Andhra Pradesh was formed on 1st November, 1956 under the States Reorganisation Scheme. It is the fifth largest State with an area of 2,76,754 sq. km, accounting for 8.4 % of Indian territory. The State has the longest coastline (972 km) among all the States in India. Andhra Pradesh is endowed with a variety of physiographic features ranging from high hills, undulating plains to a coastal deltaic environment. Telugu the official language of Andhra Pradesh, is described by C.P. Brown as the " Italian of the East ". Andhra Pradesh has bountiful natural resources. Endowed with fertile land, water and conducive agro-climatic conditions, it is an agriculturally-prosperous state. AP is the largest producer of rice in India. It is also the leading producer of cash crops like Tobacco, Groundnut, Chillies, Turmeric, Oilseeds, Cotton, Sugar and Jute. It produces some of the finest varieties of mangoes, grapes, guavas, sapotas, papayas and bananas. Nearly 75% of its area is covered by the river basins of the Godavari, Krishna and Pennar, and their tributaries.
AP is a small State tucked away in the South West corner of India. It represents 8.37 % of the total area of India, but 7.42 % of total population of the country is in AP.
The state has richly endowed with natural and competitive advantages with a geographical area of 274.40 lakh hectares and with a population of 7.57 Crores as per 2001 population census. It is the fifth largest state in the country accounting for 8.37 percent of the country's area and also fifth most populous state. The Net area sown is of the order of 105 lakh hectares constituting about 62 lakh hectares of forest area, accounting for about 23 % of the geographical area. The state has the second largest coastline of 974 Kms. The total surface water of entire river system of the state is estimated at 2764 TMC at 75 % dependability. The state has a spectrum of tourism locations ranging from historical and religious sides to natural attractions like beaches. The state is endowed with varied agro-climatic conditions for growing varieties of horticulture crops like fruits, vegetables, spices, tuber crops, plantation crops and floriculture.
Land area of Andhra Pradesh State is 274.40 lakh hectares which is about 9 % of the total area of Indian union which is 3060.46 lakh hectares. (1997-98). The land use pattern in the state is given in Table - 1.
|Sr. No||Land Use||Lakh hectares||AP as % to All India|
|II||Reporting area for land utilisation statistics|
|3.||Barren and uncultivable||20.83||--|
|4.||Permanent pastures and other grazing land||6.76||6.2|
|5.||Area under miscellaneous tree crops and Groves not included in net Area Sown||2.77||6.8|
|7.||Fallow other than current fallow||14.21||16.3|
|9.||Net area sown||105.24||7.0|
|10.||Total cropped Area||127.56||6.3|
|11.||Area swan more than once||23.46||4.6|
|III||Net irrigated area||42.38||7.2|
|IV||Gross irrigated area||55.48||7.1|
Source : Statistical Abstract of Andhra Pradesh 2003.
The state has the second largest coastline of 974 Kms. as a result fishing is one of the important economic activities in the State, Moreover 33,227 Sq. Kms. Of continental shelf, 4 lakh hectares of fresh water bodies & 1.50 lakh Hectares of brackish water area. The total surface water of entire river system of the state is estimated at 2764 TMC at 75 % dependability.
The State has a unicameral legislation having a legislative assembly of 294 member ( 259 Male & 35 Female). In parliament 42 members are representing Loksabha & 18 members are representing Rajya Sabha. The State is divided into 28 administrative districts. In addition, there are 110 municipalities, 9 municipal corporations, 21943 Gram Panchayats.
The total population of Andhra Pradesh is about 761.11 lakhs (as on 2001) which is about 7.42 % of the total population of the country. It has unique distinction of having a sex ratio ( 1000 male : 977 female ) more than one. It is one of the very few States in the country which has achieved record level of literacy with almost every person in the State able to read and write. Literacy Rate for males 71.4 % & females 51.5 % for the year 2001.
The total population of the State is 761.11 lakhs with 384.90 lakhs males and 376.21 lakhs female. The State has sex ratio of 977 female per thousand males. The density of population is about 277 persons per sq. km. Almost 552.97 lakhs of the population is living in rural area and 208.14 lakhs in cities.
The official language of the State is Telugu, although large number of people are conversant with English & Hindi due to high rate of literacy .
The State has combined birth rate during the last decade is 26 (birth per 1000 population)
The State has combined death rate of 277 (death per 1000 population)
The State has a combined Infant Mortality Rate per 1000 live births only 65.
Andhra Pradesh is the well literate amongst all the States of India. The total literacy rate of the State is 61.6 % with male literacy rate of 71.4 % and female literacy rate of 51.5 %.(Excludes children in the age group 0-6 years.)
The working population of the State is around 348.65 lakhs comprising of workers in agricultural & non agricultural including marginal workers as per census of India 2001. The total number of persons employed in agricultural sector is about 217.22 lakhs & Non agricultural sector is 131.43.
The per capita income of Andhra Pradesh at current prices rose from Rs. 16,562 in 2000-01 to Rs. 17462 in 2001-02 registering a growth rate of 6.52 % while at constant (1993-94) Prices it has gone up from Rs. 10059 in 2000-01 to Rs. 10313 in 2001-02 registering a growth rate of 2.53 %.
Per capita income of Andhra pradesh & All India at current & constant (1980-81 &93-94 ) prices. Rs.
|Sr. No||Year||Andhra Pradesh||India|
|Current Prices||Growth Rate %||Constant Prices||Growth Rate %||Current Prices||Growth Rate %||Constant Prices||Growth Rate %|
Source : Statistical Abstract of Andhra Pradesh 2003.
(The figures in columns 4,6,8 & 10 indicate percentage growth over previous year.)
The quick estimates of Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) at constant (1993-94) prices for the year 2001-02 work out to Rs. 88765 crores as against the provisional estimates of Rs. 85522 crores for the year 2000-01 registering a growth rate of 3.79 %. The primary sector has shown only a marginal growth rate of 0.18 %.The secondary and tertiary sectors registered growth rates of 3.90 % and 6.21 % respectively. In the tertiary sector Communications has shown impressive growth rate of 22.7 %.
Gross State Domestic Product Of Andhra Pradesh at Factor Cost by Industry of Origin at Current Prises from 1999-00 to 2001-02
|Sr.No||Industry||1999 - 00||2000 – 01||2001 – 02|
|1.||Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing (Primary Sector 1-2 )|
|1.1 b.||Live stock||7651||8914||10660|
|2.||Mining & Quarrying||3626||4078||4624|
|3.||Manufacturing (Secondary Sector 3-5)|
|4.||Electricity, Gas & Water Supply||3769||3981||4204|
|6.||Trade, Hotel & Restaurants|
|7.||Transports Storages & Communications (Tertiary Sector 7-9)|
|7.2||Transport by other means & storage||4950||5440||6074|
|8||Financing, Insurance, Real Estate & Business Services|
|8.1||Banking & insurance||5158||5386||6049|
|8.2||Real estate, Ownership of Dwellings & Business Services||8052||9025||10359|
|9||Community, Social & Personal Services|
|Gross State Domestic Product||125236||139137||150096|
Source : Statistical abstract of AP-2003.
Andhra Pradesh’s economy continues to be predominantly agrarian. Andhra pradesh being important producer of groundnut, Cotton, Chillies, sugarcane etc. and quite a number of Horticultural crops, such secondary linkages of agriculture assume added importance to it’s rural economy, more so now in the context of new Agricultural Policy initiatives taken-up by the government. During 2001-02 out of 274.40 lakh hectares of geographical area 38.4 % was under net area sown, 22.6 % under forest, 11 % under current fallow lands, 9.3 % under land put to non-agricultural uses & 7.6 % under barren & uncultivable land. The state has strong base in Horticulture & leading producer of varieties of fruits and vegetable>nd rank in Coriander, 3rd rank in Cashew, Sapota. Andhra Pradesh is a pioneering state in oil palm cultivation accounting for 55 % of india’s area under oil palm.
As per Census of India 1991, in the State of Andhra Pradesh there are 2,84,45,482 main workers out of which 1,16,25,159 are engaged in agriculture. Together they represent 40.87 % of the total main working population of the State.
In the year 2001-02, the actual agricultural land use pattern in Andhra Pradesh was as below:
|Net area sown||1,05,24,124 hectares|
|Area sown more than once||23,46,697 hectares|
|Total cropped area||1,27,56,359 hectares|
(Net area sown including fish culture)
During the year 2001-02 the net area irrigated in the State was 42,37,868 hectares, area irrigated more than once is 13,10,765 whereas the gross area irrigated was 55,48,633 hectares.
The major crops in the state of Andhra Pradesh are rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, Maize, Ragi, Small Millets, Pulses, Oil seeds, Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Onions, Chilies, Potatoes, turmeric, Sweet Potatoes, Bananas, Sun hemp etc.
