shri. D. AdhikariMember
14Smt. Indrani Chander ShekharanMember
15Dean (MAMC)Member
16Medical Superintedent (LNJP) DelhiMember

7. Duties of Various authorities during operation of an off-site emergency plan.

1.1 Deputy Commissioner of the District:-

The Deputy Commissioner of the district is the District Emergency Authority and is the nodal person for directing/co-ordinating management of an off-site emergency. He is also the Chair-person of the District Crisis Group, constituted under the Chemical Accidents(Emergency Planning, Preparedness & Response) Rules,1996. His/her functions are:-

  • To declare an emergency, through PCR
  • To withdraw an emergency and to declare the affected areas normal for any entry after evacuation.
  • To assume over all control and to provide directions and co-ordination of all resources in tackling emergency with minimum damage to life, environment & property.
  • To organise relief to the affected persons through PCRs, CATS Vans, NGOs using the available resources in consultation with Delhi Government.
  • To mobilise resources.
  • To organise medical assistance and relief through medical services, voluntary organisation and NGOs.
  • To clean up the affected area and rehabilitation of affected population, including evacuation.
  • To inform media for publication/dissemination of necessary information.
  • To inform the Chief Secretary being the Chair-person of the State Crisis Group about the decisions taken and progress in tackling emergency.

7.2 Action by Police Control Room:-

  • To inform about the disaster to:- (i) Delhi Fire Service (ii)Dy. Commissioner cum District Emergency Authority (iii) Disaster Management Centre of Delhi Police (iv) Local Police and other civic bodies i.e. MCD, NDMC (v) Delhi Jal Board (vi) Delhi Vidyut Board (vii) CATS (viii) Home Guards and (ix) Civil Defence through Police Wireless or any other mode of quick communication.
  • To direct PCR Vans of nearby areas to rush to spot without loss of time.
  • To inform all major hospitals promptly to keep ready and make preparation to receive and treat the injured persons.
  • Central Accident Trauma Services(CATS) to be directed to the spot for the removal of injured persons to the hospitals.
  • To inform the concerned Dy. Commissioner of Police or his representative to take charge of the situation and send the Situation Report to all concerned.
  • The district DCP to alert all hospitals in his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner of Police /SHO to depute one nodal officer to go to the hospitals of the area and to get the Medico Legal Cases(MLCs) prepared and other related information that may be helpful to identify victims.
  • To mobilise experts in consultation with District Emergency Authority, if required to assist for managing emergency and to position them at such a point so that they are easily accessible and their advice put into effective use.
  • To obtain necessary information on meteorology from the Fire Control Room to support the efforts of fire and other responders in the field for defining vulnerable areas.
  • Arrange for information to general public for self protection and emergency actions.
  • To provide information to near relatives of the affected persons of their whereabouts and condition of the victims.

7.3 Fire Services:-

  • To act as a primary Emergency Responder.
  • To take action, such as to provide Water-Curtain etc. to manage chemical accidents based on technical information and advice of Experts.
  • To provide and co-ordinate the personal protection of Respondents on or near the accident site.
  • To provide an on scene assessment of emergency status to Fire Control Room/ Police Control Room/District Emergency Authority.
  • To provide support and protection for technical experts, who may be required to carry out special operations to contain a chemical accident such as sealing a chemical leak, repairing a damaged pipeline.
  • To provide normal fire fighting/control and rescue action in line with the normal role.
  • To provide normal fire fighting/control and rescue action in line with the normal role.
  • Fire Control Room(FCR) to coordinate and communicate with concerned authorities.
  • Central Fire Officer to act as a Response Coordinator and give on-scene assessment to District Emergency Authority.
  • Local Fire Station to give on scene assessment to Central Fire Officer and District Emergency Authority.
  • To provide Emergency Response Action.

7.4 Local Police:-

  • To rush to the spot with ropes, search lights and other items for maintaining law and order.
  • To cordon off the area and dispersal of crowd.
  • To give near scene Assessment to Distt. Dy. Commissioner of Police and District Emergency Authority.
  • To provide support functions.
  • To control traffic and diversions
  • To ensure clear passage to Emergency Vehicles. Only the Emergency Vehicles and authorised responders are allowed to go right to the place of accident.
  • To help rescue services and volunteers in all possible manners.
  • To contact nearby hospitals for making emergency arrangements for
    receiving injured persons.
  • To provide adequate force, depending upon the seriousness of a situation which may be kept
    at the scene of occurrence for safeguarding property/belongings of the disaster victims, and
    also ensure security of affected and evacuated area.
  • To preserve the scene of occurrence and debris till examination by
    Experts
  • To advice Home-Guards and Civil Defence to remain alert for responding to call from Police.

