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The State of Andhra Pradesh

THE STATE OF ANDHRA PRADESH

Andhra Pradesh was formed on 1st November, 1956 under the States Reorganisation Scheme. It is the fifth largest State with an area of 2,76,754 sq. km, accounting for 8.4 % of Indian territory. The State has the longest coastline (972 km) among all the States in India. Andhra Pradesh is endowed with a variety of physiographic features ranging from high hills, undulating plains to a coastal deltaic environment. Telugu the official language of Andhra Pradesh, is described by C.P. Brown as the " Italian of the East ". Andhra Pradesh has bountiful natural resources. Endowed with fertile land, water and conducive agro-climatic conditions, it is an agriculturally-prosperous state. AP is the largest producer of rice in India. It is also the leading producer of cash crops like Tobacco, Groundnut, Chillies, Turmeric, Oilseeds, Cotton, Sugar and Jute. It produces some of the finest varieties of mangoes, grapes, guavas, sapotas, papayas and bananas. Nearly 75% of its area is covered by the river basins of the Godavari, Krishna and Pennar, and their tributaries.

AP is a small State tucked away in the South West corner of India. It represents 8.37 % of the total area of India, but 7.42 % of total population of the country is in AP.

2.1. PHYSICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL STRUCTURE

The state has richly endowed with natural and competitive advantages with a geographical area of 274.40 lakh hectares and with a population of 7.57 Crores as per 2001 population census. It is the fifth largest state in the country accounting for 8.37 percent of the country's area and also fifth most populous state. The Net area sown is of the order of 105 lakh hectares constituting about 62 lakh hectares of forest area, accounting for about 23 % of the geographical area. The state has the second largest coastline of 974 Kms. The total surface water of entire river system of the state is estimated at 2764 TMC at 75 % dependability. The state has a spectrum of tourism locations ranging from historical and religious sides to natural attractions like beaches. The state is endowed with varied agro-climatic conditions for growing varieties of horticulture crops like fruits, vegetables, spices, tuber crops, plantation crops and floriculture.

2.1.1 Land area

Land area of Andhra Pradesh State is 274.40 lakh hectares which is about 9 % of the total area of Indian union which is 3060.46 lakh hectares. (1997-98). The land use pattern in the state is given in Table - 1.

TABLE – 1
Sr. NoLand UseLakh hectaresAP as % to All India
IGeographical area274.409.0
IIReporting area for land utilisation statistics
1.Forests61.999.0
2.Non-agricultural25.50--
3.Barren and uncultivable20.83--
4.Permanent pastures and other grazing land6.766.2
5.Area under miscellaneous tree crops and Groves not included in net Area Sown2.776.8
6.Culturable waste7.005.4
7.Fallow other than current fallow14.2116.3
8.Current fallow30.0725.1
9.Net area sown105.247.0
10.Total cropped Area127.566.3
11.Area swan more than once23.464.6
IIINet irrigated area42.387.2
IVGross irrigated area55.487.1

Source : Statistical Abstract of Andhra Pradesh 2003.

2.1.2 Coastal area

The state has the second largest coastline of 974 Kms. as a result fishing is one of the important economic activities in the State, Moreover 33,227 Sq. Kms. Of continental shelf, 4 lakh hectares of fresh water bodies & 1.50 lakh Hectares of brackish water area. The total surface water of entire river system of the state is estimated at 2764 TMC at 75 % dependability.

2.1.3 Administration

The State has a unicameral legislation having a legislative assembly of 294 member ( 259 Male & 35 Female). In parliament 42 members are representing Loksabha & 18 members are representing Rajya Sabha. The State is divided into 28 administrative districts. In addition, there are 110 municipalities, 9 municipal corporations, 21943 Gram Panchayats.

2.2 DEMOGRAPHIC CONTEXT

The total population of Andhra Pradesh is about 761.11 lakhs (as on 2001) which is about 7.42 % of the total population of the country. It has unique distinction of having a sex ratio ( 1000 male : 977 female ) more than one. It is one of the very few States in the country which has achieved record level of literacy with almost every person in the State able to read and write. Literacy Rate for males 71.4 % & females 51.5 % for the year 2001.

2.2.1 Population

The total population of the State is 761.11 lakhs with 384.90 lakhs males and 376.21 lakhs female. The State has sex ratio of 977 female per thousand males. The density of population is about 277 persons per sq. km. Almost 552.97 lakhs of the population is living in rural area and 208.14 lakhs in cities.

2.2.2 Language
 

The official language of the State is Telugu, although large number of people are conversant with English & Hindi due to high rate of literacy .

2.2.3 Birth rate

The State has combined birth rate during the last decade is 26 (birth per 1000 population)

2.2.4 Death rate (As on 2001)

The State has combined death rate of 277 (death per 1000 population)

2.2.5 Infant Mortality Rate

The State has a combined Infant Mortality Rate per 1000 live births only 65.

2.2.6 Literacy rate (2001-Provisional)

Andhra Pradesh is the well literate amongst all the States of India. The total literacy rate of the State is 61.6 % with male literacy rate of 71.4 % and female literacy rate of 51.5 %.(Excludes children in the age group 0-6 years.)

2.2.7 Working population ( 2001-Provisional)

The working population of the State is around 348.65 lakhs comprising of workers in agricultural & non agricultural including marginal workers as per census of India 2001. The total number of persons employed in agricultural sector is about 217.22 lakhs & Non agricultural sector is 131.43.

2.2.8 Per-capita income

The per capita income of Andhra Pradesh at current prices rose from Rs. 16,562 in 2000-01 to Rs. 17462 in 2001-02 registering a growth rate of 6.52 % while at constant (1993-94) Prices it has gone up from Rs. 10059 in 2000-01 to Rs. 10313 in 2001-02 registering a growth rate of 2.53 %.

Table - 2

Per capita income of Andhra pradesh & All India at current & constant (1980-81 &93-94 ) prices. Rs.

Sr. NoYearAndhra PradeshIndia
Current PricesGrowth Rate %Constant PricesGrowth Rate %Current PricesGrowth Rate %Constant PricesGrowth Rate %
11999-00150407.4894403.03156268.54100684.33
22000-01(Provi.)1656210.12100596.56167076.92103062.36
32001-02(Quick)176426.52103132.53179787.61107544.35

Source : Statistical Abstract of Andhra Pradesh 2003.

(The figures in columns 4,6,8 & 10 indicate percentage growth over previous year.)

2.3 ECONOMIC SCENARIO

The quick estimates of Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) at constant (1993-94) prices for the year 2001-02 work out to Rs. 88765 crores as against the provisional estimates of Rs. 85522 crores for the year 2000-01 registering a growth rate of 3.79 %. The primary sector has shown only a marginal growth rate of 0.18 %.The secondary and tertiary sectors registered growth rates of 3.90 % and 6.21 % respectively. In the tertiary sector Communications has shown impressive growth rate of 22.7 %.

TABLE – 3

Gross State Domestic Product Of Andhra Pradesh at Factor Cost by Industry of Origin at Current Prises from 1999-00 to 2001-02

Sr.NoIndustry1999 - 002000 – 012001 – 02
1.Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing (Primary Sector 1-2 )
1.1 a.Agriculture247072757026360
1.1 b.Live stock7651891410660
1.2Forestry160016751792
1.3Fishing318942245203
2.Mining & Quarrying362640784624
3.Manufacturing (Secondary Sector 3-5)
3.1Registered111791127611792
3.2Un-Registered561263406645
4.Electricity, Gas & Water Supply376939814204
5.Construction722682749472
6.Trade, Hotel & Restaurants
(Territory Sector)
168291828419190
7.Transports Storages & Communications (Tertiary Sector 7-9)
7.1Railways171918312031
7.2Transport by other means & storage495054406074
7.3Communications195621332713
8Financing, Insurance, Real Estate & Business Services
8.1Banking & insurance515853866049
8.2Real estate, Ownership of Dwellings & Business Services8052902510359
9Community, Social & Personal Services
9.1Public Administration623071887941
9.2Other services117831351814988
Gross State Domestic Product125236139137150096

Source : Statistical abstract of AP-2003.

2.3.1 Agriculture

Andhra Pradesh’s economy continues to be predominantly agrarian. Andhra pradesh being important producer of groundnut, Cotton, Chillies, sugarcane etc. and quite a number of Horticultural crops, such secondary linkages of agriculture assume added importance to it’s rural economy, more so now in the context of new Agricultural Policy initiatives taken-up by the government. During 2001-02 out of 274.40 lakh hectares of geographical area 38.4 % was under net area sown, 22.6 % under forest, 11 % under current fallow lands, 9.3 % under land put to non-agricultural uses & 7.6 % under barren & uncultivable land. The state has strong base in Horticulture & leading producer of varieties of fruits and vegetable>nd rank in Coriander, 3rd rank in Cashew, Sapota. Andhra Pradesh is a pioneering state in oil palm cultivation accounting for 55 % of india’s area under oil palm.

2.3.1.1 Population engaged in agriculture sector

As per Census of India 1991, in the State of Andhra Pradesh there are 2,84,45,482 main workers out of which 1,16,25,159 are engaged in agriculture. Together they represent 40.87 % of the total main working population of the State.

2.3.1.2 The area under cultivation:

In the year 2001-02, the actual agricultural land use pattern in Andhra Pradesh was as below:

Net area sown1,05,24,124 hectares
Area sown more than once23,46,697 hectares
Total cropped area1,27,56,359 hectares

(Net area sown including fish culture)

2.3.1.3 Area under irrigation:

During the year 2001-02 the net area irrigated in the State was 42,37,868 hectares, area irrigated more than once is 13,10,765 whereas the gross area irrigated was 55,48,633 hectares.

2.3.1.4 Major crops:

The major crops in the state of Andhra Pradesh are rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, Maize, Ragi, Small Millets, Pulses, Oil seeds, Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Onions, Chilies, Potatoes, turmeric, Sweet Potatoes, Bananas, Sun hemp etc.

2.3.2 MANUFACTURING SECTOR

The state with rich natural resources and an abundance of skilled & trained manpower offers entrepreneurs ample investment opportunities in various sectors of the economy. The sectors that are identified as growth engines include Information Technology, Biotechnology, Infrastructure Parks, Bulk Drugs and Pharmaceuticals, Tourism, Roads, Ports & Airports, Finance & Insurance & food Processing. The manufacturing sector is the largest economic sector in the state. It comprises of manufacturing units both registered and unregistered, Generation of electricity and gas, water supply and construction but does not include Mining & Quarrying Sectors. The index of industrial production at base level as 1993-94 = 100, was 129.8 in 1999-00, 135.1 in 2000-01 & 138.1 in 2001-02. Textile Products (including Wearing Apparel) and Basic Chemicals & Chemical Products (except products of Petroleum & Coal) has the largest share in industrial production followed by and wool , Silk & Man made fibers.

2.3.2.1. Contribution to State income:

Gross State domestic product of Andhra Pradesh at factor cost by Industry of origin at constant (93-94 base year) prices of the year 2001-02, the manufacturing sector contributed 12,303 Crores .

2.3.2.2. Employment:

As per Census of India 1991 issued by Directorate of Census Operations, Andhra Pradesh there are 9,55,507 workers engaged in manufacturing Processing, Servicing & Repairs sector. They represent 3.36 % of the total main working population of the state.

2.3.2.3 Contribution to export

Major items of Export in Andhra Pradesh are Tobacco, Coffee, Sunflower Extraction, Molasses, Palmyrah Fiber, Herbal Extraction, Leather Garments, Finished Leather, Rough & Polished Granite Blocks, Readymade Garments, Cotton Terry Towels, Cotton Yarn, Crochet Lace, Gems & jewelry, Imitation Jewelary, Druges & Pharmaceuticals, Ceiling Fans, Transformer Battaries, Computer Soft ware Etc. The exports from Andhra Pradesh for the year 2001-02 is of Rs. 11357 Crores. Details of items exported from the State of Andhra Pradesh during 1999 to 2002 along with their value in rupee Crores are given in Table – 4.

TABLE – 4
(Rs. Crores)
 
Sr. No.Item1999-002000-012001-02
1.Agricultural & Agro Based Products2575.362728.002891.00
2.Leather, Animal & Marine Products1231.401130.001145.00
3.Mineral & Mineral Product474.80498.00634.00
4.Handloom & Textiles395.71395.00406.00
5.Handicrafts41.0045.00191.00
6.Drugs & pharmaceuticals1251.001751.002105.00
7.Engineering items1231.811305.001045.00
8.Electrical & Electronics54.9260.5045.00
9.Software1059.001917.002895.00
Total8315.009829.5011357.00

Source :- Economy Survey 2002-03, Govt. of AP.

2.3.3. MINING SECTOR

Andhra Pradesh is the second largest storehouse of Mineral Resources in India. The mineral resources in the states are mainly Fuel Minerals and Metallic & Non Metallic Minerals. Fuel Mineral Includes Natural Gas (Utilised), Coal & Petroleum (Crude. A total 48 Minerals are located with vast explored resources of coal, Lime stone, Bauxite, Barytes, Mica, Beach Sand, Granite, Limestone Slab etc., and good resources of Oil & Natural Gas, Manganese, Asbestos, Iron ore, Ball Clay, Fire Clay, Gold, Diamonds, Graphite, Dolomite, Quartz, Tungstan, Steatite, Feldspar, Silica Sand etc.

2.3.3.1 Contribution to state income:

During the year 2001-02 the mineral revenue in the state was Rs. 610.27 Crores. The department has already achieved a revenue of Rs. 381.25 Crores upto the end of November,2002 with an over all percentage of achievement of 89.91 % (Coal sector 83.90 % and Non Coal Sector 93.75 %)

2.3.3.2 Population engaged:

As per the estimates provided by Directorate of Census Operations, Andhra Pradesh about 2,47,191 persons (0.87 %) are employed in mining & quarrying sector in the state.