The state with rich natural resources and an abundance of skilled & trained manpower offers entrepreneurs ample investment opportunities in various sectors of the economy. The sectors that are identified as growth engines include Information Technology, Biotechnology, Infrastructure Parks, Bulk Drugs and Pharmaceuticals, Tourism, Roads, Ports & Airports, Finance & Insurance & food Processing. The manufacturing sector is the largest economic sector in the state. It comprises of manufacturing units both registered and unregistered, Generation of electricity and gas, water supply and construction but does not include Mining & Quarrying Sectors. The index of industrial production at base level as 1993-94 = 100, was 129.8 in 1999-00, 135.1 in 2000-01 & 138.1 in 2001-02. Textile Products (including Wearing Apparel) and Basic Chemicals & Chemical Products (except products of Petroleum & Coal) has the largest share in industrial production followed by and wool , Silk & Man made fibers.
Gross State domestic product of Andhra Pradesh at factor cost by Industry of origin at constant (93-94 base year) prices of the year 2001-02, the manufacturing sector contributed 12,303 Crores .
As per Census of India 1991 issued by Directorate of Census Operations, Andhra Pradesh there are 9,55,507 workers engaged in manufacturing Processing, Servicing & Repairs sector. They represent 3.36 % of the total main working population of the state.
Major items of Export in Andhra Pradesh are Tobacco, Coffee, Sunflower Extraction, Molasses, Palmyrah Fiber, Herbal Extraction, Leather Garments, Finished Leather, Rough & Polished Granite Blocks, Readymade Garments, Cotton Terry Towels, Cotton Yarn, Crochet Lace, Gems & jewelry, Imitation Jewelary, Druges & Pharmaceuticals, Ceiling Fans, Transformer Battaries, Computer Soft ware Etc. The exports from Andhra Pradesh for the year 2001-02 is of Rs. 11357 Crores. Details of items exported from the State of Andhra Pradesh during 1999 to 2002 along with their value in rupee Crores are given in Table – 4.
|1.||Agricultural & Agro Based Products||2575.36||2728.00||2891.00|
|2.||Leather, Animal & Marine Products||1231.40||1130.00||1145.00|
|3.||Mineral & Mineral Product||474.80||498.00||634.00|
|4.||Handloom & Textiles||395.71||395.00||406.00|
|6.||Drugs & pharmaceuticals||1251.00||1751.00||2105.00|
|8.||Electrical & Electronics||54.92||60.50||45.00|
Source :- Economy Survey 2002-03, Govt. of AP.
Andhra Pradesh is the second largest storehouse of Mineral Resources in India. The mineral resources in the states are mainly Fuel Minerals and Metallic & Non Metallic Minerals. Fuel Mineral Includes Natural Gas (Utilised), Coal & Petroleum (Crude. A total 48 Minerals are located with vast explored resources of coal, Lime stone, Bauxite, Barytes, Mica, Beach Sand, Granite, Limestone Slab etc., and good resources of Oil & Natural Gas, Manganese, Asbestos, Iron ore, Ball Clay, Fire Clay, Gold, Diamonds, Graphite, Dolomite, Quartz, Tungstan, Steatite, Feldspar, Silica Sand etc.
During the year 2001-02 the mineral revenue in the state was Rs. 610.27 Crores. The department has already achieved a revenue of Rs. 381.25 Crores upto the end of November,2002 with an over all percentage of achievement of 89.91 % (Coal sector 83.90 % and Non Coal Sector 93.75 %)
As per the estimates provided by Directorate of Census Operations, Andhra Pradesh about 2,47,191 persons (0.87 %) are employed in mining & quarrying sector in the state.
The most of the mining activities in the state are concentrated minly in Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, East & West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Chittoor, Cuddapah, Karnool, Mahabubnagar, Ranga Reddy, Medak, Adilabad, Karim Nagar, Warangal & Khammam Districts. Details about the production of major minerals like Coal, Natural Gas & Limestone are given in table- 5
|Sr. No.||Year||Coal (Tonnes)||Natural Gas (mcm)||Lime Stone 000’ Tonnes|
Source: Coal : Source :- Economy Survey 2002-03, Govt. of AP.
The volume of cargo handled at the port of Kakinada during the year 1999-2000 was 38,04,271 tonnes whereas the volume of cargo handled at the port of Vizag. during the year 2001-02 was 8697000 tonnes.
The erstwhile APSEB, which was formed in 1959, has been restructured into two functionally distinct corporations APGENCO & APTRANSCO with the effect from Feb., 1999. From 1959 to 2001 the installed capacity has been increased from 213 MW to 7980 MW, the consumer served have grown up from a 2.7 lakhs to 134.12 lakhs, the energy handled per annum from 686 MU to 44613 MU. The annual revenues are increased from mere Rs. 6.6 Crs. To Rs. 5,525 Crs. Apart from the phenomenal progress cited above, APSEB stood first among all other SEBs in capacity additions, highest in operating efficiency of thermal power stations, largest network expansion, first to introduce energy Audit and front runner in embracing. The present capacity in the State i.e. in 2002-03 (upto Oct.,2001) including central sector is 9850 MW. The power generation available for use during 2002-03 (upto October, 2001) was 26122 MU. To meet with the growing demand for power, the state is constructing projects in state sector as well as encouraging private sector to implement Gas based & other projects. In addition to Thermal, Hydel , Gas & Wind there are some other resource like share from Central Sector Projects, Capative Power Plants, Purchase from Other States & Private Sector, NTPC (ER) to meet with the day today requirement of state.
Power Development upto March,2001.
|Sr. No.||Item||Year 1959||March, 2001|
|1.||Peak Demand (MW)||146.00||7143.00|
|2.||Consumers served (lakh Nos.)||2.70||134.12|
|3.||Annual Energy handled (MU)||686.00||446.13|
|4.||Agricultural Services (Lakh Nos.)||0.18||19.39|
|5.||Annual revenue (Rs. Crores)||6.60||5525.00|
Source :- Economy Survey 2002-03, Govt. of AP.
Andhra Pradesh has a network of roads having a total length of 26762 kms. In 1956. In view of the high potential in agricultural activity there has been huge increase in road net work. The total road network is at 195109 Kms. as on 31/3/03. APSRTC with a fleet strength of 19084 as on 31/3/01 grew to 19438 as on 31/3/02.It is the largest SRT undertaking in the country entered in the Limca book as well the Guinness World Record as on 31/10/1999. As on 31/3/02 there were 212 depots, where the fleet is based for operations within the states. The Corporation operates over 57.17 lakh Kms. per day carrying 1.03 Crores of passengers daily. Growth of vehicle is as given in the table.- 7
|7.||2 – Wheelers||2958629||3254491||3485308|
|8.||Stage Carriages (RTC)||19021||19184||19464|
Source :- Economy Survey 2002-03, Govt. of AP.
Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation earned Rs.2,57,565 lakhs as earnings during the year 2001-02, while it carried 37,447 lakhs passengers.
|Length of Roads in 2001 – 02|
|Category||Road Length (Kms)|
|Major District Roads||34,605|
|Other District Roads||18,233|
|Local Bodies Roads||17,752|
Source :- Economy Survey 2002-03, Govt. of AP.
Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is one of the largest employer in the state having about 1,26,418 employees on its roles during the year 2001-02.
Number of road accidents in the year 2001 are 30,031. Out of which 8,428 fatalities are there in 7,584 number of accidents. In 6283 number of accidents 9,854 persons got grievious injuries whereas during 15,166 number of accidents 27,617 persons sustained minor injuries.. There are 998 cases of nearmiss Maximum number of accidents were due to trucks, followed by heavy vehicles and cars/jeep/taxies.
In the State of Andhra Pradesh , Hyderabad is one of the (12 model Airport) important domestic airport in the country. International air traffic has increased with the introduction of Malaysian & Emirate Airways. A cold Storage facility for perishable cargo has been provided. Modifications are being carried out in the Rajiv Gandhi terminal to facilitate handling of higher capacity of international traffic.
THE state has 974 Kms. Length of coastline, 33,227 Sq. Kms. Of continental shelf, 4 lakh hectors of fresh water bodies & 1.50 lakh Hectares of brackish water area. The fish production from 1999-2000 to 2001-2002 are as per table given below :
Fisheries is one of the growth engines under vision 2020. The state ranks second in inland fisheries, first in brackish water shrimp and fresh water prawn (scampi) and fifth in marine fish production. To promote aqua exports infrastructure development including for improvement of hygiene at the fish landing centers at Vizag, Kakinada & Nizampatnam and setting up antibiotic residue resting laboratories have been taken up at accost of Rs. 3 Crores.
It is a potential income generating sector. The total fish & Prawn production increased from 5.89 lakh tones during the year 2000-01 to 6.75 lakh tones during the year 2001-02.
Andhra Pradesh leads other marine states of India in shrimp production from the sea. The Government of Andhra Pradesh is giving a special thrust on the culture and capture of fresh water prawn (Scampi) and increase the area under culture from 12,000 hectares to 25000 hectares and utilizing the existing irrigation water bodies also. To promote aqua exports infrastructure development including for improvement of hygiene at the fishing landing centers at Vizag, Kakinada and Nizampatanam and setting up antibiotic residue resting laboratories have been taken up at a cost of Rs. 3 Crores.