7.5 Traffic Police:-

  • To coordinate and communicate with concerned functionaries.
  • To detail the traffic staff to reach the place of occurrence.
  • To give directions wherever necessary, to ensure free passage for Fire Brigade Ambulances, Police Vehicles and Vehicles of other responders.
  • DCP (Traffic) to coordinate with the DTC and other private transporters
    for additional vehicles.
  • To mobilize cranes at strategic points for towing away unwanted standing vehicles.
  • To give near Scene Assessment to DCP(Traffic) and District
    Emergency Authority.
  • To provide support function.

7.6 CATS.

  • To alert CATS Vans in the vicinity.
  • To direct CATS Vans to the points where evacuation is required.
  • To alert hospitals about arriving of casualties through CATS Control Room.
  • To give feed back to District Emergency Authority of medical status and advice further.
  • CATS Control Room to coordinate and communicate with concerned functionaries.
  • To give near Scene Assessment to its Control Room and District Emergency Authority.

7.7 Health services:-

  • To coordinate Ambulances and Response Units.
  • To inform and alert the hospitals, on arrival of casualties and provide support functions.
  • To carry/seek accommodation of medical resources.
  • To provide necessary advice and medical information to medical practitioners/professionals in the affected areas regarding First-aid and other medical action, if required .
  • To organize relief and to provide additional medical supplies and facilities through hospitals for augmenting resources available in area of medical treatment.
  • To liaison with Technical Experts of hospitals, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Poison Control Centre, etc. and to provide medical advice to all primary and secondary medical Responders, as required.
  • To evaluate medical status based on feed back from the field units .
  • To advice the District Emergency Authority on medical status and seek additional assistance, if required.

7.8. Civil Defence and Home Guards:-

  • Civil Defence personnel would assist the first line responder i.e. Delhi Fire Services to provide vital support, to bring the situation unhindered under Control.
  • During post emergency, Civil Defence personnel, may assist people in evacuation from affected areas to relief Camps . It would assist the concerned agencies for evacuation and de-contamination work.
  • The Civil-Defence and Home-guards would provide support role to various respond agencies and to remain alert/stand by for responding to any demand from District Emergency Authority.

7.9. Chief Secretary and divisional commissioner :-

The Chief Secretary, Government of Delhi being the Chair person of the State Crisis Group, based on the advice of the District Emergency Authority, would advise the Divisional Commissioner to direct the Dy. Commissioners cum District Emergency Authorities of the neighbouring districts of an impending emergency situation and direct them to declare emergency as it may deem fit in a given situation.

7.10. DTC:-

  • To provide support functions
  • To remain alert and to provide stand by reserve on demand from District Emergency Authority.

7.11 .MCD/NDMC:-

  • To provide support functions such as Schools, Community Centres, which have already been identified and can be used for Night Shelter for affected persons.
  • To identify tent house(s) so as to provide tents, beddings for the affected persons in the hour of crisis.
  • To remain alert/standby for any other assistance, which may be required by the District Emergency Authority.
  • To investigate accident in godowns, isolated storages, industries under the provisions of the MCD Act.

7.12. Railways:-

  • To provide support functions.
  • To Control Rail Traffic near the accident site.

7.13. NGOs.:-

  • To assist the District Emergency Authority in organizing relief and rehabilitation.

7.14 .Transport Department:-

To investigate chemical accident in a Truck/Lorry tanker covered under the provisions of the Motor Vehicle Act, in association with Delhi Traffic Police.

7.15 Experts:-

  • To provide technical advice and guidance to District Emergency Authority and State Government.
  • To render necessary assistance in investigation of cause of
    accident.

7.16. Delhi Pollution Control Committee :-

To investigate accidents in isolated storages, industries not covered under the Factories Act, 1948 , pipelines and hazardous substances under transportation by Road/Railway and suggest remedial measures.

7.17 .Chief Inspector of Factories, Labour Department:-

  • To investigate cause of accident in a factory licensed/coverable under the
  • provisions of the Factories Act, 1948, and suggest remedial measures.