2.3.3.3. Mining area production:

The most of the mining activities in the state are concentrated minly in Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, East & West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Chittoor, Cuddapah, Karnool, Mahabubnagar, Ranga Reddy, Medak, Adilabad, Karim Nagar, Warangal & Khammam Districts. Details about the production of major minerals like Coal, Natural Gas & Limestone are given in table- 5

TABLE – 5
Sr. No.YearCoal (Tonnes)Natural Gas (mcm)Lime Stone 000’ Tonnes
1.1999-200029555808134723374
2.2000-200130274237158021692
3.2001-200230811000177721707

Source: Coal : Source :- Economy Survey 2002-03, Govt. of AP.

2.3.3.4. Cargo handled:

The volume of cargo handled at the port of Kakinada during the year 1999-2000 was 38,04,271 tonnes whereas the volume of cargo handled at the port of Vizag. during the year 2001-02 was 8697000 tonnes.

2.3.4. POWER GENERATION

The erstwhile APSEB, which was formed in 1959, has been restructured into two functionally distinct corporations APGENCO & APTRANSCO with the effect from Feb., 1999. From 1959 to 2001 the installed capacity has been increased from 213 MW to 7980 MW, the consumer served have grown up from a 2.7 lakhs to 134.12 lakhs, the energy handled per annum from 686 MU to 44613 MU. The annual revenues are increased from mere Rs. 6.6 Crs. To Rs. 5,525 Crs. Apart from the phenomenal progress cited above, APSEB stood first among all other SEBs in capacity additions, highest in operating efficiency of thermal power stations, largest network expansion, first to introduce energy Audit and front runner in embracing. The present capacity in the State i.e. in 2002-03 (upto Oct.,2001) including central sector is 9850 MW. The power generation available for use during 2002-03 (upto October, 2001) was 26122 MU. To meet with the growing demand for power, the state is constructing projects in state sector as well as encouraging private sector to implement Gas based & other projects. In addition to Thermal, Hydel , Gas & Wind there are some other resource like share from Central Sector Projects, Capative Power Plants, Purchase from Other States & Private Sector, NTPC (ER) to meet with the day today requirement of state.

TABLE - 6

Power Development upto March,2001.

Sr. No.ItemYear 1959March, 2001
1.Peak Demand (MW)146.007143.00
2.Consumers served (lakh Nos.)2.70134.12
3.Annual Energy handled (MU)686.00446.13
4.Agricultural Services (Lakh Nos.)0.1819.39
5.Annual revenue (Rs. Crores)6.605525.00

Source :- Economy Survey 2002-03, Govt. of AP.

2.3.5 ROAD TRANSPORT SECTOR

Andhra Pradesh has a network of roads having a total length of 26762 kms. In 1956. In view of the high potential in agricultural activity there has been huge increase in road net work. The total road network is at 195109 Kms. as on 31/3/03. APSRTC with a fleet strength of 19084 as on 31/3/01 grew to 19438 as on 31/3/02.It is the largest SRT undertaking in the country entered in the Limca book as well the Guinness World Record as on 31/10/1999. As on 31/3/02 there were 212 depots, where the fleet is based for operations within the states. The Corporation operates over 57.17 lakh Kms. per day carrying 1.03 Crores of passengers daily. Growth of vehicle is as given in the table.- 7

TABLE - 7
Sr. No.Vehicle1999-20002000-012001-02
1.Stage Carriages331433143314
2.Goods Carriages213512234863258349
3.Contract Carriages206520656289
4.Motor Cabs161228182187224842
5.Others794059131593470
6.4- Wheelers240911274639303378
7.2 – Wheelers295862932544913485308
8.Stage Carriages (RTC)190211918419464

Source :- Economy Survey 2002-03, Govt. of AP.

2.3.5.1 Contribution to State Income :

Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation earned Rs.2,57,565 lakhs as earnings during the year 2001-02, while it carried 37,447 lakhs passengers.

2.3.5.2 Road Lengths
TABLE - 8
Length of Roads in 2001 – 02
CategoryRoad Length (Kms)
National Highways4104
State Roads8,201
Major District Roads34,605
Other District Roads18,233
Rural Roads1,03,814
Local Bodies Roads17,752
Project Roads8,400
Total1,95,109

Source :- Economy Survey 2002-03, Govt. of AP.

2.3.5.3 Employment

Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is one of the largest employer in the state having about 1,26,418 employees on its roles during the year 2001-02.

2.3.5.4 Road Accidents

Number of road accidents in the year 2001 are 30,031. Out of which 8,428 fatalities are there in 7,584 number of accidents. In 6283 number of accidents 9,854 persons got grievious injuries whereas during 15,166 number of accidents 27,617 persons sustained minor injuries.. There are 998 cases of nearmiss Maximum number of accidents were due to trucks, followed by heavy vehicles and cars/jeep/taxies.

2.3.6 AIR TRANSPORT SECTOR

In the State of Andhra Pradesh , Hyderabad is one of the (12 model Airport) important domestic airport in the country. International air traffic has increased with the introduction of Malaysian & Emirate Airways. A cold Storage facility for perishable cargo has been provided. Modifications are being carried out in the Rajiv Gandhi terminal to facilitate handling of higher capacity of international traffic.

2.3.7 FISHING SECTOR

THE state has 974 Kms. Length of coastline, 33,227 Sq. Kms. Of continental shelf, 4 lakh hectors of fresh water bodies & 1.50 lakh Hectares of brackish water area. The fish production from 1999-2000 to 2001-2002 are as per table given below :

TABLE – 9

Fish Production (Lakh Tonns)

YearMarineInland
FishShrimpFishFW Prawn
1999-20001.420.243.450.35
2000-20011.570.253.650.42
2001-20021.800.244.270.44

Fisheries is one of the growth engines under vision 2020. The state ranks second in inland fisheries, first in brackish water shrimp and fresh water prawn (scampi) and fifth in marine fish production. To promote aqua exports infrastructure development including for improvement of hygiene at the fish landing centers at Vizag, Kakinada & Nizampatnam and setting up antibiotic residue resting laboratories have been taken up at accost of Rs. 3 Crores.

2.3.7.1 Contribution to State Income

It is a potential income generating sector. The total fish & Prawn production increased from 5.89 lakh tones during the year 2000-01 to 6.75 lakh tones during the year 2001-02.

2.3.7.2 Fish Processing

Andhra Pradesh leads other marine states of India in shrimp production from the sea. The Government of Andhra Pradesh is giving a special thrust on the culture and capture of fresh water prawn (Scampi) and increase the area under culture from 12,000 hectares to 25000 hectares and utilizing the existing irrigation water bodies also. To promote aqua exports infrastructure development including for improvement of hygiene at the fishing landing centers at Vizag, Kakinada and Nizampatanam and setting up antibiotic residue resting laboratories have been taken up at a cost of Rs. 3 Crores.

About the Project

ABOUT THE PROJECT

1.1 Introduction

Management of Occupational Safety and Health has become a very vital issue because of the technological advancements and deployment of newer technology, complex and hazardous processes. The threat of occupational hazards, particularly in the chemical and petrochemical industries is of great concern, specially for the people who are responsible for policy planning and designing of instruments and other interventions for protecting the large workforce in the country. The major problem faced by the policy planners is the non-availability of timely information on vital areas such as occupational injuries and diseases, infrastructure available at the unit and the state level for taking up awareness, promotional and developmental programs. Directorate General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes is relied upon by Central and State Governments for a variety of information pertaining to occupational safety and health. At present the facilities available in our country do not allow as quick a response as is often needed. Further, substantial increase in the number of registered factories, introduction of sophisticated modern technology and complexities in plant and equipment design have brought many constraints in the area of Occupational Safety and Health policy making at national level. For planning of effective strategy on control of accidents and ill-health, timely and reliable information is vital.

The Ministry of Labour has been deeply concerned over the non-availability of occupational safety and health information for policy planning. To overcome this deficiency the scheme “Setting up of a Data Bank-cum-Information Centre” at Central Labour Institute was proposed during the 7th Five Year Plan. The scheme was approved by the Planning Commission in the 7th Plan.

The scheme was continued in the modified form during the 8th Plan period with the title “Development of Safety & Health Information System and Data Bank”. During this period information systems were installed at the Central Labour Institute and the 3 Regional Labour Institutes. Data bases in the area of Major Accident Hazard Installations, hazardous chemicals, national specialist, ship inspection, Parliament question, FAS proforma, Factories Act Amendment, Awards, etc. were developed. Information on Material Safety Data Sheets were disseminated to the industries and agencies related to occupational safety and health.

During the 9th Plan period DGFASLI web site was launched. Abstracts of safety and health technical reports of DGFASLI were prepared, a national directory of organization profile was compiled, the statutes related to safety and health were computerized and ported on the website. Publication of INDOSHNEWS a quarterly news bulletin of this organization was started and till date 14 issues have been published, work related to translation of International Chemical Safety Cards in three Indian languages—Hindi, Tamil and Bangla was initiated with a view to make the cards available on the website.

1.2 The Project

The present Plan Scheme “Development of Safety & Health Information System and Data Bank” being operated during the 10th Plan envisages creation of the National Inventory on Occupational Safety and Health Information to widen the information base and making available the information at one source to help in the activities specially those related to policy planning directed at improving the occupational safety and health of the workers.

The national inventory besides having OSH information state-wise collected through respective State Inspectorate will also include the following:

  • Abstracts of OS&H national literature
  • OS &H literature acquired from abroad
  • Factory Advice Service databases
  • Dock Safety related databases
  • Details of MAH installations, hazardous chemicals, national specialists, etc.
  • Scanner based data base on accident events, etc.
1.3 The Objectives of the Project

To develop all the five Labour Institutes under the DGFASLI Organisation as the action resource centers for collection, processing and dissemination of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Information with a view to create an Inventory on OSH Information for the prevention of Occupational Injuries and health problems in the country

1.4 The Scope of the Project

The proposed scheme will have the following components:

  • Development of Occupational Safety and Health national inventory and connectivity between State Factory Inspectorate and DGFASLI. The inventory will cover information pertaining to manufacturing activities covered under the Factories Act 1948, Occupational injuries and diseases in the sector, management of OSH at unit and state level.
  • Creation of occupational safety and health information action resource centers at five labour Institutes by providing them with computer hardware and software facilities and also by involving other organizations specialized in the field of safety, health and environment to participate in the project.
  • Human Resource Development of personnel attached to action resource centers.
  • Dissemination of information through electronic media using the latest information technology for creating public awareness about safety, health and environment.
  • Dissemination of information through conventional media to reach the large workforce including decision makers not having access to the information technology. This will include publication of newsletter, technical reports, safety cards etc.
  • Creation of databases containing information on handling of containers and dangerous goods, hazardous installations, inland container depots, minor and intermediate ports, competent persons, panel of doctors in ports, etc. Dock Safety division will participate by way of providing raw data collected from the field.
  • Developing infrastructure for occupational safety and health e-self learning centers at all action resource centre in the labour institutes.
  • Effective implementation of the 12 point Minimum Agenda for E-Governance. This includes providing computers upto the level of Section Officers, setting up of LAN, training of all staff on computers, procure and use office automation software, website updation and maintenance, developing software packages for delivery of services and information, etc.
  • As information technology is developing very fast, the latest hardware and software available during the plan period will be acquired.
1.5 The Methodology

In order to create a national inventory of OSH information, the following activities are envisaged to be carried out in each State:

  • Identification of support information
  • Location of sources of information
  • Creation of suitable mechanism for information collection
  • Selection and use of appropriate technology for processing and storage of information.
  • Development of procedures for user friendly dissemination of information.
  • Development of suitable
1.6 The Project Team

The various activities under the Project are being carried out by the five Labour Institutes as nodal agencies. The Regional Labour Institute, Chennai, is the nodal agency for the four Southern States of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Pondicherry.

The State of Tamilnadu and Andhra pradesh was taken up for the collection of data during the 10th Plan period 2002-03 and 2003-04 respectively. The States of Pondicherry, Karnataka will be taken up for detailed study in the subsequent years.

A Task Force comprising of the following officers and staff of Regional Labour Institute, Chennai and the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories, Chennai, was constituted for carrying out the above mentioned activities:

Regional Labour Institute, Chennai

  • Shri G.M.E.K. Raj, Director-in-Charge
  • Shri P. Nagarajan, Deputy Director (Safety) - Co-ordinator
  • Shri B.S. Chavan, Addl. Asst. Director (Safety)
  • Shri B. Chenchal Rao, Technical Asst.
  • Smt. Kanthimathi Natarajan, Steno.

Directorate of Factories, Govt.of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad

  • Shri R. Koteswara Rao, Jt. C.I.F. (Hqs) in the Directorate
  • Shri N. Surender, Joint C.I.F. (Hqs) in the Directorate
  • Shri A.S.R. Prasad, Deputy C.I.F., Hyderabad (Twin Cities)
  • Shri V. Suryanarayana, Sr. Lab. Asst.
  • Shri K. B. S. Prasad, Asst. Manager, Hyderabad Allwyn Ltd.
1.7 Activities under the Project

The present project aims at studying the existing system of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases at unit, district and state level in the State of Andhra Pradesh, identifying the areas for improving and establishing the system, which is in line with the systems existing in other countries.

The activities of the project have been divided in the following categories:

  • Background information about the state of Andhra Pradesh - Deals with the demographic and geographic characteristics of the state of Andhra Pradesh, population in different districts and major occupations of the people.
  • Economic activities - Deals with the various aspects of economic sectors in the state, their value of production, employment generated and contribution to the GDP.
  • Activities in manufacturing sector - Deals with the different activities carried out in the manufacturing sector as per the National Industrial Code, value of production, employment generation, etc.
  • Occupational injuries and diseases - Deals with the analysis of the occupational injuries – fatal and non-fatal and cases of occupational diseases in the manufacturing sector.
  • Management of occupational safety and health - Deals with the infrastructure and resources available at the unit level and at the state level for managing the crucial issue of occupational safety and health.
  • Resources available and needed for the management of occupational safety and health -

Based on the analysis of occupational injuries and diseases and the capabilities available, an attempt is made to assess the resources required for the better management of occupational safety and health in the State of Andhra Pradesh.