Management of Occupational Safety and Health has become a very vital issue because of the technological advancements and deployment of newer technology, complex and hazardous processes. The threat of occupational hazards, particularly in the chemical and petrochemical industries is of great concern, specially for the people who are responsible for policy planning and designing of instruments and other interventions for protecting the large workforce in the country. The major problem faced by the policy planners is the non-availability of timely information on vital areas such as occupational injuries and diseases, infrastructure available at the unit and the state level for taking up awareness, promotional and developmental programs. Directorate General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes is relied upon by Central and State Governments for a variety of information pertaining to occupational safety and health. At present the facilities available in our country do not allow as quick a response as is often needed. Further, substantial increase in the number of registered factories, introduction of sophisticated modern technology and complexities in plant and equipment design have brought many constraints in the area of Occupational Safety and Health policy making at national level. For planning of effective strategy on control of accidents and ill-health, timely and reliable information is vital.
The Ministry of Labour has been deeply concerned over the non-availability of occupational safety and health information for policy planning. To overcome this deficiency the scheme “Setting up of a Data Bank-cum-Information Centre” at Central Labour Institute was proposed during the 7th Five Year Plan. The scheme was approved by the Planning Commission in the 7th Plan.
The scheme was continued in the modified form during the 8th Plan period with the title “Development of Safety & Health Information System and Data Bank”. During this period information systems were installed at the Central Labour Institute and the 3 Regional Labour Institutes. Data bases in the area of Major Accident Hazard Installations, hazardous chemicals, national specialist, ship inspection, Parliament question, FAS proforma, Factories Act Amendment, Awards, etc. were developed. Information on Material Safety Data Sheets were disseminated to the industries and agencies related to occupational safety and health.
During the 9th Plan period DGFASLI web site was launched. Abstracts of safety and health technical reports of DGFASLI were prepared, a national directory of organization profile was compiled, the statutes related to safety and health were computerized and ported on the website. Publication of INDOSHNEWS a quarterly news bulletin of this organization was started and till date 14 issues have been published, work related to translation of International Chemical Safety Cards in three Indian languages—Hindi, Tamil and Bangla was initiated with a view to make the cards available on the website.
The present Plan Scheme “Development of Safety & Health Information System and Data Bank” being operated during the 10th Plan envisages creation of the National Inventory on Occupational Safety and Health Information to widen the information base and making available the information at one source to help in the activities specially those related to policy planning directed at improving the occupational safety and health of the workers.
The national inventory besides having OSH information state-wise collected through respective State Inspectorate will also include the following:
To develop all the five Labour Institutes under the DGFASLI Organisation as the action resource centers for collection, processing and dissemination of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Information with a view to create an Inventory on OSH Information for the prevention of Occupational Injuries and health problems in the country
The proposed scheme will have the following components:
In order to create a national inventory of OSH information, the following activities are envisaged to be carried out in each State:
The various activities under the Project are being carried out by the five Labour Institutes as nodal agencies. The Regional Labour Institute, Chennai, is the nodal agency for the four Southern States of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Pondicherry.
The State of Tamilnadu and Andhra pradesh was taken up for the collection of data during the 10th Plan period 2002-03 and 2003-04 respectively. The States of Pondicherry, Karnataka will be taken up for detailed study in the subsequent years.
A Task Force comprising of the following officers and staff of Regional Labour Institute, Chennai and the office of the Chief Inspector of Factories, Chennai, was constituted for carrying out the above mentioned activities:
The present project aims at studying the existing system of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases at unit, district and state level in the State of Andhra Pradesh, identifying the areas for improving and establishing the system, which is in line with the systems existing in other countries.
The activities of the project have been divided in the following categories:
Based on the analysis of occupational injuries and diseases and the capabilities available, an attempt is made to assess the resources required for the better management of occupational safety and health in the State of Andhra Pradesh.
As per index of industrial production for 1996-97, the following industries contributed to most of the value of industrial production in the state as given in Table - 10.
|22||Beverages, Tobacco & related products||96.6||95.9||107.9|
|24||Wool, Silk & Man made Fiber Textile||174.5||182.5||178.9|
|25||Jute & Other Vegetable>||97.4||96.3||93.5|
|26||Textile product(including wearing Apparel )||206.8||237.7||280.8|
|27||Woo & wood Products, furniture & Fixtures||115.9||130.4||105.6|
|28||Paper and paper products, Printing, publishing and allied industries||150.4||163.6||171.3|
|29||Leather & Fur products||161.3||128.2||82.3|
|30||Basic Chemical & Chemical Products (except products of Petroleum & Coal Products)||164.7||171.6||177.9|
|31||Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum & Coal Products||114.8||142.8||152.7|
|32||Non-metallic Mineral Products||119.0||105.5||109.1|
|33||Basic Metal and Alloy Industries||148.5||138.1||139.3|
|34||Metal Products and Parts, except Machinery and equipment||88.4||87.0||64.3|
|35-36||Machinery & other equipment other than Transport Equipment||128.5||150.0||163.2|
|37||Transport Equipment and parts||145.3||157.8||153.6|
|38||Other Manufacturing Industries||152.3||206.1||168.3|
|1||Mining and Quarrying||117.2||120.1||122.2|
(Source : Statistical Abstract of AP -2003)
In the small scale sector, the contribution to the value of industrial production by majority of industries as on 31.3.2001 was as given in Table - 11.
Working Of Factories Registered Under Sections 2 m (i) & 2 m (ii) 1999-00 (Rs. In Lakhs)
|Number of District||Wages to the Workers(Rs.)||Total emolument(Rs.)||Total Input(Rs.)||Total Output(Rs.)||Depreciation (Rs.)||Net Value Added(Rs.)|
(Source : Directorate Of economics & Statistics, AP)
Guntur district is having largest number of factories. The distribution of working factories in major districts during 1999-2000 is as given below;
Working Factories & Employment
|Sr. No.||District||Nos. of Factories||Workers||Employees|
(Source : Directorate Of economics & Statistics, AP)
Industrial disputes in the state are inclining over the years. In the year 1999-00, total disputes (strikes) handled increased to 14 in 2001 from 9 in 1999. Only 16 disputes led to lockouts in 2002 which showed a decrease from 26 in the year 1999. The total man-days lost due to strikes and lockouts inclined to 9,707 millions during 2001 from 96,668 in 1999. Please see table>
|Sr. No.||Year||Strikes||Lock-outs||No. of Man days lost||No. of Workers involved|
(Source : Statistical Abstract of AP- 2003)
As on 31.12.2002 there were 36,290 factories on the register, under section 2m(i) & 2m(ii) & 85 (i).
|Catego-ry of Factor-ies||Nos. of register-ed factories||Nos. of working factori-es||Nos. of factories submit-ing returns||Nos. of factories not submitting returns||Avg. Nos. of workers employ-ed in the factories submit-ing returns||Estimated Avg. daily employment in the factories not submitting returns||Total Avg. daily no. of workers employed in the factories submitting and not submitting returns (6+7)|
4.1.1 Working Factories:
In the State of Andhra Pradesh once a factory is registered it is considered as working factory till its name is removed from the list of registered factories. Therefore, it is estimated that as on 31/12/2002 there are 30,747 working factories in the State. Under the provisions of the Central Act and under Special notifications issued by the State Government as on 31/12/2002, only 10,348 factories submitted annual return. There are 20,399 number of factories which do not submit annual returns.
Manufacturing of food products & Beverages is the single largest industry as per the annual returns received from various factories in the State. There are 4555 (44.01 %) such factories. Manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product factories (1418 nos.) constitute about 13.70 %, whereas Manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product (1092 nos.) constitute 10.56 % of the factories submitting returns. Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products factories (412 nos.) constitute 3.98 % of the factories submitting returns. The break-up of factories submitting return for the year 2002 in some of the major industrial sectors is given in Table - 15.
|NIC Div.||Type of Industry||Nos. of Factories submitting return||Percentage %|
|Public Sector||Private Sector||Total|
|1||Agriculture, Hunting & Forestry||3||348||351||3.40|
|14||Other Mining and Quarrying||-||234||234||2.26|
|15||Manufacturing of food products & Beverages||76||4479||4555||44.01|
|16||Manufacturing of Tobacco Product||-||80||80||0.77|
|17||Manufacture of Textile||3||191||194||1.87|
|18||Manufacture of Wearing Apparels||1||17||18||0.17|
|19||Tanning and Dressing of Leather||-||48||48||0.46|
|20||Manufacturing of Wood & Wood Product||-||1092||1092||10.56|
|21||Manufacturing of Paper & Paper Product||-||131||131||1.27|
|22||Publishing Printing & Reproduction of Recorded Media||4||102||106||1.03|
|23||Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum Products & Nuclear Fuel||14||33||47||0.46|
|24||Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products||3||409||412||3.98|
|25||Manufacture of Rubber & Plastic Products||3||244||247||2.39|
|26||Manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product||3||1415||1418||13.70|
|27||Manufacture of Basic Metal||3||207||210||2.03|
|28||Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, Except Machinery and Equipment||2||360||362||3.50|
|29||Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C||12||175||187||1.80|
|31||Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and Apparatus||8||120||128||1.24|
|32||Manufacture of Radio, Television and Communication Equipment and Apparatus||-||44||44||0.42|
|33||Manufacture of Medical Precision and Optical Instruments, Watches and Clocks||1||11||12||0.14|
|34||Manufacture of Motor Vehicles, Trailers and Semi-Trailers||7||75||82||0.80|
|35||Manufacture of other Transport Equipment||6||8||14||0.14|
|36||Manufacture of Furniture; Manufacturing N.E.C.||2||46||48||0.47|
|40||Electricity, Gas, Steam And Hot Water Supply||21||38||59||0.58|
|41||Collection, Purification and Distribution of Water||7||1||8||0.07|
|50||Sale, Maintenance and Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel||105||99||204||1.97|
|51||Wholesale Trade and Commission Trade, Except of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles.||2||-||2||0.02|
|52||Retail Trade, except of Motor Vehicles and motor Cycles||-||1||1||0.01|
|60||Land Transport ; Transport via Pipelines||2||-||2||0.01|
|63||Supporting & Auxiliary Transport Activities||2||24||26||0.25|
|72||Computer and Related Activities||-||1||1||0.01|
|90||Sewage and Refuse Disposal, Sanitation and Similar Activities||1||-||1||0.01|
|92||Recreational, Cultural and Sporting Activities||-||5||5||0.04|
|93||Other Service Activities||-||10||10||0.09|
|Total Nos. of Factories submitting returns||291||10,057||10,348||100|
4.1.2 Employment in registered factories:
As on 31/12/2002, employment details in the manufacturing sector comprising of registered as well as unregistered factories are already given as above. There are 36,290 number of factories on the register at the end of the period (31/12/02). Amongst 30,747 working factories only 10,348 factories submitted complete annual returns for the year 2002 and 20,399 number of factories have not submitted annual returns. Therefore, the details of employment, man-days worked etc., are pertaining to these factories only.
|Type of Sector||Total Working Factories||Total Work-ing Factor-ies Submit. Returns||Factories Not Submitted Returns||Total No. of Man-days||Total No. of Man-hours||Average Daily No. of workers employ-ed|
|No. Of Working Factor-ies||Estimated Daily Worker|
Manufacture of food product is employing largest number of persons (110990) contributes 6.25 % to the total workforce comprises 24119 female workers. Manufacture of Textile product with 42061 persons employed contributes 0.96 % to the total workforce, comprising of 3732 female workers. Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products with 30716 persons employed contributes 0.64 % to the total workforce, comprises of 2469 female workers. Non-metallic mineral products with 28046 persons employed contributes 0.70 % to the total workforce, comprising of 2726 female workers. The break-up of employment for the year 2002 in major industrial sectors is given in Table - 17.
Employment in Industrial Sectors
|NIC Div.||Type of Industry||Average daily number of persons employed|
|1||Agriculture, Hunting & Forestry||9020||6137||15155|
|14||Other Mining and Quarrying||2465||537||3002|
|15||Manufacturing of food products & Beverages||86871||24119||110990|
|16||Manufacturing of Tobacco Product||4611||4160||8771|
|17||Manufacture of Textile||3829||3732||42061|
|18||Manufacture of Wearing Apparel; Dressing & Dyeing of Fur||456||350||806|
|19||Tanning and Dressing of Leather||1125||326||1451|
|20||Manufacturing of Wood & Wood Product||5503||54||5557|
|21||Manufacturing of Paper & Paper Product||12713||642||13355|
|22||Publishing Printing & Reproduction of Recorded Media||5088||255||5343|
|23||Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum Products & Nuclear Fuel||1905||55||1960|
|24||Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products||28247||2469||30716|
|25||Manufacture of Rubber & Plastic Products||10104||640||10744|
|26||Manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product||25320||2726||28046|
|27||Manufacture of Basic Metal||25342||954||26296|
|28||Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, Except Machinery and Equipment||10091||534||10625|
|29||Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C||17273||829||18102|
|31||Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and Apparatus||7616||637||8253|
|32||Manufacture of Radio, Television and Communication Equipment and Apparatus||1794||340||2134|
|33||Manufacture of Medical Precision and Optical Instruments, Watches and Clocks||599||62||661|
|34||Manufacture of Motor Vehicles, Trailers and Semi-Trailers||3539||50||3589|
|35||Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment||10912||266||11178|
|36||Manufacture of Furniture; Manufacturing N.E.C.||2141||572||2713|
|40||Electricity, Gas, Steam And Hot Water Supply||9218||7873||17091|
|41||Collection, Purification and Distribution of Water||188||7||195|
|50||Sale, Maintenance and Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel||11550||169||11719|
|51||Wholesale Trade and Commission Trade, Except of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles||60||-||60|
|52||Retail Trade, except of Motor Vehicles and motor Cycles||83||24||107|
|60||Land Transport ; Transport via Pipelines||142||-||142|
|63||Supporting & Auxiliary Transport Activities||1239||97||1336|
|72||Computer and Related Activities||12||-||12|
|90||Sewage and Refuse Disposal, Sanitation and Similar Activities||10||-||10|
|92||Recreational, Cultural and Sporting Activities||237||22||259|
|93||Other Service Activities||167||177||344|
4.1.3 Mandays worked:
In the State of Andhra Pradesh total man-days worked in the factories submitting returns during 2002 were 10,50,67,744. The industry-wise break-up about the man-days worked in major manufacturing activities in the state are given in Table - 18.
Industry-wise Man-days worked
|NIC Div.||Type of Industry||Total No. of Man-days Worked||Percentage %|
|1||Agriculture, Hunting & Forestry||2008896||1.91|
|14||Other Mining and Quarrying||526325||0.50|
|15||Manufacturing of food products & Beverages||25881341||24.64|
|16||Manufacturing of Tobacco Product||1691199||1.60|
|17||Manufacture of Textile||12347530||11.76|
|18||Manufacture of Wearing Apparel; Dressing & Dyeing of Fur||184926||0.18|
|19||Tanning and Dressing Of Leather||303653||0.29|
|20||Manufacturing of Wood & Wood Product||1418919||1.36|
|21||Manufacturing of Paper & Paper Product||4563599||4.35|
|22||Publishing Printing & Reproduction of Recorded Media||1616444||1.54|
|23||Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum Prod. & Nuclear Fuel||610354||0.59|
|24||Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products||9724099||9.26|
|25||Manufacture of Rubber & Plastic Products||3201971||3.06|
|26||Manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product||7811845||7.44|
|27||Manufacture of Basic Metal||8638709||8.22|
|28||Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, Except Machinery and Equipment||3122017||2.98|
|29||Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C||5395558||5.13|
|31||Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and Apparatus||2507872||2.38|
|32||Manufacture Of Radio, Television and Communication Equipment and Apparatus||636200||0.60|
|33||Manufacture of Medical, Precision and Optical Instruments, Watch and Clock||198288||0.18|
|34||Manufacture of Motor Vehicles, Trailers and Semi-Trailers||1062166||1.01|
|35||Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment||3283906||3.12|
|36||Manufacture of Furniture; Manufacturing Not Elsewhere Classified||793820||0.75|
|40||Electricity, Gas, Steam And Hot Water Supply||2847467||2.71|
|41||Collection, Purification and Distribution of Water||68775||0.06|
|50||Sale, Maintenance and Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel||3846452||3.66|
|51||Wholesale Trade and Commission Trade, Except of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles||21600||0.02|
|52||Retail Trade, except of Motor Vehicles and motor Cycles||32100||0.03|
|60||Land Transport ; Transport via Pipelines||40328||0.03|
|63||Supporting & Auxiliary Transport Activities||369776||0.35|
|72||Computer and Related Activities||3600||0.01|
|90||Sewage and Refuse Disposal, Sanitation and Similar Activities||3650||0.01|
|92||Recreational, Cultural and Sporting Activities||77700||0.07|
|93||Other Service Activities||107988||0.10|
Private : 81539826
Public : 23527918
Total : 105067744
Manufacture of food products and Beverages accounts for highest 24.64 % of the total mandays worked in the factories submitting returns. Manufacture of Textiles products accounts for about 11.76 % of the man-days worked. Manufacture of basic chemicals and chemical products accounts for about 9.26 % of the mandays worked. Manufacture of Basic Metals contributed almost 8.22 % of the mandays worked followed by Manufacture of other Non – Metallic Mineral products (7.44 %)
4.1.4 Manhours worked:
In number of factories there are more than one shift working. As a result total manhours worked in the factories submitting returns during 2002 were 94,02,55,556. In which Contribution by men is 83,83,34,751 & by women is 10,19,20,805.