Manufacturing sector

MANUFACTURING SECTOR

3.1. MAJOR INDUSTRIES

As per index of industrial production for 1996-97, the following industries contributed to most of the value of industrial production in the state as given in Table - 10.

TABLE - 10
Ind.CodeDescription1999-002000-012001-02
20-21Food Products115.5121.6113.3
22Beverages, Tobacco & related products96.695.9107.9
23Cotton Textile124.2126.4138.9
24Wool, Silk & Man made Fiber Textile174.5182.5178.9
25Jute & Other Vegetable>97.496.393.5
26Textile product(including wearing Apparel )206.8237.7280.8
27Woo & wood Products, furniture & Fixtures115.9130.4105.6
28Paper and paper products, Printing, publishing and allied industries150.4163.6171.3
29Leather & Fur products161.3128.282.3
30Basic Chemical & Chemical Products (except products of Petroleum & Coal Products)164.7171.6177.9
31Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum & Coal Products114.8142.8152.7
32Non-metallic Mineral Products119.0105.5109.1
33Basic Metal and Alloy Industries148.5138.1139.3
34Metal Products and Parts, except Machinery and equipment88.487.064.3
35-36Machinery & other equipment other than Transport Equipment128.5150.0163.2
37Transport Equipment and parts145.3157.8153.6
38Other Manufacturing Industries152.3206.1168.3
 
1Mining and Quarrying117.2120.1122.2
2-3Manufacturing129.8135.1138.1
4Electricity159.8156.9151.3
General Index132.5136.7138.8

(Source : Statistical Abstract of AP -2003)

In the small scale sector, the contribution to the value of industrial production by majority of industries as on 31.3.2001 was as given in Table - 11.

TABLE – 11

Working Of Factories Registered Under Sections 2 m (i) & 2 m (ii) 1999-00 (Rs. In Lakhs)

Number of DistrictWages to the Workers(Rs.)Total emolument(Rs.)Total Input(Rs.)Total Output(Rs.)Depreciation (Rs.)Net Value Added(Rs.)
232,14,3013,37,19547,32,07058,49,3982,06,2879,11,037

(Source : Directorate Of economics & Statistics, AP)

3.2 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL CENTERS

Guntur district is having largest number of factories. The distribution of working factories in major districts during 1999-2000 is as given below;

TABLE – 12

Working Factories & Employment

Sr. No.DistrictNos. of FactoriesWorkersEmployees
1Visakhapatnam42638,75551,029
2.East Godavari90126,69033,556
3.West Godavari66030,12135,120
4.Krishna63723,92031,181
5.Guntur1,71444,30156,051
6.Prakasam54012,32915,131
7.Chittoor56919,33724,196
8.Anantapur5445,6557,245
9.Kurnool82113,21617,456
10.Ranga Reddy1,52358,88889,477
11.Hyderabad64417,39124,087
12.Medak5761,10,5471,30,325
13.Warangal41329,11230,784
14.Karimnagar3691,02,3311,05,164
15.Nizamabad3371,54,9961,58,264

(Source : Directorate Of economics & Statistics, AP)

3.3 INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES, STRIKES, LOCKOUTS AND MANDAYS LOST

Industrial disputes in the state are inclining over the years. In the year 1999-00, total disputes (strikes) handled increased to 14 in 2001 from 9 in 1999. Only 16 disputes led to lockouts in 2002 which showed a decrease from 26 in the year 1999. The total man-days lost due to strikes and lockouts inclined to 9,707 millions during 2001 from 96,668 in 1999. Please see table>

TABLE – 13
Sr. No.YearStrikesLock-outsNo. of Man days lostNo. of Workers involved
1.19999269,66818,35,592
2.2000101911,88830,17,604
3.200114169,70716,20,977

(Source : Statistical Abstract of AP- 2003)

Manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948

REGISTERED FACTORIES

As on 31.12.2002 there were 36,290 factories on the register, under section 2m(i) & 2m(ii) & 85 (i).

TABLE - 14
Catego-ry of Factor-iesNos. of register-ed factoriesNos. of working factori-esNos. of factories submit-ing returnsNos. of factories not submitting returnsAvg. Nos. of workers employ-ed in the factories submit-ing returnsEstimated Avg. daily employment in the factories not submitting returnsTotal Avg. daily no. of workers employed in the factories submitting and not submitting returns (6+7)
12345678
2m (i)2032217396671410682358083287023645106
2m (ii)69346913533478001323321033
85 (i)152751288234999383194603817757637
TOTAL36290307471034820399385343338433723776

4.1.1 Working Factories:

In the State of Andhra Pradesh once a factory is registered it is considered as working factory till its name is removed from the list of registered factories. Therefore, it is estimated that as on 31/12/2002 there are 30,747 working factories in the State. Under the provisions of the Central Act and under Special notifications issued by the State Government as on 31/12/2002, only 10,348 factories submitted annual return. There are 20,399 number of factories which do not submit annual returns.

Manufacturing of food products & Beverages is the single largest industry as per the annual returns received from various factories in the State. There are 4555 (44.01 %) such factories. Manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product factories (1418 nos.) constitute about 13.70 %, whereas Manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product (1092 nos.) constitute 10.56 % of the factories submitting returns. Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products factories (412 nos.) constitute 3.98 % of the factories submitting returns. The break-up of factories submitting return for the year 2002 in some of the major industrial sectors is given in Table - 15.

TABLE – 15
NIC Div.Type of IndustryNos. of Factories submitting returnPercentage %
Public SectorPrivate SectorTotal
1Agriculture, Hunting & Forestry33483513.40
14Other Mining and Quarrying-2342342.26
15Manufacturing of food products & Beverages764479455544.01
16Manufacturing of Tobacco Product-80800.77
17Manufacture of Textile31911941.87
18Manufacture of Wearing Apparels117180.17
19Tanning and Dressing of Leather-48480.46
20Manufacturing of Wood & Wood Product-1092109210.56
21Manufacturing of Paper & Paper Product-1311311.27
22Publishing Printing & Reproduction of Recorded Media41021061.03
23Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum Products & Nuclear Fuel1433470.46
24Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products34094123.98
25Manufacture of Rubber & Plastic Products32442472.39
26Manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product31415141813.70
27Manufacture of Basic Metal32072102.03
28Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, Except Machinery and Equipment23603623.50
29Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C121751871.80
31Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and Apparatus81201281.24
32Manufacture of Radio, Television and Communication Equipment and Apparatus-44440.42
33Manufacture of Medical Precision and Optical Instruments, Watches and Clocks111120.14
34Manufacture of Motor Vehicles, Trailers and Semi-Trailers775820.80
35Manufacture of other Transport Equipment68140.14
36Manufacture of Furniture; Manufacturing N.E.C.246480.47
37Recycling-770.06
40Electricity, Gas, Steam And Hot Water Supply2138590.58
41Collection, Purification and Distribution of Water7180.07
45Construction-220.01
50Sale, Maintenance and Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel105992041.97
51Wholesale Trade and Commission Trade, Except of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles.2-20.02
52Retail Trade, except of Motor Vehicles and motor Cycles-110.01
60Land Transport ; Transport via Pipelines2-20.01
63Supporting & Auxiliary Transport Activities224260.25
72Computer and Related Activities-110.01
90Sewage and Refuse Disposal, Sanitation and Similar Activities1-10.01
92Recreational, Cultural and Sporting Activities-550.04
93Other Service Activities-10100.09
Total Nos. of Factories submitting returns29110,05710,348100

4.1.2 Employment in registered factories:

As on 31/12/2002, employment details in the manufacturing sector comprising of registered as well as unregistered factories are already given as above. There are 36,290 number of factories on the register at the end of the period (31/12/02). Amongst 30,747 working factories only 10,348 factories submitted complete annual returns for the year 2002 and 20,399 number of factories have not submitted annual returns. Therefore, the details of employment, man-days worked etc., are pertaining to these factories only.

TABLE - 16
Type of SectorTotal Working FactoriesTotal Work-ing Factor-ies Submit. ReturnsFactories Not Submitted ReturnsTotal No. of Man-daysTotal No. of Man-hoursAverage Daily No. of workers employ-ed
   No. Of Working Factor-iesEstimated Daily Worker   
Public622291331556352352791818872066373314
Private30125100572006828279881539826653674062312029
Total307471034820399338433105067744842394725385343

Manufacture of food product is employing largest number of persons (110990) contributes 6.25 % to the total workforce comprises 24119 female workers. Manufacture of Textile product with 42061 persons employed contributes 0.96 % to the total workforce, comprising of 3732 female workers. Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products with 30716 persons employed contributes 0.64 % to the total workforce, comprises of 2469 female workers. Non-metallic mineral products with 28046 persons employed contributes 0.70 % to the total workforce, comprising of 2726 female workers. The break-up of employment for the year 2002 in major industrial sectors is given in Table - 17.

TABLE – 17

Employment in Industrial Sectors

NIC Div.Type of IndustryAverage daily number of persons employed
MaleFemaleTotal
1Agriculture, Hunting & Forestry9020613715155
14Other Mining and Quarrying24655373002
15Manufacturing of food products & Beverages8687124119110990
16Manufacturing of Tobacco Product461141608771
17Manufacture of Textile3829373242061
18Manufacture of Wearing Apparel; Dressing & Dyeing of Fur456350806
19Tanning and Dressing of Leather11253261451
20Manufacturing of Wood & Wood Product5503545557
21Manufacturing of Paper & Paper Product1271364213355
22Publishing Printing & Reproduction of Recorded Media50882555343
23Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum Products & Nuclear Fuel1905551960
24Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products28247246930716
25Manufacture of Rubber & Plastic Products1010464010744
26Manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product25320272628046
27Manufacture of Basic Metal2534295426296
28Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, Except Machinery and Equipment1009153410625
29Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C1727382918102
31Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and Apparatus76166378253
32Manufacture of Radio, Television and Communication Equipment and Apparatus17943402134
33Manufacture of Medical Precision and Optical Instruments, Watches and Clocks59962661
34Manufacture of Motor Vehicles, Trailers and Semi-Trailers3539503589
35Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment1091226611178
36Manufacture of Furniture; Manufacturing N.E.C.21415722713
37Recycling15022172
40Electricity, Gas, Steam And Hot Water Supply9218787317091
41Collection, Purification and Distribution of Water1887195
45Construction228-228
50Sale, Maintenance and Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel1155016911719
51Wholesale Trade and Commission Trade, Except of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles60-60
52Retail Trade, except of Motor Vehicles and motor Cycles8324107
60Land Transport ; Transport via Pipelines142-142
63Supporting & Auxiliary Transport Activities1239971336
72Computer and Related Activities12-12
90Sewage and Refuse Disposal, Sanitation and Similar Activities10-10
92Recreational, Cultural and Sporting Activities23722259
93Other Service Activities167177344
Total33415851235385343

4.1.3 Mandays worked:

In the State of Andhra Pradesh total man-days worked in the factories submitting returns during 2002 were 10,50,67,744. The industry-wise break-up about the man-days worked in major manufacturing activities in the state are given in Table - 18.

TABLE – 18

Industry-wise Man-days worked

NIC Div.Type of IndustryTotal No. of Man-days WorkedPercentage %
1Agriculture, Hunting & Forestry20088961.91
14Other Mining and Quarrying5263250.50
15Manufacturing of food products & Beverages2588134124.64
16Manufacturing of Tobacco Product16911991.60
17Manufacture of Textile1234753011.76
18Manufacture of Wearing Apparel; Dressing & Dyeing of Fur1849260.18
19Tanning and Dressing Of Leather3036530.29
20Manufacturing of Wood & Wood Product14189191.36
21Manufacturing of Paper & Paper Product45635994.35
22Publishing Printing & Reproduction of Recorded Media16164441.54
23Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum Prod. & Nuclear Fuel6103540.59
24Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products97240999.26
25Manufacture of Rubber & Plastic Products32019713.06
26Manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product78118457.44
27Manufacture of Basic Metal86387098.22
28Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, Except Machinery and Equipment31220172.98
29Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C53955585.13
31Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and Apparatus25078722.38
32Manufacture Of Radio, Television and Communication Equipment and Apparatus6362000.60
33Manufacture of Medical, Precision and Optical Instruments, Watch and Clock1982880.18
34Manufacture of Motor Vehicles, Trailers and Semi-Trailers10621661.01
35Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment32839063.12
36Manufacture of Furniture; Manufacturing Not Elsewhere Classified7938200.75
37Recycling497980.04
40Electricity, Gas, Steam And Hot Water Supply28474672.71
41Collection, Purification and Distribution of Water687750.06
45Construction688730.06
50Sale, Maintenance and Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel38464523.66
51Wholesale Trade and Commission Trade, Except of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles216000.02
52Retail Trade, except of Motor Vehicles and motor Cycles321000.03
60Land Transport ; Transport via Pipelines403280.03
63Supporting & Auxiliary Transport Activities3697760.35
72Computer and Related Activities36000.01
90Sewage and Refuse Disposal, Sanitation and Similar Activities36500.01
92Recreational, Cultural and Sporting Activities777000.07
93Other Service Activities1079880.10
TOTAL105067744100
Total Man-days Worked :

Private : 81539826

Public : 23527918

Total : 105067744

Manufacture of food products and Beverages accounts for highest 24.64 % of the total mandays worked in the factories submitting returns. Manufacture of Textiles products accounts for about 11.76 % of the man-days worked. Manufacture of basic chemicals and chemical products accounts for about 9.26 % of the mandays worked. Manufacture of Basic Metals contributed almost 8.22 % of the mandays worked followed by Manufacture of other Non – Metallic Mineral products (7.44 %)

4.1.4 Manhours worked:

In number of factories there are more than one shift working. As a result total manhours worked in the factories submitting returns during 2002 were 94,02,55,556. In which Contribution by men is 83,83,34,751 & by women is 10,19,20,805.