Manufacture of food products and beverages accounts for the highest 27.20 % of the total manhours worked. Here about 22.15 % of those Man-hours are contributed by Men and 5.05 % by female workers. Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products was the second largest 10.23 % industry contributing to total manhours worked in factories submitting returns. There was substantial 0.74 % contribution to the manhours from female workers in this industry. Manufacture of Basic Metal accounted 9.07 % followed by manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product (8.19 %) of the total manhours. The major industry-wise break-up about the manhours worked (in millions) sex-wise in major manufacturing activities in the state are given in Table - 19. The sector wise manhours worked is given in Table - 20.
Manhours worked Sex-wise
|NIC Div.||Type of Industry||Man-hours Worked|
|1||Agriculture, Hunting & Forestry||10140931||5973271||16114202|
|14||Other Mining and Quarrying||3530984||679616||4210600|
|15||Manufacturing of food products & Beverages||168874767||38523515||207398282|
|16||Manufacturing of Tobacco Product||9245848||4355928||13601776|
|17||Manufacture of Textile||9815212||9527822||19343034|
|18||Manufacture of Wearing Apparel; Dressing & Dyeing of Fur||804752||674656||1479408|
|19||Tanning and Dressing Of Leather||2182559||539192||2721751|
|20||Manufacturing of Wood & Wood Product||11233787||111568||11345355|
|21||Manufacturing of Paper & Paper Product||34998248||1510536||36508784|
|22||Publishing Printing & Reproduction of Recorded Media||12311705||612098||12923803|
|23||Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum Products & Nuclear Fuel||4765171||137816||4902987|
|24||Manufacture of Chemical & Chemical Products||7312269||5705567||78017836|
|25||Manufacture of Rubber & Plastic Products||24220667||1465792||25686459|
|26||Manufacture of Other Non- Metallic Mineral Product||57465517||4973033||62438550|
|27||Manufacture of Basic Metal||66851794||2318936||69170730|
|28||Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, Except Machinery and Equipment||23508348||1257952||24766300|
|29||Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C||41162596||2016610||43179206|
|31||Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and Apparatus||18550741||1539344||20090085|
|32||Manufacture Of Radio, Television and Communication Equipment and Apparatus||4328624||760976||5089600|
|33||Manufacture of Medical, Precision and Optical Instruments, Watch and Clock||1437768||148526||1586304|
|34||Manufacture of Motor Vehicles, Trailers and Semi-Trailers||8378264||119064||8497328|
|35||Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment||25635674||643944||26274618|
|36||Manufacture of Furniture; Manufacturing Not Elsewhere Classified||5224750||1327248||6551998|
|40||Electricity, Gas, Steam And Hot Water Supply||22006472||774608||22781080|
|41||Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment||532760||17440||550200|
|50||Sale, Maintenance and Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel||29986591||910378||30896969|
|51||Whole sale Trade and Commission Trade, Except of Motor Vehicles & Motorcycles||172800||-||172800|
|52||Retail Trade, except of Motor Vehicles and motor Cycles||199200||57600||256800|
|60||Land Transport; Transport via Pipelines||322624||-||322624|
|63||Supporting and Auxiliary Transport Activities; Activities of Travel Agencies||2748024||210184||2958208|
|72||Computer and Related Activities||28800||-||28800|
|90||Sewage and Refuse Disposal, Sanitation and Similar Activities||29200||-||29200|
|92||Recreational, Cultural and Sporting Activities||568800||52800||621600|
|93||Other Service Activities||402016||461888||863904|
Man-hours worked Sector-wise and Sex-wise
As per the provisions of the Factories Act, 1948, any unit carrying on manufacturing process which has potential to cause material impairment to the health of the workers or pollution of the general environment, is termed as a unit carrying on hazardous process. Similarly, State Government is also empowered to declare any operation or process as dangerous, if in its opinion the process or operation has a potential to cause a serious bodily injury, poisoning or diseases to persons exposed to such operation or processes. The details of Hazardous units are given in Table - 21.
Factories Carrying On Processes Or Operations Declared Dangerous Under Section 87 And Workers Employed In Such Operations (For The Year Ending 31/12/02)
|NIC Div.||Factory In which Dangerous Process / Operations are involved||No. of working factories||Average daily No. of workers employed in the entire factory||Average daily No. of workers employed in danger- ous process / operation|
|01||Agriculture, Hunting and related service activities||11||591||137|
|14||Other Mining and Quarrying||2||99||33|
|15||Manufacture of food products and Beverages||194||19649||6076|
|16||Manufacture of Tobacco product||2||40||40|
|17||Manufacture of Textile||36||6002||581|
|19||Tanning and Dressing of Leather; Manufacture of luggage, Hand Bags etc.||34||876||309|
|21||Manufacture of Paper and Paper products||5||9869||672|
|22||Publishing Printing and Reproduction of Record Media||1||50||29|
|23||Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum products and Nuclear fuel||27||1620||698|
|24||Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products||363||34023||9301|
|25||Manufacture of Rubber and Plastic Product||29||3681||429|
|26||Manufacture of Other Non-metallic Mineral Products||152||9043||1985|
|27||Manufacture of Basic Metals||140||23856||2499|
|28||Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, except Machinery and Equipment||84||1450||587|
|29||Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C.||4||4898||285|
|31||Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and apparatus N.E.C.||4||336||55|
|33||Manufacture of Medical Precision and Optical Instruments, Watches and Clocks.||1||427||13|
|34||Manufacture of Motor vehicles, Trailers and Semi trailers||6||621||72|
|35||Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment||1||1992||409|
|35||Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment||1||1992||409|
|36||Manufacture of Furniture manufacturing N.E.C.||8||112||7|
|40||Electricity, Gas, Steam and Hot Water Supply||5||396||99|
|41||Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment||2||140||12|
|50||Sale, Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel.||2||34||7|
|60||Land Transport, Transport Via Pipe lines||3||142||19|
|63||Supporting and Auxiliary , Transport activities, Activities of travel agencies||5||60||13|
The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 framed under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 provides for classification / categorization of factories as hazardous installations according to level of hazards involved. There are three such categories in which a factory can be classified into, to comply with the different sets of standards/provisions as contained therein. The middle or upper tier requirements are applicable to the factories handling specified chemicals beyond certain threshold limits/quantities. These are generally referred to as MAH installation/MAH units.
There are total 120 MAH units in the State. The industry-wise break-up is given in Table- 22.
Major Accident Hazardous Units
|SR. NO.||TYPE OF INDUSTRY||NO. OF UNITS|
|1||Steel and Engineering Industries||6|
|3||Pulp and Paper||5|
|5||Oil Refineries (Petroleum)||2|
|8||Bulk Drugs and Chemical Industries||25|
|9||Distilleries and Breweries||3|
|10||Pesticides and Insecticides||18|
|12||Glass and Ceramic including Glass Fiber Industry||6|
|13||Explosives Manufacturing Units||5|
|14||Petroleum Bulk Storages||18|
|15||LPGF Storages an d Bottling Plant||18|
|16||Ammonia Storage Plant||1|
The details of employment in 120 MAH units for the year 2002 are given in Table - 23.
|SR. NO.||TYPE OF INDUSTRY||NO. OF UNITS||NO. OF PERSONS EMPLOYED|
|1||Steel and Engineering Industries||6||19244||817||20061|
|3||Pulp and Paper||5||9527||202||9729|
|5||Oil Refineries (Petroleum)||2||2900||-||2900|
|8||Bulk Drugs and Chemical Industries||25||2844||186||3030|
|9||Distilleries and Breweries||3||985||279||1264|
|10||Pesticides and Insecticides||18||1698||129||1827|
|12||Glass and Ceramic including Glass Fiber Industry||6||2140||9||2149|
|13||Explosives Manufacturing Units||5||3000||104||3104|
|14||Petroleum Bulk Storages||18||1594||67||1661|
|15||LPGF Storages and Bottling Plant||18||1741||20||1761|
|16||Ammonia Storage Plant||1||99||1||100|
4.3.3 Chemical-Wise MAH Factories In Andhra Pradesh
|SR. NO.||MAME OF CHEMICAL||THRESHOLD QUANTITY IN TONES||NO. OF FACTORIES|
|1||L.P.G. Usage & Bottling factories||U/Sch-2-50 T||19|
|2||Chloro-Alkali Units producing Chlorine||10 T||3|
|Chlorine usage Factories||10 T||19|
|3||Bulk oil storage installation having storages of M.S., H.S.D. & S.K.O.||7000 T for M.S. and 10000 T for H.S.D. & S.K.O||14|
|4||Naphtha based power plants & Refinery||U/Sch-3 - 1500 T & above||4|
|Isolated Storages having Naphtha||U/Sch-2 – 7000 T||3|
|5||Ammonia||50 T and above||5|
|6||Carbon- di – Sulphide||20 T and above||6|
|7||Pesticide formulations and Mfg. Units Having - Methyl parathion, Ethion, Prorate, carbofuran, parathion||0.1 T||16|
|8||Ethanol, Rectified Spirit||1500 T||3|
|9||Lead Azide, Lead Styphate||0.1 T||4|
|10||Tolune di Iso Cyanate (TDI)||10 T||1|
|12||Hydrogen Floride||05 T||1|
|13||Sodium Chlorate||25 T||1|
|Sulphur Dioxide||20 T|
|15||Methylene Di - Iso yanate (MDI)||20 T||1|
4.3.4 Status Report On Mah Activities
I MAH ‘A’ Category Factories Identified
Working - 120
Closed - 53
II Documents received from MAH ‘A’ Category
|SR. NO.||RELATED INFORMATION||NO. OF FACTORIES REQUIRED TO SUBMIT DOCUMENTS||NO. OF FACTORIES FROM WHICH DOCUMENTS ACTUALLY RECEIVED||DUE|
|1||On-site Emergency Plans||120||118||2|
|2||Chemical Fact Sheets||120||110||10|
|3||Safety Committee Constituted||120||114||6|
|5||Particulars of Experience & qualifications of Supervisory Personnel||120||112||8|
|6||Safety Survey Reports||120||110||10|
|7||Inventories of Hazardous Chemicals||120||113||7|
|8||Hazard analysis and Risk Assessment||114||105||9*|
|9||Annual Safety Audit Reports for 2002-03||49||26||23**|
|10||Safety Reports in Schedule VIII||49||42||7|
* - Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment Report is not being insisted in the case of small insecticide & pesticide formulation units and SSI Chemical Units.