Manufacture of food products and beverages accounts for the highest 27.20 % of the total manhours worked. Here about 22.15 % of those Man-hours are contributed by Men and 5.05 % by female workers. Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products was the second largest 10.23 % industry contributing to total manhours worked in factories submitting returns. There was substantial 0.74 % contribution to the manhours from female workers in this industry. Manufacture of Basic Metal accounted 9.07 % followed by manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product (8.19 %) of the total manhours. The major industry-wise break-up about the manhours worked (in millions) sex-wise in major manufacturing activities in the state are given in Table - 19. The sector wise manhours worked is given in Table - 20.

TABLE – 19

Manhours worked Sex-wise

NIC Div.Type of IndustryMan-hours Worked
MaleFemaleTotal
1Agriculture, Hunting & Forestry10140931597327116114202
14Other Mining and Quarrying35309846796164210600
15Manufacturing of food products & Beverages16887476738523515207398282
16Manufacturing of Tobacco Product9245848435592813601776
17Manufacture of Textile9815212952782219343034
18Manufacture of Wearing Apparel; Dressing & Dyeing of Fur8047526746561479408
19Tanning and Dressing Of Leather21825595391922721751
20Manufacturing of Wood & Wood Product1123378711156811345355
21Manufacturing of Paper & Paper Product34998248151053636508784
22Publishing Printing & Reproduction of Recorded Media1231170561209812923803
23Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum Products & Nuclear Fuel47651711378164902987
24Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products7312269570556778017836
25Manufacture of Rubber & Plastic Products24220667146579225686459
26Manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product57465517497303362438550
27Manufacture of Basic Metal66851794231893669170730
28Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, Except Machinery and Equipment23508348125795224766300
29Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C41162596201661043179206
31Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and Apparatus18550741153934420090085
32Manufacture Of Radio, Television and Communication Equipment and Apparatus43286247609765089600
33Manufacture of Medical, Precision and Optical Instruments, Watch and Clock14377681485261586304
34Manufacture of Motor Vehicles, Trailers and Semi-Trailers83782641190648497328
35Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment2563567464394426274618
36Manufacture of Furniture; Manufacturing Not Elsewhere Classified522475013272486551998
37Recycling34795250432398384
40Electricity, Gas, Steam And Hot Water Supply2200647277460822781080
41Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment53276017440550200
45Construction565539-565539
50Sale, Maintenance and Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel2998659191037830896969
51Whole sale Trade and Commission Trade, Except of Motor Vehicles & Motorcycles172800-172800
52Retail Trade, except of Motor Vehicles and motor Cycles19920057600256800
60Land Transport; Transport via Pipelines322624-322624
63Supporting and Auxiliary Transport Activities; Activities of Travel Agencies27480242101842958208
72Computer and Related Activities28800-28800
90Sewage and Refuse Disposal, Sanitation and Similar Activities29200-29200
92Recreational, Cultural and Sporting Activities56880052800621600
93Other Service Activities402016461888863904
TOTAL67489575487449350762345104
TABLE – 20

Man-hours worked Sector-wise and Sex-wise

SectorMan-hours Worked
MenWomenTotal
Public Sector1822381696482494188720663
Private Sector57270720680966856653674062
Grand Total75494537587449350842394725
4.2 HAZARDOUS UNITS

As per the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948, any unit carrying on manufacturing process which has potential to cause material impairment to the health of the workers or pollution of the general environment, is termed as a unit carrying on hazardous process. Similarly, State Government is also empowered to declare any operation or process as dangerous, if in its opinion the process or operation has a potential to cause a serious bodily injury, poisoning or diseases to persons exposed to such operation or processes. The details of Hazardous units are given in Table - 21.

TABLE - 21

Factories Carrying On Processes Or Operations Declared Dangerous Under Section 87 And Workers Employed In Such Operations (For The Year Ending 31/12/02)

NIC Div.Factory In which Dangerous Process / Operations are involvedNo. of working factoriesAverage daily No. of workers employed in the entire factoryAverage daily No. of workers employed in danger- ous process / operation
01Agriculture, Hunting and related service activities11591137
14Other Mining and Quarrying29933
15Manufacture of food products and Beverages194196496076
16Manufacture of Tobacco product24040
17Manufacture of Textile366002581
19Tanning and Dressing of Leather; Manufacture of luggage, Hand Bags etc.34876309
21Manufacture of Paper and Paper products59869672
22Publishing Printing and Reproduction of Record Media15029
23Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum products and Nuclear fuel271620698
24Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products363340239301
25Manufacture of Rubber and Plastic Product293681429
26Manufacture of Other Non-metallic Mineral Products15290431985
27Manufacture of Basic Metals140238562499
28Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, except Machinery and Equipment841450587
29Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C.44898285
31Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and apparatus N.E.C.433655
33Manufacture of Medical Precision and Optical Instruments, Watches and Clocks.142713
34Manufacture of Motor vehicles, Trailers and Semi trailers662172
35Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment11992409
35Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment11992409
36Manufacture of Furniture manufacturing N.E.C.81127
40Electricity, Gas, Steam and Hot Water Supply539699
41Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment214012
50Sale, Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel.2347
60Land Transport, Transport Via Pipe lines314219
63Supporting and Auxiliary , Transport activities, Activities of travel agencies56013
4.3 MAJOR ACCIDENT HAZARDS (MAH) UNITS

The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 framed under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 provides for classification / categorization of factories as hazardous installations according to level of hazards involved. There are three such categories in which a factory can be classified into, to comply with the different sets of standards/provisions as contained therein. The middle or upper tier requirements are applicable to the factories handling specified chemicals beyond certain threshold limits/quantities. These are generally referred to as MAH installation/MAH units.

Number of units:

There are total 120 MAH units in the State. The industry-wise break-up is given in Table- 22.

TABLE – 22

Major Accident Hazardous Units

SR. NO.TYPE OF INDUSTRYNO. OF UNITS
1Steel and Engineering Industries6
2Power Generation4
3Pulp and Paper5
4Fertilisers4
5Oil Refineries (Petroleum)2
6Petro Chemicals1
7Chloro-Alkali Industries3
8Bulk Drugs and Chemical Industries25
9Distilleries and Breweries3
10Pesticides and Insecticides18
11Man-made Fibers1
12Glass and Ceramic including Glass Fiber Industry6
13Explosives Manufacturing Units5
14Petroleum Bulk Storages18
15LPGF Storages an d Bottling Plant18
16Ammonia Storage Plant1
TOTAL120
Employment :

The details of employment in 120 MAH units for the year 2002 are given in Table - 23.

TABLE – 23
SR. NO.TYPE OF INDUSTRYNO. OF UNITSNO. OF PERSONS EMPLOYED
MALEFEMALETOTAL
1Steel and Engineering Industries61924481720061
2Power Generation42466122478
3Pulp and Paper595272029729
4Fertilisers44676374713
5Oil Refineries (Petroleum)22900-2900
6Petro Chemicals13991400
7Chloro-Alkali Industries31418-1418
8Bulk Drugs and Chemical Industries2528441863030
9Distilleries and Breweries39852791264
10Pesticides and Insecticides1816981291827
11Man-made Fibers11750-1750
12Glass and Ceramic including Glass Fiber Industry6214092149
13Explosives Manufacturing Units530001043104
14Petroleum Bulk Storages181594671661
15LPGF Storages and Bottling Plant181741201761
16Ammonia Storage Plant1991100
TOTAL12056481186458345

4.3.3 Chemical-Wise MAH Factories In Andhra Pradesh

TABLE – 24
Chemical -Wise MAH Factories
SR. NO.MAME OF CHEMICALTHRESHOLD QUANTITY IN TONESNO. OF FACTORIES
1L.P.G. Usage & Bottling factoriesU/Sch-2-50 T19
U/Sch-3-15 T17
2Chloro-Alkali Units producing Chlorine10 T3
Chlorine usage Factories10 T19
3Bulk oil storage installation having storages of M.S., H.S.D. & S.K.O.7000 T for M.S. and 10000 T for H.S.D. & S.K.O14
4Naphtha based power plants & RefineryU/Sch-3 - 1500 T & above4
Isolated Storages having NaphthaU/Sch-2 – 7000 T3
5Ammonia50 T and above5
6Carbon- di – Sulphide20 T and above6
7Pesticide formulations and Mfg. Units Having - Methyl parathion, Ethion, Prorate, carbofuran, parathion0.1 T16
8Ethanol, Rectified Spirit1500 T3
9Lead Azide, Lead Styphate0.1 T4
PETN50 T
10Tolune di Iso Cyanate (TDI)10 T1
11Propylene15 T1
12Hydrogen Floride05 T1
13Sodium Chlorate25 T1
Sulphur Dioxide20 T
14Benzene1500 T1
15Methylene Di - Iso yanate (MDI)20 T1
161,3-Butadiene15 T1
TOTAL UNITS120

4.3.4 Status Report On Mah Activities

I MAH ‘A’ Category Factories Identified

Working - 120

Closed - 53

II Documents received from MAH ‘A’ Category

TABLE - 25
SR. NO.RELATED INFORMATIONNO. OF FACTORIES REQUIRED TO SUBMIT DOCUMENTSNO. OF FACTORIES FROM WHICH DOCUMENTS ACTUALLY RECEIVEDDUE
1On-site Emergency Plans1201182
2Chemical Fact Sheets12011010
3Safety Committee Constituted1201146
4Safety Policies1201146
5Particulars of Experience & qualifications of Supervisory Personnel1201128
6Safety Survey Reports12011010
7Inventories of Hazardous Chemicals1201137
8Hazard analysis and Risk Assessment1141059*
9Annual Safety Audit Reports for 2002-03492623**
10Safety Reports in Schedule VIII49427

* - Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment Report is not being insisted in the case of small insecticide & pesticide formulation units and SSI Chemical Units.

** - Annual Safety Audit Reports are not being insisted from the isolated Storage installations in view of the audit by the OISD (Oil Industry Safety Directorate) which is mandatory for al the Petroleum Bulk Oil / LPG installations.

III Mock Drill Conducted - 220 Nos.

IV No. of Isolated storage installations - 36 Nos.

covered under Factories Act identified

Occupational injuries in manufacturing activities(covered under Factories Act 1948)

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIESIN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES COVERED UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948

The state of Andhra Pradesh has 30,747 number of working industries covered under the Factories Act 1948. In the year 2002 there are 2316 reportable accidents in these factories. Out of which 99 are fatal and 2217 non-fatal injuries. The task force could not analyze all the reported accidents because of the constraints of resources such as time and funds. Therefore the taskforce selected a sample of few non-fatal accidents to know the trend of non-fatal injuries in various type of industries. All the 99 cases of fatal injuries were analyzed.

For classification of accidents the Indian Standards 3786-1983 titled classification of industrial accidents along with the ILO code of practice on recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases were used. The industries were classified according to the new industrial classification – 1987 NIC Code. The fatal and non-fatal injuries have been dealt with separately and a number of injuries have been taken for each group of industries.

CAUSE WISE INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS DURING THE YEAR 2002.
Table – 26

Cause Wise Industrial Accidents ( Fatal And Non Fatal )

SR. NO.TYPE OF ACCIDENTSNO. OF ACCIDENTS% OF TOTAL ACCIDENTS
1Fall of Person25311
2Fall of Object29113
3Stepping, Striking, Struck against59626
4Caught in between objects25411
5Over exertion or wrong movement472
6Expose to or contact with extreme temperature211
7Expose to or contact with harmful substances532
8Others80134
TOTAL2316100
FATAL INJURIES

As on 31/12/02 fatal injuries are 99 in the state of Andhra Pradesh . The analysis has been done Industry wise, Cause wise, Sex wise.

5.1.1 Industry wise :

Out of the total 99 fatal injuries analyzed out of which 22 % fatal injuries are in the units manufacturing of food products and Beverages, 20 % fatal injuries are in Manufacturing of Chemicals and Chemical Products. 14 % fatal injuries are in other Non-metallic Mineral Products. The industry wise fatal injuries are given in Table - 27.

TABLE – 27

Industry-Wise Fatal Injuries

NIC Div.Type of FactoryNo. of Fatal InjuriesPercentage ( % )
01Agriculture, Hunting and related service activities33
15Manufacture of food products and Beverages2122
17Manufacture of Textile55
21Manufacture of Paper and Paper products22
24Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products2020
25Manufacture of Rubber and Plastic Product11
26Manufacture of Other Non-metallic Mineral Products1414
27Manufacture of Basic Metals99
28Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, except Machinery and Equipment33
29Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C.66
31Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and apparatus N.E.C.11
35Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment44
40Electricity, Gas, Steam and Hot Water Supply33
50Sale, Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel.77
TOTAL99100
5.1.2Cause wise :

The analysis of the 99 fatal injuries shows that persons falling has contributed to about 22 % of the fatal accidents. 16 % were due to Machinery Moved by Mechanical Power, 14 % due to Electricity, 10 % due to Transport. The Table - 28 shows the number of cause-wise fatal injuries and their percentage.

TABLE – 28

Cause Wise Fatal Injuries

Sr. No.Type Of AccidentNo. of Fatal AccidentsPercentage( % )
1Prime Movers (101)--
2Machinery Moved by Mechanical Power (102 – 112)1616
3Machinery not moved by Mechanical Power (122 – 123)--
4Transport (113 – 116)1010
5Electricity1414
6Explosions (118)99
7Fires (119)66
8Gassing (120)44
9Molten and other hot or corrosive substances (121)77
10Hand tools (124)11
11Struck by falling body (125)33
12Person falling ( 126 - 128)2122
13Stepping on or striking against object (129)11
14Handling goods (130)44
15Others33
Total99100

Note : The figures given in bracket indicate the code number of causes.

5.1.3 Sex wise

A total of 99 number of people have met with fatal accident, out of these 93.93 % are male (93) and 6.07 % are female (6). Table - 29 gives sex wise injuries.

TABLE – 29

Sex Wise Fatal Injuries

Sr. No.SexNo. of Fatal AccidentsPercentage( % )
1Male9393.93
2Female66.07
Total99100

5.2 NON FATAL INJURIES

A total number of 2217 non-fatal occupational injuries have been reported by various industries in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The classification of accidents and injuries were done according to the IS:3786 and also ILO Recording and Notification of occupational accidents and diseases.

5.2.1Industry-wise:

The industry-wise analysis of non-fatal injuries shows that 60.27 % of the accidents are in the cotton textile manufacturing industry and 11.78 % are in the industries Manufacture of Paper and Paper products. The Table - 30 shows the industry-wise non-fatal injuries.

TABLE – 30

Industry-Wise Non-Fatal Injuries

NIC Div.Type of FactoryNo. of Non-Fatal InjuriesPercentage( % )
01Agriculture, Hunting and related service activities60.27
15Manufacture of food products and Beverages934.19
16Manufacture of Tobacco Product30.14
17Manufacture of Textile133660.27
19Tanning and Dressing of Leather20.09
20Manufacture of Wood and Products of Wood and Cork110.49
21Manufacture of Paper and Paper products26111.78
22Publishing, Printing and Reproduction of Recorded Media10.04
23Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum Products and Nuclear Fuel50.23
24Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products452.03
25Manufacture of Rubber and Plastic Products40.19
26Manufacture of Other Non-metallic Mineral Products411.86
27Manufacture of Basic Metals1335.99
28Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, except Machinery and Equipment572.58
29Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C.753.38
31Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and apparatus N.E.C.271.22
32Manufacture of Radio, Television and Communication Equipment and Apparatus10.04
34Manufacture of Motor vehicles, Trailers and Semi trailers150.68
35Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment472.11
36Manufacture of Furniture; Manufacturing N.E.C130.58
40Electricity, Gas, Steam and Hot Water Supply271.22
50Sale, Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel.130.58
60Land Transport, Transport Via Pipe lines10.04
TOTAL2217100

5.2.2 Agency Wise:

Agency wise analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows that 14.30 % of the accidents are due to Stepping on or striking against object, 13.30 % of accidents are due to Handling goods or articles & others, 13.08 accidents are due to Struck by falling body, 8.16 % of accidents are due to Machinery Moved by Mechanical Power and 32.61% of accidents are due to other agencies. The Table – 31 shows the agency-wise non-fatal injuries.

TABLE – 31

Agency Wise Non-Fatal Injuries

SR. NO.TYPE OF ACCIDENTNO. OF ACCIDENTSPERCENTAGE( % )
1Prime Movers (101)150.68
2Machinery Moved by Mechanical Power(102 – 112)1818.16
3Machinery not moved by Mechanical Power (122 – 123)200.90
4Transport (113 – 116)160.72
5Electricity150.68
6Explosions (118)10.05
7Fires (119)140.63
8Gassing (120)90.41
9Molten and other hot or corrosive substances (121)291.31
10Hand tools (124)462.07
11Struck by falling body (125)29013.08
12Person falling ( 126 to 128)24611.10
13Stepping on or striking against object (129)31714.30
14Handling goods (130)29513.30
15Others72332.61
Total2217100

Note : The figures given in bracket indicate the code number of causes.

5.2.3 Sex wise:

Out of 2217 number of Non fatal accidents 98.82 % persons were male and 1.18 % were female. The Table - 32 gives the details of number of non-fatal accidents.

TABLE – 32

Sex Wise Non-Fatal Injuries

SR. NO.SEXNO. OF NON-FATAL ACCIDENTSPERCENTAGE( % )
1.Male219198.82
2.Female261.18
Total2217100

5.4 ACCIDENTS IN MAH FACTORIES

  • Andhra Pradesh State has 120 working MAH factories, employing 58,345 workers out of which 56,481 are male and 1,864 are female.
  • There have been 18 fatalities in 13 accidents I 10 MAH factories and 8 non fatal injuries in 8 accidents in 8 factories.
  • Out of 13 fatal accidents, 3 fatal accidents in MAH factories involving 3 fatalities and 1 serious injury were caused involving fire explosion and toxic releases.

Occupational diseases and poisoning in manufacturing activities

OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES AND POISONING IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

As per the information provide by Directorate of factories there are only six cases of poisoning by Nitrous fumes and one case of Asbestosis notified under section 89 in an industry having NIC 26 ( upto the year ending 31/12/02).

Management of occupational safety and health at unit level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT UNIT LEVEL

7.1 INTRODUCTION

The management of occupational safety and health at the unit level, i.e. manufacturing units, involves the following aspects:

  • Safety Policy
  • Appointment of Safety Officers
  • Safety Committee
  • Occupational Health Centers (FMO, Ambulance)
  • Welfare Measures (WO, Canteen, crèche, lunch room, shelter etc.)
  • On-Site Emergency Plans
  • Safety Reports
  • Safety Audits
  • HAZOP studies

These aspects are discussed below in detail.

7.2 SAFETY POLICY

The Rule framed under the provisions of Sections 7-A(3), 41-B(2) and 112 requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by the factories meeting the following criteria :-

  • Units covered under Section 2(m)(i) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers
  • Units covered under Section 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 100 workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948
  • Units covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948

In addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories or >

Status of Preparation Safety Policies in MAH Factories In Andhra Pradesh

Table – 33

Units having Safety Policy

Sl. No.Total No. of units requiring Safety PolicyNo. of units Having Safety policy
 2001200220012002
1115120105114

7.3 APPOINTMENT OF SAFETY OFFICERS

As per the provisions of Section 40-B of the Factories Act, 1948, Safety Officer is required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria :-

  • Units employing more than 1000 workers,
  • Units wherein any manufacturing process or operation is carried on involving any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or diseases or any hazard to health.

As per the details available, 106 Safety Officers were appointed as against 111 Safety Officers required to be appointed in various factories in the State.

TABLE – 34

Safety Officers (2002)

Description of factoriesNo. of factoriesNo. of Safety Officers required to be appointedNo. of Safety Officers appointed
200120022001200220012002
a) Factories employing 1000 or More workers and notified under Section - 40-B (1) (i)5060551214671
b) Factories notified under Section - 40- B (1) (ii)142214229

7.4 SAFETY COMMITTEE

The Rule framed under the provisions of Section 41 and 41-G of the Factories Act, 1948 require constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:-

  • Units employing 250 or more workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers
  • Units covered under Section 2(c b) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers
Table – 35

Safety Committee

Sl. No.Type of FatoriesTotal No. of factories requiring Safety CommitteeNo. of units Having Safety Committee
2001200220012002
1Factories employing 250 or more workers674733567618
2MAH Units115120108114
7.5 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH CENTERS

As per the Rule prescribed under the Section 41-C of the Factories Act, 1948, ‘Occupational Health Centers’ are required to be set up in the factories carrying on ‘Hazardous Process’ as described under Section 2(c b) of the Act. The factories have been divided into 3 categories. i.e. factories employing up to 50 workers, employing 51–200 workers and employing more than 200 workers. The factories employing upto 50 workers are required to appoint a part-time Medical Officer.

Table – 36

Medical Facilities (2001 & 2002)

Sr. No.Type of FactoriesNo. of FactoriesNo. of Medical officers Appointed Both Retainership and Full time basis combineNo. of Factories were ambulance Vans are availableNo. of factories where ambulance rooms are provided
20012002200120022001200220012002
1All factories wherein 500 or more workers are employed169160154142--154148
2MAH Units115120------
7.6 WELFARE FACILITIES

This part of the Chapter deals with the Welfare facilities such as appointment of Welfare officer, provision of crèche facilities, canteen facilities, shelters, rest room and lunch rooms etc.

As per the provisions of Section 49 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 500 workers is required to employ a Welfare Officer. As per the details available 161 units were required to appoint the welfare officers. However, 136 units have actually appointed the welfare officers.

As per the provisions under Section 48 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing 30 or more women workers are required to provide creche facilities for the use of children under the age of 6 years for the women employees. There are certain requirements under the Section for these crèches which are to be met by the occupier of the factory. Out of 553 creches required to be provided, 354 creches have been provided.

As per the provisions under Section 47 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 150 workers is required to provide adequate and suitable> As per the details available 448 units have provided the shelters or rest rooms and lunch rooms facilities as against the requirement of 578.

As per the provisions under Section 46 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 250 workers is required to provide canteen facilities for the use of workers. As per the details available all 327 units have provided canteen facilities.

TABLE - 37

Welfare Facilities (2002)

Sr.NoItemNumber available
1.Welfare Officers
No. of factories wherein 500 or more workers are ordinarily employed.164
No. of Welfare Officers required to be appointed148
No. of factories which have provided welfare officers as required under sec. 49135
No. of Welfare officers appointed141
2.Canteen
No. of factories required to provided as per notification under Sec. 46366
No. of factories which have provided as required under Sec. 46333
No. of factories in which canteens are run by the occupiers153
No. of factories in which canteens are run by the contractors180
3.Shelters, Rest Room, Lunch Room
No. of factories where in more than 150 workers are ordinarily employed569
No. of factories in which have provided Shelters or Rest Room and Lunch Rooms as required under Sec. 47488
4.Creches
No. of factories wherein more than 30 women workers are ordinarily employed486
No. of factories which have provided creches as required under Section 48352
5.Ambulance room
No. of factories wherein more than 500 workers are ordinarily employed164
No. of factories which have provided ambulance room as required under Sec. 45152
TABLE – 38

Statement Showing The Particulars Of Welfare Amenities In Factories
For The Half Year Ending 31/12/2003.

SR. NO.WELFARE AMENITIESNO. OF FACTORIES REQUIRED TO BE PROVIDEDNO. OF FACTORIES PROVIDEDNO. OF FACTORIES YET TO PROVIDE
1Safety Officers897217
2Safety Committee69360588
3Welfare Officers16012634
4Ambulance Room16012634
5Medical Officers1601519
6Creches
- Seasonal
- Non-seasonal
330
124
244
104
86
20
7Canteens32330023
8Canteen Managing Committee32328538
9Cooled Drinking Water3233194
10O.H.Cs.428307121

7.7 ON-SITE EMERGENCY PLANS

Table – 39

On-Site Emergency Plans - Factories

YEARNO. OF FACTORIES REQUIRED TO SUBMIT DOCUMENTSNO. OF FACTORIES ALREADY DRAWN ON-SITE EMERGENCY PLANSDUE
20011151141
20021201182
7.8 OFF-SITE EMERGENCY PLANS

Total No. of districts in Andhra Pradesh for which Off-Site Emergency Plans were prepared – 8

(Visakhapatnam, East Godavary, West Godavary, Krishna, Guntur, Gondiparla, Industrial pocket in Kurnool district, Ranga Reddy and Medak District.)

  • No. of districts for which the of-site Emergency Plans were prepared by the Departmental officers - 5
    Visakhapatnam, East Godavary, Krishna and Kurnool Dist. - Prepared in 1991
    For Gondiparla Industrial Pocket in Kulnoor District - Prepared in 1995
  • The Off-site Emergency Plan was Prepared by M/s. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur in the year 1995. Further the comprehensive safety study and hazardous management study including updation of off-site emergency plan for Visakhapatnam bowl area is being prepared by M/s. EPTRI, Hyderabad in association with IICT, and Safety Service Center, Netrherlands, with the funds provided by Government of Andhra Pradesh vide G.O. Rt. No. 175, E.F.S. & T (Env) Department, dated 16/5/1998. The draft report is received and the review remarks were communicated to the Government. The final report is awaited from EPTRI, Hyderabad.
  • The Ministry of Environment and forests, Government of India have appointed expert consultants to prepare off-site emergency plans in respect of the districts Medak, Ranga Reddy and East Godavary. The off-site emergency plan for Medak district has been received in February, 2003 and the draft reports of off-site Emergency plans in respect of Ranga Reddy and East Godavary district have bee received and the final reports are awaited.
  • For Gondiparla Industrial Cluster in Kurnool district the off-site emergency plan was prepared in the year 1995 and the same is reviewed by IICT, Hyderabad and communicated to the Department by EPTRI, Hyderabad in the year 2002 where in certain modification were recommended. In view of a new MAH units at Kurnool district iz., BPCL, LPG filling plant, the of-site emergency plan for Kurnool district may have to be modified.
  • The off-site emergency plan for West Godavary district is required to be prepared afresh in view of new major accident hazard installations in the district like Andhra Sugars Limited, Saggonda, Mon Santo India Limited, Nadipally, Pedavegi Mandal and Delta Paper Mils, Vendra (Newly included) etc.
7.9 A NOTE ON THE STATE CRISIS GROUP OF ANDHRA PRADESH

The state crisis group has constituted in Andhra Pradesh State under Chemical Accidents (E.P.P.R.) rules 1996 vide G.O. Rt. No. 408 dated 19/2/1998. Labour, Employment, Training & Factories (Lab – II) Dept., headed by the chief Secretory to Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. The state crisis Group met thrice so far and conducted meeting on 14/8/1998, 06/01/2001 and 27/5/2003. Dr. Mohan Kanda , I.A.S., Chief Secretary to the Government, Secretariat, Hyderabad is the Chairman of State Crisis Group, A.P. state. There are 14 official members, 4 non official members & experts and one representative of Industry, of state crisis Group.

A Note On District Crisis Groups Constituted In Andhra Pradesh State

  • The Government of Andhra Pradesh have constituted District Crisis group in respect of all the district of Andhra Pradesh except for the district of Visakhapattanam vide G.O. Ms. No. 48 dated 4/9/1998 and for the Visakhapattanam District constituted vide G.O. Rt. No. 3065 dated 20/11/1997, Labour, Employment, Training and Factories Dept. duly authorizing the District Collectors to nominate non official representatives on the D.C.G.s
  • There are no MAH factories in 3 districts of Andhra Pradesh viz. Nizamabad, Nellore and Guntur.
  • Meeting of D.C.G.s have been conducted in 15 Districts of Andhra Pradesh and action is being taken for Emergency Preparedness and Planning.