** - Annual Safety Audit Reports are not being insisted from the isolated Storage installations in view of the audit by the OISD (Oil Industry Safety Directorate) which is mandatory for al the Petroleum Bulk Oil / LPG installations.
III Mock Drill Conducted - 220 Nos.
IV No. of Isolated storage installations - 36 Nos.
covered under Factories Act identified
The state of Andhra Pradesh has 30,747 number of working industries covered under the Factories Act 1948. In the year 2002 there are 2316 reportable accidents in these factories. Out of which 99 are fatal and 2217 non-fatal injuries. The task force could not analyze all the reported accidents because of the constraints of resources such as time and funds. Therefore the taskforce selected a sample of few non-fatal accidents to know the trend of non-fatal injuries in various type of industries. All the 99 cases of fatal injuries were analyzed.
For classification of accidents the Indian Standards 3786-1983 titled classification of industrial accidents along with the ILO code of practice on recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases were used. The industries were classified according to the new industrial classification – 1987 NIC Code. The fatal and non-fatal injuries have been dealt with separately and a number of injuries have been taken for each group of industries.
Cause Wise Industrial Accidents ( Fatal And Non Fatal )
|SR. NO.||TYPE OF ACCIDENTS||NO. OF ACCIDENTS||% OF TOTAL ACCIDENTS|
|1||Fall of Person||253||11|
|2||Fall of Object||291||13|
|3||Stepping, Striking, Struck against||596||26|
|4||Caught in between objects||254||11|
|5||Over exertion or wrong movement||47||2|
|6||Expose to or contact with extreme temperature||21||1|
|7||Expose to or contact with harmful substances||53||2|
As on 31/12/02 fatal injuries are 99 in the state of Andhra Pradesh . The analysis has been done Industry wise, Cause wise, Sex wise.
Out of the total 99 fatal injuries analyzed out of which 22 % fatal injuries are in the units manufacturing of food products and Beverages, 20 % fatal injuries are in Manufacturing of Chemicals and Chemical Products. 14 % fatal injuries are in other Non-metallic Mineral Products. The industry wise fatal injuries are given in Table - 27.
Industry-Wise Fatal Injuries
|NIC Div.||Type of Factory||No. of Fatal Injuries||Percentage ( % )|
|01||Agriculture, Hunting and related service activities||3||3|
|15||Manufacture of food products and Beverages||21||22|
|17||Manufacture of Textile||5||5|
|21||Manufacture of Paper and Paper products||2||2|
|24||Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products||20||20|
|25||Manufacture of Rubber and Plastic Product||1||1|
|26||Manufacture of Other Non-metallic Mineral Products||14||14|
|27||Manufacture of Basic Metals||9||9|
|28||Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, except Machinery and Equipment||3||3|
|29||Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C.||6||6|
|31||Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and apparatus N.E.C.||1||1|
|35||Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment||4||4|
|40||Electricity, Gas, Steam and Hot Water Supply||3||3|
|50||Sale, Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel.||7||7|
The analysis of the 99 fatal injuries shows that persons falling has contributed to about 22 % of the fatal accidents. 16 % were due to Machinery Moved by Mechanical Power, 14 % due to Electricity, 10 % due to Transport. The Table - 28 shows the number of cause-wise fatal injuries and their percentage.
|Sr. No.||Type Of Accident||No. of Fatal Accidents||Percentage( % )|
|1||Prime Movers (101)||-||-|
|2||Machinery Moved by Mechanical Power (102 – 112)||16||16|
|3||Machinery not moved by Mechanical Power (122 – 123)||-||-|
|4||Transport (113 – 116)||10||10|
|9||Molten and other hot or corrosive substances (121)||7||7|
|10||Hand tools (124)||1||1|
|11||Struck by falling body (125)||3||3|
|12||Person falling ( 126 - 128)||21||22|
|13||Stepping on or striking against object (129)||1||1|
|14||Handling goods (130)||4||4|
Note : The figures given in bracket indicate the code number of causes.
A total of 99 number of people have met with fatal accident, out of these 93.93 % are male (93) and 6.07 % are female (6). Table - 29 gives sex wise injuries.
|Sr. No.||Sex||No. of Fatal Accidents||Percentage( % )|
A total number of 2217 non-fatal occupational injuries have been reported by various industries in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The classification of accidents and injuries were done according to the IS:3786 and also ILO Recording and Notification of occupational accidents and diseases.
The industry-wise analysis of non-fatal injuries shows that 60.27 % of the accidents are in the cotton textile manufacturing industry and 11.78 % are in the industries Manufacture of Paper and Paper products. The Table - 30 shows the industry-wise non-fatal injuries.
Industry-Wise Non-Fatal Injuries
|NIC Div.||Type of Factory||No. of Non-Fatal Injuries||Percentage( % )|
|01||Agriculture, Hunting and related service activities||6||0.27|
|15||Manufacture of food products and Beverages||93||4.19|
|16||Manufacture of Tobacco Product||3||0.14|
|17||Manufacture of Textile||1336||60.27|
|19||Tanning and Dressing of Leather||2||0.09|
|20||Manufacture of Wood and Products of Wood and Cork||11||0.49|
|21||Manufacture of Paper and Paper products||261||11.78|
|22||Publishing, Printing and Reproduction of Recorded Media||1||0.04|
|23||Manufacture of Coke, Refined Petroleum Products and Nuclear Fuel||5||0.23|
|24||Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products||45||2.03|
|25||Manufacture of Rubber and Plastic Products||4||0.19|
|26||Manufacture of Other Non-metallic Mineral Products||41||1.86|
|27||Manufacture of Basic Metals||133||5.99|
|28||Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, except Machinery and Equipment||57||2.58|
|29||Manufacture of Machinery and Equipment N.E.C.||75||3.38|
|31||Manufacture of Electrical Machinery and apparatus N.E.C.||27||1.22|
|32||Manufacture of Radio, Television and Communication Equipment and Apparatus||1||0.04|
|34||Manufacture of Motor vehicles, Trailers and Semi trailers||15||0.68|
|35||Manufacture of Other Transport Equipment||47||2.11|
|36||Manufacture of Furniture; Manufacturing N.E.C||13||0.58|
|40||Electricity, Gas, Steam and Hot Water Supply||27||1.22|
|50||Sale, Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and Motor Cycles, Retail sale of Automotive Fuel.||13||0.58|
|60||Land Transport, Transport Via Pipe lines||1||0.04|
Agency wise analysis of the non-fatal injuries shows that 14.30 % of the accidents are due to Stepping on or striking against object, 13.30 % of accidents are due to Handling goods or articles & others, 13.08 accidents are due to Struck by falling body, 8.16 % of accidents are due to Machinery Moved by Mechanical Power and 32.61% of accidents are due to other agencies. The Table – 31 shows the agency-wise non-fatal injuries.
|SR. NO.||TYPE OF ACCIDENT||NO. OF ACCIDENTS||PERCENTAGE( % )|
|1||Prime Movers (101)||15||0.68|
|2||Machinery Moved by Mechanical Power(102 – 112)||181||8.16|
|3||Machinery not moved by Mechanical Power (122 – 123)||20||0.90|
|4||Transport (113 – 116)||16||0.72|
|9||Molten and other hot or corrosive substances (121)||29||1.31|
|10||Hand tools (124)||46||2.07|
|11||Struck by falling body (125)||290||13.08|
|12||Person falling ( 126 to 128)||246||11.10|
|13||Stepping on or striking against object (129)||317||14.30|
|14||Handling goods (130)||295||13.30|
Note : The figures given in bracket indicate the code number of causes.