Management of occupational safety and health at state level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT STATE LEVEL

8.1 INTRODUCTION

Management of safety and health at the state level is more complex than at the unit level. At unit level the problems are relatively simple and unit specific depending upon the type of industry. However at the state level the management of safety and health is not unit or industry specific and the instruments such as policies, legislation, etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues in all type of occupations. Apart from the Factories Act, 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities. These legislations are enforced by various state government authorities such as the Chief Inspector of Factories, the State Labour commissioner, etc.

Education and training plays an important role in management of safety and health at state level and thus cannot be neglected. Non-government organizations (NGOs), voluntary organization’s, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health are contributing in their own way towards theobjective for giving the workers a safe and healthy work environment.

Safety and health at work is governed by a variety of statutes in the state depending on the nature of work place, manufacturing activity and specific aspects of safety and health. Some of the important statutes are given below :

  • The Factories Act,1948
  • The Andhra Pradesh Factories Rules,1950
  • Indian Boilers Act,1923
  • Dangerous machines (Regulations) Act,1983
  • Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulations) Act,1986
  • Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules,1989
  • Control of Major Accident Hazards Rules, 1993
  • Dock Workers(Safety, Health and Welfare)Regulations,1990
  • Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Rules, 1990
  • Building and other Construction Workers Act, 1986
  • Indian Electricity Act, 1923
  • Indian Electricity Rules, 1966
  • Indian Explosives Act, 1884
  • The Petroleum Act, 1934
  • Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels Rules, 1981.

Different departments of the Central Government and the State Government are entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes. The efforts of the enforcement agencies are also supplemented by other organization’s such as training and research institutions, employers associations, employees associations, etc. in promoting occupational safety and health in the state. A brief account of these organizations is given in the following paragraphs.

8.2 REGIONAL LABOUR INSTITUTE, CHENNAI

8.2.1 Profile

The Directorate General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) formerly known as the Office of Chief Advisor of Factories was set up in Delhi in 1945 under the Ministry of Labour, Government of India. The Directorate General, Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) comprises Central Labour Institute, Mumbai, Regional Labour Institutes at Madras, Kanpur, Kolkatta and Faridabad.

The Regional Labour Institute, Chennai, was set up in the year 1960 with its Safety, Health and Welfare Centre located in a rented premises at Royapettah. All the activities and facilities of the Institute were then consolidated in its own premises at No.1, Sardar Patel Road, Adyar, Chennai.

The Regional Labour Institute, Chennai is equipped in the following areas:

  • Industrial Safety
  • Industrial Hygiene
  • Industrial Medicine
  • Major Accident Hazards Control

8.2.2 Facilities Available

The facilities available in the Regional Labour Institute, Chennai are:

  • Industrial Safety, Health & Welfare Center
  • Mobile Safety Exhibition
  • Library
  • Auditorium and Conference Hall
  • Hostel

The Industrial Safety Division aims at Achieving improvement in the working conditions and safety standards of factories and Docks through training, consultancy, field studies, surveys and other promotional activities. It has contributed to the following achievements:

  • Evolution of a Safety movement in the Country
  • Creation of national awareness on safety
  • Better Administration of the Factories Act through training of Inspectors of Factories and technical support.
  • Inplant training programmes on Safety, Audits, Surveys and Consultancy studies are part of the safety activity of this Institute.

The Industrial Hygiene Division is basically concerned with the improvement of Industrial work environment and comprises of Industrial Hygiene Laboratory (IHL) with all equipment related, to the division. The division undertakes various studies/surveys, national projects and training courses to protect the health of industrial workers through identification, evaluation and control of occupational health hazards and advises the management on ways to meet the requirements. The division also organizes training courses in the areas of Industrial Hygiene for a specific group of industries. These training courses are offered to safety officers, chemists, supervisors and middle level managers in the identification and assessment and control of occupational hazards in their factories.

The Industrial Medicine Division aims to prevent and contain health hazards at the workplace brought in by industrialization. The hazards may arise from chemicals or from physical factors such as noise, heat, vibration and radiation. Occupational health studies and surveys covering particular industries like asbestos, dye-stuff, cement, chemical, engineering and port are carried out to assess the incidence of occupational diseases. Suitable> It also carries out training for medical officers and workers. The laboratory attached to the division has facilities for medical investigation, including visual acuity tests, audiometric evaluation and pulmonary function tests.

The MAHC division offers the services of conducting training courses, seminars and workshops on MAHC for senior executives, trade union leaders, senior government officials, safety officers, worker members of safety committee. Organize specialized training courses/workshops on Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study, pipeline safety, safety in process control and safety audit.

Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare Centre demonstrates methods, arrangements and appliances for promoting safety and health of workers. The Centre has models and exhibits regarding safety, health and welfare in the form of properly guarded machines, personal protective equipment, safe methods of material handling, light and colour schemes and other arrangements, for propagating the message of safety and health at workplaces. This Centre is opened to organized groups from industries and educational institutions.

Mobile Safety Exhibition: The Mobile Safety Exhibition was set up to carry message of safety right to the doorsteps of factories and docks. The exhibition van highlights the hazards in industrial processes, and the use of safety appliances and demonstrates the safeguards, which should be followed to prevent industrial accident.

The Workshop provides engineering support to the Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare Centre and Mobile Safety Exhibition Van by way of production and maintenance of Exhibits and Models.

The Library has about 6000 books and 2000 reports on the various disciplines dealt by this Institute. The library, though primarily meant for the faculty of the Institute, is also referred by people from industry, and post graduate students of professional courses. The Diploma students were allowed for reference and issue of books.

The Regional Labour Institute has an Art Section which is evolved in paintings of safety posters, maintaining the colour of safety equipment and other matter connected with the institute programmes.

The Institute has an Auditorium with a seating capacity of 300 persons is useful for conducting seminars, inaugural functions and all other functions by this Institute and given for other departments on request.

The Regional Labour Institute Hostel well furnished with rooms for are mostly occupied by the Diploma students, training participants and senior officers from Government Departments.

8.2.3 Diploma Course in Industrial Safety

The Diploma Course in Industrial Safety, a recognized Course by Directorate of Technical Education, Government of Tamilnadu, was conducted every year with a duration of 10 months. Lectures supplemented by discussions, laboratory work, visit to industrial establishments, seminars, films. On completion of the curriculum an examination is conducted by Board of Technical Examinations and successful candidates are awarded the Certificate.

The course is currently being conducted for the 23rd batch of students. So far, 757 students have undergone this course in 22 batches.

8.2.4 Activities

The institute undertakes training, research and consultancy activities in the field of Occupational Safety and Health. The details are given in Table-40.

TABLE - 40

Activities Of Regional Labour Institute (2003 - 2004)

Sl. No.ActivityAchievementsNo. of OrganisationsNo. of Participants
1.Consultancy Studies / Surveys1616-
2.National Studies1--
3.Diploma In Industrial Safety12726
4.Seminar / Workshop19696
5.Training Programmes611669
6.In-plant training Programmes621035
7.Appreciation Programme3987532
8.Mobile Safety Exhibition884000

8.3 OFFICE OF THE DIRECTORATE OF FACTORIES, GOVT. OF ANDHRA PRADESH

Enforcement of Factories Act and Rules and other allied Acts is being monitored by the Directorate of Factories, Andhra Pradesh , Hyderabad. There is a MAH Cell functioning in the Directorate of Factories to monitor Safety & Health conditions in MAH factories as identified under MSIHC (amended) Rules, 2000 and the MAH cell is being supervised by the three joint Chief Inspectors of Factories in the Directorate under the overall control of Director of Factories, A.P., Hydrabad.

8.3.1 Organisational Set up

The administration and enforcement of various Acts by the Directorate is under the over all charge of the Director of Factories. The Director of Factories is assisted by 4 Joint Chief Inspector of Factories, 14 Deputy Chief Inspectors of Factories, 1 Senior Inspector of Factories, 35 Inspectors of Factories, 20 Assistant Inspectors of Factories, 5 Asst. Inspector of Factories (Superneumary) and 1 Deputy Statistical Officer.

The details of factory inspectors appointed in the state are given in Table - 41.

TABLE - 41

Manpower Of Directorate (As On 31 December,2002)

S.No.DesignationStrength
SanctionedWorking
1.Director of Factories11
2.Joint Chief Inspector of Factories44
3.Dy. Chief Inspector of Factories1414
5.Sr. Inspector of Factories11
6.Inspector of Factories4235
7.Assistant Inspector of Factories2020
8.Assistant Inspector of Factories (Superneumary)125
9.Statistical Officer11

8.3.2 Activities

The various activities of the factory inspectorate are given the following paragraphs.

8.3.2.1 Inspection Activities

The details of inspection activities carried out by the inspectorate for the year 2002 is given in Table- 42.

TABLE – 42

Inspection Activities Of The Directorate

Sl. NoActivityNumber
  20012002
1.No. of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Factories inspected1529110330
2.No. of Special inspections10391424

8.3.2.2 Prosecution and Convections :

The details of prosecutions taken up and the convictions obtained by the department under Section 92 of the Factories Act, 1948 during the year 2002 are given in Table - 43.

TABLE – 43

Prosecutions And Convictions Under Section 92

S. No.Nature of OffenceNo. of convictions
1.Employment and hours of work
a) General
b) Women
c) Young persons
129
1
12
2.Notices, Registers and Returns131
3.Safety168
4.Health and Welfare80
5.Others270
TABLE - 44

Under Section 92

No. of Prosecutions pending from previous yearNo. of Prosecution pending launched during the yearNo. of prosecution decided during the yearNo. of convic-tionsPenalty ImposedNo. of Prosecuti-ons pending at the end of the year
Imprison-mentTotal fine Imposed
1624501512425-21302501613

8.3.2.3 Safety Promotional Activities

The Safety Training Programmes to the workers / Supervisors / Managements of the factories and interactive meetings are being organized by the departmental official.

8.4 CENTRAL BOARD OF WORKERS EDUCATION

Regional Directorate, Central Board for Workers Education, Hyderabad, is a tripartite society and was established in 1958 by Ministry of Labour, Government of India to undertake workers education activities. The headquarter of the Board is located at Nagpur, Maharashtra.

The main objectives of the Board are to conduct training programmes on topics which help to improve the quality of work life and to develop a positive attitude among all sections of employees.

The Regional Directorate is carrying out its activities through professional and education officers and is equipped with Library and training room facilities. Monographs, periodicals etc. on Occupational Safety & Health are being published by the Regional Directorate.

Central Board For Workers Education under Ministry of Labour, Govt. of India, organizes various Training Programmes for the Organised, Unorganised, and Rural workers to bridge the gap between Management and Trade Unions in developing Industrial Relations. Various training programmes like training of trainers, personality development, refresher course for trainers, need based seminar, special programme on quality of life for workers and their spouses etc. are organized by central board of workers education for the organised, unorganised, and rural workers.

8.5 National Safety Council of India, Andhra Pradesh Chapter

The National Safety Council, AP Chapter was formed in 1968 as a tripartite body for promoting industrial Safety and Health. It has members which include safety professionals, Trade Unions, Corporate Managements and members of Factory Inspection Service. The main objective of National Safety Council, AP Chapter is to promote safety awareness among the employees and managements through enlightenment, and to make managements provide facilities for safe production and increased productivity.

Activities Of Andhra Pradesh Chapter

Training Programmes

Council creates forums through seminars, workshops, safety talks etc. to deliberate on the matters of safety, exchange of lprofessional data, interaction among personnel at various levels. It also publishes safety calendar and dairies emphasizing message of industrial safety every year.

Information Technology

To ensure easy and quick access to statutory provisions under various enactments, AP Chapter in collaboration with Factories Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh, brought out CD ROM with hyuperlinking and search engine facilities incorporating

  • All enactments being implemented by Factories Departmeli
  • All forms
  • Relevant Gos.
  • Guidelines for entrepreneurs

Required information can be got at click of mouse. This effort us appreciated by all the concerned across the country.

CD ROM is updated and revised version is released in 2002.

Safety Competitions

National Safety Council, AP Chapter in collaboration with Factories Dept. Government of Andhra Pradesh is organizing competitions every year on the occasion of National Safety Day Celebration for factory employees, school children, ITI, Diploma and Engineering College students on the concept of Safety Health and Environment. In addition to the above essay writing competitions are also organized for housewives on domestic safety.

In addition to the above, Andhra Pradesh Chapter in association with Factories Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh organizes free training programmes for workers in regional language at Industrial Estates.

During the year 2002, the workshops on Safety Management are organized at Warangal, Kunool and Guntur. In addition to the above 39 In-plant training programmes, tailor made to the needs of the particular industry and participants are organized. Out of the above 12 are free programmes organized for employees of small factories.

Publications

AP Chapter is actively engaged in propagation of safety by establishing a large library of Occupational Safety and Health related literature. It has brought out safety literature in vernacular with cartoons as an emphasizing media. The publications have reached far and wide. It has published various books on safety. Safety in cement industries, chemical industries, explosive industries, bulk drug industries, distillation units, safety training in industry, safety in use of chlorine are some among them. It has also published booklets on road safety and LPG safety at home.

Andhra Pradesh Chapter publishes posters and slogans focusing safety aspects so as to remind everyone about safety. These posters and slogans are brought out in English and Telugu. During the year 2002, 450 students have participated in these competitions and 1000 entries are received from workers on painting, essay writing, slogan writing competitions.

8.6 Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Hyderabad:

Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Hyderabad with its headquarters at Mumbai is a twenty-five year old, a non-profit and Non-Government organization. The Association was established in 1978 by the public sector general insurance companies with a noble mission to create safe society and reduce national losses by way of fires, road accidents and industrial mishaps through education training and consultancy. The main broad objectives of the association are :

  • To publicize cause and magnitude of losses and create an awareness of the need for loss prevention.
  • To provide education, training, consultancy and advisory services.
  • To build and maintain a data bank on loss prevention.

The Association works in the areas of Chemical Safety, Fire protection, Training & education, Work place inspection & Fire investigation. The Association regularly brings out publications on various aspect of safety covering fire prevention, material handling and road safety.

Mass communication specialists provide able support in this effort by developing problem specific and highly acclaimed safety educational products that include safety journals, safety posters, bulletins and films. The Association caters not only to the industrial organizations but also to the community at large by delivering community, domestic and school safety programmes to bring about a safety revolution right at the grassroots.

It also reaches out to the general public by way of public training programmes, Seminars, Conferences, Exhibitions an safety educational publicity through electronic and print media.

8.7 ANDHRA PRADESH PRODUCTIVITY COUNCIL

The Council has done several safety and safety related surveys and programmes, some of which are mentioned below:

TABLE - 46
Sr. No.Name of the organization / factoryActivity performed
1Allwyn Metals, Hyderabad· Survey of the existing methods and practices
· Occupational Hazards and Environmental Safety
2IDL Chemicals, Hyderabad· Operational Safety and Safety Practices
3APSRTC· Evaluation of the Occupational Hazards
· Health and Safety Practices

In addition to the above the Council also conducts tailor made programmes on Industrial Safety, Good Housekeeping, Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health for Supervisors and Workmen at Prayagh Nutri Products, BHEL, ECIL, NTPC, Thermopads. The Council offers one year Post Graduate Diploma in Safety Management and Good Housekeeping course through distance learning under which it offers industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health as one of the papers.

APPC, Hyderabad is an autonomous non profit making body established in the year 1958 by Government of Andhra Pradesh promoting productivity awarenss in industries, service sectors, Government and Rural sectors through multifarious activities like ;

  • Technomanagement Consultancy
  • HRD and Training
  • Energy
  • Education through distance learning
  • Computers
  • Government Programmes and field level surveys
  • Rural Development – SGSY, SHGs, TCPCs, DWCRA etc.

8.8 THE SINGARENI COLLIERIES COMPANY LIMITED :

About the Industry:

The Singareni Collieries Company Limited is one of the largest public sector undertaking Coal Industry in South India. Started with the First coal mine opened at Yellandu of Khammam District in Andhra Pradesh during the year 1889.

Now the coal mining operating have extended over four districts of Andhra Pradesh viz., Khammam, Warangal, Karimnagar and Adilabad. As on date there are 12 open cast mines and 54 underground mines unearthing the black diamond.

The Singarenians:

There are 94,600 Singarenians working at the organization. The health care is rendered through a net work of 40 dispensaries and 7 hospitals. A total of 983 in-patient beds are made available at hospitals. All the medical centers are so located to be easily accessible both to the employees near the mines and to their family members at the colonies.

The Medical Facilities:

The out patient and in-patient Medicare is rendered to the employees. These services are rendered totally free of cost including the investigations and medicines as well.

All the medical specialties are provided viz., General Medicine, General Surgery, Orthopaedics, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Paediatrics, ENT, Ophthalmology, Psychiatry, Dental and Dermatology. The supportive branches are the Radiology, Ultrasonology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Histo-pathology, Clinical Laboratory and Blood Bank facilities are at the disposal of our beneficiaries. Super specialty consultations (Cardiology) are arranged at out hospitals. Corporate Medical care is provided through a panel of super specialty hospitals.

Occupational Health:

There are 9 Periodical Medical Examinations centers at the colliery areas, as a part of occupational Health services. All the occupational health services are arranged at these centers as per the statute. These include complete clinical examinations by a qualified and specially trained doctors in reading chest x-ray as per ILO guidelines. In addition to basic laboratory investigations, ECG, Pulmonary function test, audiometry, Blood sugar and Lipid estimations from the part of investigations. Depending upon the need the other specialty care is also arranged.

Occupational Health screenings:

The well-known occupational disease in coal mining industry is coal workers pneumoconiosis. And all the employees are screened to detect this occupational lung disease once in 5 years. This gap of 5 years is the minimum required periodicity for any earliest detectable changes to occur of the occupational lung disease.

Occupational Health Surveillance Scheme:-

The occupational disease in the coal mining industry being the Coal Worker Pneumoconiosis, Pneumoconiosis Surveillance Scheme (PMSS) is in existence. With this scheme the employees who are detected to be showing early changes suggestive of the Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis are kept in this scheme. Such an employees are medically examined every two years to know the progress of the changes, instead of routine examination every 5 years. This is because the early changes detected can also be seen in conditions other than the pneumoconiosis.

Computerization of Health data:-

All the health information of every employee attending the at the periodical medical examination are preserved in special latra-filing racks. The computerization of the health profile of every employee is already commenced. In due course of time it will be integrated with the hospital management system

The Occupational Medical Board:

An occupational medical board is constituted with the Chief of Medical Services as the president, the Radiologist and either the Chest Physician/Physician form the members of the board. This medical board was recognized by the Govt. of AP in the year 1965.

Occupational injuries:

The Occupational injuries are broadly divided into Reportable injuries, Serious injuries and the fatal injuries. All the hospitals have the trauma care facilities round the clock. At times of necessity, the injured are referred to corporate super specialty medical care centers at Hyderabad. The data pertaining to the reportable and the serious injuries during the year 2002 are:

YearNature of injury Rate (per 1000 persons employed)
Reportable>Serious
200160.091.15
200252.861.38
200349.980.78

Man days lost : The man days lost due to the accident injuries is ;

Sl.NoYearMan days lost
0120011,33,013
0220021,15,287
0320031,08,973

Occupational Diseases:

Health Education:

Health is best protected by promoting healthy life> This component is taken care by scheduled calendar of health education activities both at the mines and at employee colonies. This is a regular features with atleast two health education programs per month. The health education cover the preventive and promotive aspects on the diseases of local prevalence and those of behavior based illnesses.

Screening camps for early detection diseases is a regular phenomenon the organization. The information and the number of beneficiaries of the screening camps is:

Sl.NoName of the screening campBeneficiaries
01Cytology camp25,548
02Cardiac Screening camp6,735
03School health Camp26,230
04Hypertension57,597
05Diabetic51,661

As a follow-up measure, the people detected to be having cataracts are operated with IOL implants free of cost.

Thus a holistic occupational health services are present at the Singareni Collieries company Limited with an aim of protecting and promoting the health of the employees. Any other guidance / recommendation as suggested by the Directorate of mines safety will be implemented from time to be in compliance with the statute.

8.9 Office of the Regional Labour Commissioner (Central)

The organization of the Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) or the Central Industrial Relations Machinery (CIRM) as it is often referred to, performs various functions which, inter-alia, include prevention and settlement of industrial disputes in industries, in respect of which the Central Government is the ‘appropriate Government’ under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947; implementation of the settlements and tribunal awards in the Central Sphere as also the recommendations of the Central Wage Board, administration of various labour laws to the extent which their administration is a Central responsibility, verification of membership of unions affiliated to Central Trade Union Organization of Workers and those operating in the nationalized banks and the State Bank of India and its seven associated banks, Ports and Docks and under Code of Discipline for the purpose of according representations in conferences/committees/ILO and of unions to determine the representative character for recognition under Code of Discipline of the Union. It also undertakes investigation into breaches of Code of Discipline.

The Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) is also responsible for the enforcement of labour laws, such as the Payment of Wages Act 1936, the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946; the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, the Minimum Wages Act, 1948; the Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act, 1948; the Maternity Benefit Act 1961 in the Circus Industry; Hours of Employment Regulation framed under the Railways Act, 1890; the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965; the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970; the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972; the Equal Remuneration Act 1976 and the Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979 in their application to establishments falling in the Central Sphere. Besides, the C.L.C. © is also the implementing authority for Fair Wage Clause and MES Contract Labour Regulations.

8.10 Directorate Of Economics and Statistics

At apex level Directorate of Economics and Statistics is responsible for co-ordination of Statistical activities in the State besides collection, compilation, collation, analysis and dissemination of data pertaining to various sectors of the State Economy. Thee is a large measure of centralization Statistical activities in this Directorate. Major areas covered are Agriculture Statistics, Price Statistics, Estimation of State Income, Compilation of Index of Industrial Production and the State matching samples of the National sample Survey Organisation. In addition to these, Censuses like Land Holding Census, Census of State Public Sector Employees Economic Census and Minor Irrigation Census are being taken up Quinquennially within a definite time frame.

Industrial Statistics

The Industrial Statistics are presented under two parts, viz., i) Organised factory sector and ii) Unorganised non-factory sector. The former covers all units registered under sections 2m(i) and 2m (ii) of the Industries Act, 1948 and the latter, all other (household and non-household) manufacturing units

8.11 Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board

The Government of Andhra Pradesh constituted the Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (APPCB) under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 bifr G.O.Ms.No.27 Dt.24-01-76. APPCB was established with effect from April 1976. The Board started function with two Regional Offices in addition to the Head Office. Subsequently, it has expanded its structure and personnel.

The Board is implementing the following Acts:

  • Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
  • Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act, 1984
  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act, 1984
  • Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
  • Water Cess Act, 1977
  • Water Cess Amendment Act, 1991
  • Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
  • Environment Tribunal Act, 1997

OBJECTIVES OF THE BOARD

  • To bring about a clean and health environment for sustaining all life forms.
  • To identify the causes of pollution in soil, air and water, and to take urgent
    as well as appropriate measures to develop and implement resources and waste management systems through participation of all stake holders.
  • To encourage the best practices in pollution control in terms of technology
    Application and preventive methods.
  • To create an awareness among citizens on the dangers of environmental Degradation.

Functions Of The Board

The functions of the Board are specified in section 17(1) of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 which are as follows:

  • to plan a comprehensive programme for the prevention, control or abatement of pollution of streams and wells in the state and to secure the execution there of;
  • to advise the state government on any matter concerning the prevention, control or abatement of water pollution;
  • to collect and disseminate information relating to water pollution and the prevention, control or abatement thereof;
  • to encourage, conduct and participate in investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention, control or abatement of water pollution.
  • to collaborate with the Central Board in organizing the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programmes relating to prevention, control or abatement of water pollution and to organize mass education programmes relating thereto
  • to inspect sewage or trade effluents ,works and plants for the treatment of sewage and trade effluents and to review plans, specifications or other data relating to plants set up for the treatment of water, works for the purification thereof and the system for the disposal of sewage or trade effluents or in connection with the grant of any consent as required by this Act.
  • Lay down, modify or annual effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents and for the quality of receiving waters (not being water in an inter-State stream) resulting from the discharge of effluents and to >
  • to evolve economical and reliable methods of treatment of sewage and trade effluents, having regard to the peculiar conditions of soils, climate and water resources of different regions and more especially the prevailing flow characteristics of water in streams and wells which render it impossible to attain even the minimum degree of dilution.
  • to evolve methods of utilization of sewage and suitable>
  • to evolve efficient methods of disposal of sewage and trade effluents on lands, as are necessary on account of the predominant conditions of scant stream flows that do not provide for major part of the year the minimum degree of dilution.
  • to lay down standards to treatment of sewage and trade effluents to be discharges into any particular stream taking into account minimum fair weather dilution available in that stream and the tolerance limits of pollution permissible in the water of the stream, after the discharge of such effluents;
  • to make, vary or revoke any order –
    • for the prevention, control or abatement of discharged of waste into streams or wells
    • requiring any person concerned to construct new systems for the disposal of sewage and trade effluents ort to modify, alter or extend any such existing system or to adopt such remedial measures as are necessary to prevent control or abate water pollution;
  • to lay down effluent standards to be complied with by persons while causing discharge of sewage or sullage or both and lay down, modify or annul effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents.
  • to advise the State Government with respect to the location of any industry the carrying on of which is likely to pollute a stream or well;
  • to perform such other functions as may be prescribed or as may, from time to time be entrusted to it by the Central Board or the State Government. The functions of the Board are specified in section 17 (1) of the Air (Prevention & Control of pollution) Act, 1981 which are as follows:
  • to plan a comprehensive programme for the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution and to the execution thereof;
  • to advise the state government on any matter concerning the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution;
  • to collect and disseminate information relating to air pollution;
  • to collaborate with the Central Board in organizing the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programmes relating to prevention, control or abatement of air pollution and to organize mass education programmes relating thereto;
  • to inspect, at all reasonable times, any control equipment, industrial plant or manufacturing process and to give, by order, such directions to such persons as it may consider necessary to take steps for the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution;
  • to inspect air pollution control areas at such intervals as it may think necessary, assess the quality of air their in and take steps for prevention, control or abatement of air pollution in such areas;
  • to lay down, in consultation with the Central Board and having regard to the standards for the quality of air laid down by the Central Board, standards for emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere from industrial plants and automobiles otr for the discharge of any air pollutant into the atmosphere from any other source whatsoever not being a ship or an aircraft.
    Provided that different standards for emission ma7 be laid down under this clause for different industrial plants having regard to the quantity and composition of emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere from such industrial plants.
  • to advise the State Government with respect to the suitability of any premises or location for carrying on any industry which is likely to cause pollution.
  • to perform such other functions as may be prescribed or as may, from time to time, be entrusted to it by the Central Board or the State Government.
  • to do such other things and to perform such other acts as it may think necessary for the proper discharge of its functions and generally for the purpose of carrying into effect the purpose of this Act.

8.12 Fire And Emergency Service Department

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:

The A.P. Fire and Emergency Services Department is headed by the Director General of Fire Services who is assisted by an Additional Director, 3 Regional Fire Officers and 11 Divisional Fire Officers.

The A.P. Fire and Emergency Services Department has 251 Fire Stations. 25 Fire

Stations sanctioned by the Government recently are yet to be opened. The following is the District-wise break-up:

Sl.No.Name of the DistrictNo. of Fire Stations functioningNo. of Fire Stations sanctioned and yet to be opened
1.Srikakulam123
2.Vizianagaram92
3.Viskhapatnam112
4.East Godavari150
5.West Godavari130
6.Krishna211
7.Guntur130
8.Prakasam111
9.Nellore120
10.Chittoor150
11.Cuddapah120
12.Anantapur120
13.Kurnool121
14.Mahaboobnagar83
15.Medak82
16.Nalgonda100
17.Nizamabad62
18.Rangareddy61
19.Warangal71
20.Khammam73
21.Adilabad100
22.Karimnagar83
23.Hyderabad130
Total25125

8.13 The Federation of Andhra Pradesh, Chambers of Commerce & Industry

Origin

The Federation of Andhra Pradesh Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FAPCCI) is a State Level Apex Body of industry, commerce and trade devoted to the cause of commercial and industrial development of Andhra Pradesh. It was established in 1917 as the Hyderabad Chamber of Commerce & Industry and renamed in 1958. Its membership is about 2800.

Conferences, Meetings & Representations

The Federation holds conferences, seminars & meetings for the benefit of members on latest development in the fields of economy, industry, investment, taxation and their procedures and the regulations. The Federation invites top dignitaries and senior officials of the State and Central Government to address and interact with members on various problems of industry, commerce and trade. Representations are made to the authorities for seeking gainful solutions to the problems faced by industry and trade from time to time.

Labour Matters

Services of an Industrial Relations Specialist are made available to membes to advise them on resolving industrial disputes, enforcement of labour legislation i.e. Factories Act, Provident Fund, ESI, Bonus, Gratuity, Shops & Establishments, Minimum Wages, Workmen’s Compensation, Maternity Benefits, etc. Changes brought about in labour policy and legislation are promptly brought to the notice of the members and on matters affecting them adversely, representations are made to Government at all levels besides meeting the Minister concerned, Secretary and Heads of Department. Wherever required, necessary legal help is obtained for taking steps collectively to safeguard the interest of members.

8.14 The Employers’ Federation Of Southern India

General

The sluggish world economy and its fall out on Indian economy continued during the year under review, though there were signs of recovery towards the end of the period. The Indian industries in general continued to face stiff competition from cheaper imports but nevertheless there were improvements in industrial protection and exports. However, information technology and software industries in India continued their growth and sustained its position as one of the leading players in the world in that field. Though the job growth in other industries was practically nil, this industry alone maintained growth in employment as well as substantial earnings from exports and its services. The inflation rate according to the Economic Survey presented in the Parliament was 4.4% compared to 2.6% for the same period last year and the economic growth was scaled down to 4.4% from 5.6% a year ago.

Labour Scene In India

As far as labour reforms were concerned much was expected out of the Recommendations of the Second National Commission on Labour submitted to the Government in June 2002. The Commission made some positive recommendations regarding creating new work culture, economic sufficiency and special problems of small industries and also extensive measures to be taken for the protection of unorganized sector of the labour.

Standing Labour Committee

The Standing Labour Committee traditionally settles the agenda for the Indian Labour Conference. The Workers’ and the Employers’ Organisations were requested to furnish the suggestions in this regard. The following four items have been considered for inclusion of any two of these in the agenda for the 38th Session of the Indian Labour Conference:

  • Skill building and training with a view to improve employability.
  • Challenge of meeting the problem of sickness in the industry.
  • Social Security – Challenge for the unorganized sector.
  • Government policy of disinvestments.
ESI Medical Benefit Council

There was one meeting of the ESI Medical Council which considered matters relating to provision of medical benefits and other related matters. Some of the important issues discussed by the Medical Benefit Council were:

  • Super-speciality service in select hospitals
  • Raising of capitation fee
  • Implementation of the project for prevention/control of HIV/AIDS
  • Provision of equipments, replacement as well, new to the various Hospitals and dispensaries, etc.
  • Expanding the scope of Revolving Fund
ILO-IPEC (AP State Based Project)

ILO – IPEC (AP State based) Project is working for elimination of Child Labour. Towards achieving the objective, APSBP selected Consortium of Employers’ Associations for the elimination of Child Labour (CEASE – Child Labour) as an implementing Agency to sensitise in general for the elimination of Child Labour in Andhra Pradesh.

EFSI – AP Branch as one of the Executive Agencies has to take up the following activities among other things;

  • To conduct a State Level Workshop of 23 districts for the members of EPSI.
  • To conduct 10 Awareness-cum-Sensitization and Capacity Building Seminars in various districts for the elimination of Child Labour.
  • To conduct and take up a Project in any industry in Andhra Pradesh for the elimination of Child Labour.

Towards this end and for successful completion of the above activities, EFSI – AP Branch has identified a Focal Point for Child Labour (FPCL), Mr. A.S. Prasad, Sr. General Manager (P & A), AGI Glaspac and advised him to complete the activities assigned to SFSI – AP Branch within the stipulated period. The support structure around FPCL is also selected with “Key senior Members” from HR field from member organizations.

Resources available and needed for management of OSH

RESOURCES AVAILABLE AND NEEDED FOR MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

9.1 GENERAL

The scope of the study was limited to cover the organisations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948 was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident forms. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, availability of safety reports, etc. as per the provisions of the Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was outside the scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, a more elaborate and in-depth study is required to be taken up to get a comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.

The findings and recommendations as brought out by the study are summarised below :

9.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Submission of returns by the factories

In the State of Andhra Pradesh, there are 36,290 registered factories out of which 30,747 factories are working factories. This includes 15,275 factories registered under Section 85(i). The number of factories submitting returns is 10348. As the annual returns contain vital information such as average daily employment, man-hours worked, man-days lost, number of accidents, provision of health and welfare facilities, etc. which are essential for the compilation of State level inventory on Occupational Safety and Health, it is recommended that the submission of annual returns should be made compulsory for all the registered factories.

2. Analysis of Accidents

The analysis of accidents according to industry reveals that 22 % of the total fatal accidents are in the ‘Manufacture of food products & beverages’ and 60.27 % of total Non Fatal accidents are in the "Manufacture of Textile" . The Causation-wise analysis of fatal accidents indicates “person falling” accounted for 22 % of the total accidents and non fatal accidents indicates “Stepping and Striking against object” accounted for 14.30 % of the total accidents followed by 32.61 % of total accidents accounted for "Others" reason. The analysis is indicative of the fact that more enforcement and training efforts are required in the above mentioned classifications. It is therefore, recommended that housekeeping measures and use of personal protective equipment should be insisted upon during the inspection rounds of the enforcement authorities and during the training sessions

3. Organising Seminars, Workshops, etc.

In addition to what is being done by the non-governmental organization such as the National Safety Council AP Chapter, the Loss Prevention Association of India may also take up similar activities in the field of Occupational Safety and Health on a large scale. This should include organizing Seminars, Workshops on the issues arising out of liberalization, privatization and globalization, modern manufacturing techniques, technological developments in the field of manufacturing etc. vis-a-vis their impact on the safety, health and welfare of the workers.

4. Training for Trade Union Officials

In order to promote safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories, training programmes, seminars and workshops should be organized to increase the awareness of the Trade Union Officials in the field of occupational safety and health. The Unit level Trade Union Officials should be involved in training and education of workers in the field of Occupational Safety and Health. In such programmes, more emphasis should be given on the role of Union Leaders in the field of Safety and Health at the workplace.

5. Collection and Dissemination of Data on Occupational Safety and Health in the State

While collecting the statistics regarding the factories as well as the accidents, it was found by the study team that although the factories were submitting the annual returns in the prescribed format to the local offices as well as to the Regional Offices and Headquarters, the information was not being compiled and sent to the Headquarters in time. As a result the collected information could not be processed and the trends regarding various parameters on occupational safety and health could not be established. A closer examination of the issue reveals that the information at the field level could not be compiled or is taking time for compilation because of manpower shortage. It is, therefore, suggested that all field level offices should be equipped with suitable> This arrangement will also improve the communication among the offices under the Chief Inspector of Factories leading to effective implementation of the orders issued under the provisions of the Factories Act eliminating the delays.

6. Constitution of State Level Tripartite Committee

In order to review the status of safety, health and welfare in the factories and formulate an action plan on the basis of findings from time to time, a state level tripartite committee on occupational safety and health should be constituted under the Chairmanship of the Labour Minister. In this committee representatives of Government departments, connected with factories and labour, representatives of employers’ and employees’ may be included. This is also in line with the recommendations made by Standing Labour Committee to the Indian Labour Conference.

7. Interaction between DGFASLI and CIF Office

For better interaction between DGFASLI, RLI and CIF Office and for exchange of information relating to Occupational Safety and Health frequent interaction among the officers DGFASLI and the CIF Office is necessary.

References

REFERENCES

  • Statistical Abstract of Andhra Pradesh 2003
    Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Govt. Of Andhra Pradesh 2003.
  • 2. Economic Survey (2002-2003)
    Planning Department, A.P. Secreteriat, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.
  • The Factories Act, 1948 and AP State Rules
  • ILO Code of Practice for Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and diseases
  • Annual Report (2002-03) of The Employers Federation Of South India.
  • Broucher - The Federation Of Andhra Pradesh Chamber of Commerce & Industry.
  • Report from Fire and Emergency Service Department, Govt. of A.P.
  • Report from Andhra Pradesh Productivity Council, Hyderabad.
  • Report from Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board.
  • Report from Regional Labour Commissioner (Central)
  • Report from Directorate Of Economics and Statistics.
  • Report from The Singareni Collieries Company Limited.
  • Report from Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Hyderabad.
  • Report From National Safety Council of India, Andhra Pradesh Chapter.
  • Report from Central Board of Workers Education.
  • Annual Report (2001-02) from the Directorate of Factories, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Annual Report of RLI, Chennai.

Annexures

ANNEXURE - I

THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948

THE THIRD SCHEDULE

(See Section 89 and 90)

List of Notifiable Diseases
  • Lead poisoning including poisoning by any preparation or compound of lead or their sequelae.
  • Lead tetra-ethyl poisoning.
  • Phosphorous poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Mercury poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Manganese poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Arsenic poisoning or its sequelae.
  • Poisoning by nitrous fumes.
  • Carbon bisulphide poisoning.
  • Benzene poisoning, including poisoning by any of its homologues, their nitro or amido derivatives or its sequelae.
  • Chrome ulceration or its sequelae.
  • Anthrax
  • Silicosis
  • Poisoning by halogens or halogen derivatives of the hydrocarbons, of the aliphatic series.
  • Pathological manifestation due to:
    • radium or other radioactive substances
    • X-rays.
  • Primary epitheliomatous cancer of the skin
  • Toxic anaemia
  • Toxic jaundice due to poisonous substances.
  • Oil acne or dermatitis due to mineral oils and compounds containing mineral oil base.
  • Byssionosis
  • Asbestosis
  • Occupational or contact dermatitis caused by direct contact with chemical and paints. These are of types, that is, primary irritants and allergic sensitizers.
  • Noise induced hearing loss (exposure to high noise levels).
  • Beryllium poisoning.
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Coal miners’ pneumoconiosis
  • Phosgene poisoning
  • Occupational cancer
  • Isocyanates poisoning
  • Toxic nephritis.
ANNEXURE - II
EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE ACT, 1948

THE THIRD SCHEDULE

List of Occupational Diseases
ART – A
Sl. No.Occupational DiseaseEmployment
1Infectious and parasitic diseases contracted in an occupation where there is a particular risk of contamination.
  • All work involving exposure to health or laboratory work;
  • All work involving exposure to veterinary work.
  • Work relating to handling animals, animal carcasses, part of such carcasses, or merchandise which may have been contaminated by animals or animal carcasses;
  • Other work carrying a particular risk of contamination.
2Diseases caused by work in compressed air.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
3Diseases caused by lead or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
4Poisoning by nitrous fumesAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
5Poisoning by organphosphorus compoundsAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
PART – B
Sl. No.Occupational DiseaseEmployment
1Diseases caused by phosphorus or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
2Diseases caused by mercury or its toxic compoundsAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
3Diseases caused by benzene or its toxic homologuesAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
4Diseases caused by nitro and amino toxic derivatives of benzene or its homologuesAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
5Diseases caused by chromium or its toxic compoundsAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
6Diseases caused by arsenic or its toxic compoundsAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
7Diseases caused by readioactive substances and ionizing radiationsAll work involving exposure to the reaction of readioactive substances or ionizing radiations.
8Primary epithelomatous cancer of the skin caused by tar, pitch bitumen, mineral oil, anthracene or the compounds, products or residues of these substancesAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
9Diseases caused by the toxic halogen derivatives by hydrocarbons (of the aliphatic and aromatic series)All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
10Diseases caused by the carbon disulphideAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
11Occupational cataract due to infra-red radiationsAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
12Diseases caused by manganese or its toxic compoundsAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
13Skin diseases caused by physical, chemical or biological agents not included in other items.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
14Hearing impairment caused by noise.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
15Poisoning by dinitrophenol or a homologue or by substituted dinitrophenol or by the salts of such substances.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
16Diseases caused by beryllium or its toxic compounds.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
17Diseases caused by cadmium or its toxic compoundsAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
18Occupational asthma caused by recognized sensitizing agents inherent to the work processAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
19Diseases caused by fluorine or its toxic compoundsAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
20Diseases caused by nitroglycerine or other nitroacid esters.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
21Diseases caused by alcohols and ketonesAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
22Diseases caused by asphyxiants, carbon monoxide, and its toxic derivatives, hydrogen sulfide.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
23Lung cancer and mesotheliomas caused by asbestos.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
24Primary neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder or the kidneys or the ureter.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
PART – C
Sl. No.Occupational DiseaseEmployment
1Pneumoconiosis caused by solerogenic mineral dust (silicosis, anthraoosilicosis asbestosis) and silico tuberculosis provided that silicosis is an essential factor in causing the resultant incapacity or death.All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
2BagassosisAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
3Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by cotton, flax hemp and sisal dust (Byssinosis)All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
4Extrinsic allergic alvoelities caused by the inhalation of organic dustsAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.
5Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by hard metalsAll work involving exposure to the risk concerned.