5.2.3 Sex wise:
Out of 2217 number of Non fatal accidents 98.82 % persons were male and 1.18 % were female. The Table - 32 gives the details of number of non-fatal accidents.
|SR. NO.||SEX||NO. OF NON-FATAL ACCIDENTS||PERCENTAGE( % )|
As per the information provide by Directorate of factories there are only six cases of poisoning by Nitrous fumes and one case of Asbestosis notified under section 89 in an industry having NIC 26 ( upto the year ending 31/12/02).
The management of occupational safety and health at the unit level, i.e. manufacturing units, involves the following aspects:
These aspects are discussed below in detail.
The Rule framed under the provisions of Sections 7-A(3), 41-B(2) and 112 requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by the factories meeting the following criteria :-
In addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories or >
Status of Preparation Safety Policies in MAH Factories In Andhra Pradesh
Units having Safety Policy
|Sl. No.||Total No. of units requiring Safety Policy||No. of units Having Safety policy|
As per the provisions of Section 40-B of the Factories Act, 1948, Safety Officer is required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria :-
As per the details available, 106 Safety Officers were appointed as against 111 Safety Officers required to be appointed in various factories in the State.
Safety Officers (2002)
|Description of factories||No. of factories||No. of Safety Officers required to be appointed||No. of Safety Officers appointed|
|a) Factories employing 1000 or More workers and notified under Section - 40-B (1) (i)||50||60||55||121||46||71|
|b) Factories notified under Section - 40- B (1) (ii)||14||22||14||22||9|
The Rule framed under the provisions of Section 41 and 41-G of the Factories Act, 1948 require constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:-
|Sl. No.||Type of Fatories||Total No. of factories requiring Safety Committee||No. of units Having Safety Committee|
|1||Factories employing 250 or more workers||674||733||567||618|
As per the Rule prescribed under the Section 41-C of the Factories Act, 1948, ‘Occupational Health Centers’ are required to be set up in the factories carrying on ‘Hazardous Process’ as described under Section 2(c b) of the Act. The factories have been divided into 3 categories. i.e. factories employing up to 50 workers, employing 51–200 workers and employing more than 200 workers. The factories employing upto 50 workers are required to appoint a part-time Medical Officer.
Medical Facilities (2001 & 2002)
|Sr. No.||Type of Factories||No. of Factories||No. of Medical officers Appointed Both Retainership and Full time basis combine||No. of Factories were ambulance Vans are available||No. of factories where ambulance rooms are provided|
|1||All factories wherein 500 or more workers are employed||169||160||154||142||-||-||154||148|
This part of the Chapter deals with the Welfare facilities such as appointment of Welfare officer, provision of crèche facilities, canteen facilities, shelters, rest room and lunch rooms etc.
As per the provisions of Section 49 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 500 workers is required to employ a Welfare Officer. As per the details available 161 units were required to appoint the welfare officers. However, 136 units have actually appointed the welfare officers.
As per the provisions under Section 48 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing 30 or more women workers are required to provide creche facilities for the use of children under the age of 6 years for the women employees. There are certain requirements under the Section for these crèches which are to be met by the occupier of the factory. Out of 553 creches required to be provided, 354 creches have been provided.
As per the provisions under Section 47 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 150 workers is required to provide adequate and suitable> As per the details available 448 units have provided the shelters or rest rooms and lunch rooms facilities as against the requirement of 578.
As per the provisions under Section 46 of the Factories Act, 1948 any factory employing more than 250 workers is required to provide canteen facilities for the use of workers. As per the details available all 327 units have provided canteen facilities.
TABLE - 37
Welfare Facilities (2002)
|No. of factories wherein 500 or more workers are ordinarily employed.||164|
|No. of Welfare Officers required to be appointed||148|
|No. of factories which have provided welfare officers as required under sec. 49||135|
|No. of Welfare officers appointed||141|
|No. of factories required to provided as per notification under Sec. 46||366|
|No. of factories which have provided as required under Sec. 46||333|
|No. of factories in which canteens are run by the occupiers||153|
|No. of factories in which canteens are run by the contractors||180|
|3.||Shelters, Rest Room, Lunch Room|
|No. of factories where in more than 150 workers are ordinarily employed||569|
|No. of factories in which have provided Shelters or Rest Room and Lunch Rooms as required under Sec. 47||488|
|No. of factories wherein more than 30 women workers are ordinarily employed||486|
|No. of factories which have provided creches as required under Section 48||352|
|No. of factories wherein more than 500 workers are ordinarily employed||164|
|No. of factories which have provided ambulance room as required under Sec. 45||152|
|SR. NO.||WELFARE AMENITIES||NO. OF FACTORIES REQUIRED TO BE PROVIDED||NO. OF FACTORIES PROVIDED||NO. OF FACTORIES YET TO PROVIDE|
|8||Canteen Managing Committee||323||285||38|
|9||Cooled Drinking Water||323||319||4|
On-Site Emergency Plans - Factories
|YEAR||NO. OF FACTORIES REQUIRED TO SUBMIT DOCUMENTS||NO. OF FACTORIES ALREADY DRAWN ON-SITE EMERGENCY PLANS||DUE|
Total No. of districts in Andhra Pradesh for which Off-Site Emergency Plans were prepared – 8
(Visakhapatnam, East Godavary, West Godavary, Krishna, Guntur, Gondiparla, Industrial pocket in Kurnool district, Ranga Reddy and Medak District.)
The state crisis group has constituted in Andhra Pradesh State under Chemical Accidents (E.P.P.R.) rules 1996 vide G.O. Rt. No. 408 dated 19/2/1998. Labour, Employment, Training & Factories (Lab – II) Dept., headed by the chief Secretory to Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. The state crisis Group met thrice so far and conducted meeting on 14/8/1998, 06/01/2001 and 27/5/2003. Dr. Mohan Kanda , I.A.S., Chief Secretary to the Government, Secretariat, Hyderabad is the Chairman of State Crisis Group, A.P. state. There are 14 official members, 4 non official members & experts and one representative of Industry, of state crisis Group.
A Note On District Crisis Groups Constituted In Andhra Pradesh State
Management of safety and health at the state level is more complex than at the unit level. At unit level the problems are relatively simple and unit specific depending upon the type of industry. However at the state level the management of safety and health is not unit or industry specific and the instruments such as policies, legislation, etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues in all type of occupations. Apart from the Factories Act, 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities. These legislations are enforced by various state government authorities such as the Chief Inspector of Factories, the State Labour commissioner, etc.
Education and training plays an important role in management of safety and health at state level and thus cannot be neglected. Non-government organizations (NGOs), voluntary organization’s, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health are contributing in their own way towards theobjective for giving the workers a safe and healthy work environment.
Safety and health at work is governed by a variety of statutes in the state depending on the nature of work place, manufacturing activity and specific aspects of safety and health. Some of the important statutes are given below :
Different departments of the Central Government and the State Government are entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes. The efforts of the enforcement agencies are also supplemented by other organization’s such as training and research institutions, employers associations, employees associations, etc. in promoting occupational safety and health in the state. A brief account of these organizations is given in the following paragraphs.
The Directorate General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) formerly known as the Office of Chief Advisor of Factories was set up in Delhi in 1945 under the Ministry of Labour, Government of India. The Directorate General, Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) comprises Central Labour Institute, Mumbai, Regional Labour Institutes at Madras, Kanpur, Kolkatta and Faridabad.
The Regional Labour Institute, Chennai, was set up in the year 1960 with its Safety, Health and Welfare Centre located in a rented premises at Royapettah. All the activities and facilities of the Institute were then consolidated in its own premises at No.1, Sardar Patel Road, Adyar, Chennai.
The Regional Labour Institute, Chennai is equipped in the following areas:
8.2.2 Facilities Available
The facilities available in the Regional Labour Institute, Chennai are:
The Industrial Safety Division aims at Achieving improvement in the working conditions and safety standards of factories and Docks through training, consultancy, field studies, surveys and other promotional activities. It has contributed to the following achievements:
The Industrial Hygiene Division is basically concerned with the improvement of Industrial work environment and comprises of Industrial Hygiene Laboratory (IHL) with all equipment related, to the division. The division undertakes various studies/surveys, national projects and training courses to protect the health of industrial workers through identification, evaluation and control of occupational health hazards and advises the management on ways to meet the requirements. The division also organizes training courses in the areas of Industrial Hygiene for a specific group of industries. These training courses are offered to safety officers, chemists, supervisors and middle level managers in the identification and assessment and control of occupational hazards in their factories.
The Industrial Medicine Division aims to prevent and contain health hazards at the workplace brought in by industrialization. The hazards may arise from chemicals or from physical factors such as noise, heat, vibration and radiation. Occupational health studies and surveys covering particular industries like asbestos, dye-stuff, cement, chemical, engineering and port are carried out to assess the incidence of occupational diseases. Suitable> It also carries out training for medical officers and workers. The laboratory attached to the division has facilities for medical investigation, including visual acuity tests, audiometric evaluation and pulmonary function tests.
The MAHC division offers the services of conducting training courses, seminars and workshops on MAHC for senior executives, trade union leaders, senior government officials, safety officers, worker members of safety committee. Organize specialized training courses/workshops on Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study, pipeline safety, safety in process control and safety audit.
Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare Centre demonstrates methods, arrangements and appliances for promoting safety and health of workers. The Centre has models and exhibits regarding safety, health and welfare in the form of properly guarded machines, personal protective equipment, safe methods of material handling, light and colour schemes and other arrangements, for propagating the message of safety and health at workplaces. This Centre is opened to organized groups from industries and educational institutions.
Mobile Safety Exhibition: The Mobile Safety Exhibition was set up to carry message of safety right to the doorsteps of factories and docks. The exhibition van highlights the hazards in industrial processes, and the use of safety appliances and demonstrates the safeguards, which should be followed to prevent industrial accident.
The Workshop provides engineering support to the Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare Centre and Mobile Safety Exhibition Van by way of production and maintenance of Exhibits and Models.
The Library has about 6000 books and 2000 reports on the various disciplines dealt by this Institute. The library, though primarily meant for the faculty of the Institute, is also referred by people from industry, and post graduate students of professional courses. The Diploma students were allowed for reference and issue of books.
The Regional Labour Institute has an Art Section which is evolved in paintings of safety posters, maintaining the colour of safety equipment and other matter connected with the institute programmes.
The Institute has an Auditorium with a seating capacity of 300 persons is useful for conducting seminars, inaugural functions and all other functions by this Institute and given for other departments on request.
The Regional Labour Institute Hostel well furnished with rooms for are mostly occupied by the Diploma students, training participants and senior officers from Government Departments.
8.2.3 Diploma Course in Industrial Safety
The Diploma Course in Industrial Safety, a recognized Course by Directorate of Technical Education, Government of Tamilnadu, was conducted every year with a duration of 10 months. Lectures supplemented by discussions, laboratory work, visit to industrial establishments, seminars, films. On completion of the curriculum an examination is conducted by Board of Technical Examinations and successful candidates are awarded the Certificate.
The course is currently being conducted for the 23rd batch of students. So far, 757 students have undergone this course in 22 batches.
The institute undertakes training, research and consultancy activities in the field of Occupational Safety and Health. The details are given in Table-40.
Activities Of Regional Labour Institute (2003 - 2004)
|Sl. No.||Activity||Achievements||No. of Organisations||No. of Participants|
|1.||Consultancy Studies / Surveys||16||16||-|
|3.||Diploma In Industrial Safety||1||27||26|
|4.||Seminar / Workshop||1||96||96|
|6.||In-plant training Programmes||6||210||35|
|8.||Mobile Safety Exhibition||8||8||4000|
Enforcement of Factories Act and Rules and other allied Acts is being monitored by the Directorate of Factories, Andhra Pradesh , Hyderabad. There is a MAH Cell functioning in the Directorate of Factories to monitor Safety & Health conditions in MAH factories as identified under MSIHC (amended) Rules, 2000 and the MAH cell is being supervised by the three joint Chief Inspectors of Factories in the Directorate under the overall control of Director of Factories, A.P., Hydrabad.
8.3.1 Organisational Set up
The administration and enforcement of various Acts by the Directorate is under the over all charge of the Director of Factories. The Director of Factories is assisted by 4 Joint Chief Inspector of Factories, 14 Deputy Chief Inspectors of Factories, 1 Senior Inspector of Factories, 35 Inspectors of Factories, 20 Assistant Inspectors of Factories, 5 Asst. Inspector of Factories (Superneumary) and 1 Deputy Statistical Officer.
The details of factory inspectors appointed in the state are given in Table - 41.
Manpower Of Directorate (As On 31 December,2002)
|1.||Director of Factories||1||1|
|2.||Joint Chief Inspector of Factories||4||4|
|3.||Dy. Chief Inspector of Factories||14||14|
|5.||Sr. Inspector of Factories||1||1|
|6.||Inspector of Factories||42||35|
|7.||Assistant Inspector of Factories||20||20|
|8.||Assistant Inspector of Factories (Superneumary)||12||5|
The various activities of the factory inspectorate are given the following paragraphs.
188.8.131.52 Inspection Activities
The details of inspection activities carried out by the inspectorate for the year 2002 is given in Table- 42.
Inspection Activities Of The Directorate
|1.||No. of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Factories inspected||15291||10330|
|2.||No. of Special inspections||1039||1424|
184.108.40.206 Prosecution and Convections :
The details of prosecutions taken up and the convictions obtained by the department under Section 92 of the Factories Act, 1948 during the year 2002 are given in Table - 43.
Prosecutions And Convictions Under Section 92
|S. No.||Nature of Offence||No. of convictions|
|1.||Employment and hours of work|
c) Young persons
|2.||Notices, Registers and Returns||131|
|4.||Health and Welfare||80|
Under Section 92
|No. of Prosecutions pending from previous year||No. of Prosecution pending launched during the year||No. of prosecution decided during the year||No. of convic-tions||Penalty Imposed||No. of Prosecuti-ons pending at the end of the year|
|Imprison-ment||Total fine Imposed|
220.127.116.11 Safety Promotional Activities
The Safety Training Programmes to the workers / Supervisors / Managements of the factories and interactive meetings are being organized by the departmental official.
Regional Directorate, Central Board for Workers Education, Hyderabad, is a tripartite society and was established in 1958 by Ministry of Labour, Government of India to undertake workers education activities. The headquarter of the Board is located at Nagpur, Maharashtra.
The main objectives of the Board are to conduct training programmes on topics which help to improve the quality of work life and to develop a positive attitude among all sections of employees.
The Regional Directorate is carrying out its activities through professional and education officers and is equipped with Library and training room facilities. Monographs, periodicals etc. on Occupational Safety & Health are being published by the Regional Directorate.
Central Board For Workers Education under Ministry of Labour, Govt. of India, organizes various Training Programmes for the Organised, Unorganised, and Rural workers to bridge the gap between Management and Trade Unions in developing Industrial Relations. Various training programmes like training of trainers, personality development, refresher course for trainers, need based seminar, special programme on quality of life for workers and their spouses etc. are organized by central board of workers education for the organised, unorganised, and rural workers.
The National Safety Council, AP Chapter was formed in 1968 as a tripartite body for promoting industrial Safety and Health. It has members which include safety professionals, Trade Unions, Corporate Managements and members of Factory Inspection Service. The main objective of National Safety Council, AP Chapter is to promote safety awareness among the employees and managements through enlightenment, and to make managements provide facilities for safe production and increased productivity.
Activities Of Andhra Pradesh Chapter
Council creates forums through seminars, workshops, safety talks etc. to deliberate on the matters of safety, exchange of lprofessional data, interaction among personnel at various levels. It also publishes safety calendar and dairies emphasizing message of industrial safety every year.
To ensure easy and quick access to statutory provisions under various enactments, AP Chapter in collaboration with Factories Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh, brought out CD ROM with hyuperlinking and search engine facilities incorporating
Required information can be got at click of mouse. This effort us appreciated by all the concerned across the country.
CD ROM is updated and revised version is released in 2002.
National Safety Council, AP Chapter in collaboration with Factories Dept. Government of Andhra Pradesh is organizing competitions every year on the occasion of National Safety Day Celebration for factory employees, school children, ITI, Diploma and Engineering College students on the concept of Safety Health and Environment. In addition to the above essay writing competitions are also organized for housewives on domestic safety.
In addition to the above, Andhra Pradesh Chapter in association with Factories Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh organizes free training programmes for workers in regional language at Industrial Estates.
During the year 2002, the workshops on Safety Management are organized at Warangal, Kunool and Guntur. In addition to the above 39 In-plant training programmes, tailor made to the needs of the particular industry and participants are organized. Out of the above 12 are free programmes organized for employees of small factories.
AP Chapter is actively engaged in propagation of safety by establishing a large library of Occupational Safety and Health related literature. It has brought out safety literature in vernacular with cartoons as an emphasizing media. The publications have reached far and wide. It has published various books on safety. Safety in cement industries, chemical industries, explosive industries, bulk drug industries, distillation units, safety training in industry, safety in use of chlorine are some among them. It has also published booklets on road safety and LPG safety at home.
Andhra Pradesh Chapter publishes posters and slogans focusing safety aspects so as to remind everyone about safety. These posters and slogans are brought out in English and Telugu. During the year 2002, 450 students have participated in these competitions and 1000 entries are received from workers on painting, essay writing, slogan writing competitions.
Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Hyderabad with its headquarters at Mumbai is a twenty-five year old, a non-profit and Non-Government organization. The Association was established in 1978 by the public sector general insurance companies with a noble mission to create safe society and reduce national losses by way of fires, road accidents and industrial mishaps through education training and consultancy. The main broad objectives of the association are :
The Association works in the areas of Chemical Safety, Fire protection, Training & education, Work place inspection & Fire investigation. The Association regularly brings out publications on various aspect of safety covering fire prevention, material handling and road safety.
Mass communication specialists provide able support in this effort by developing problem specific and highly acclaimed safety educational products that include safety journals, safety posters, bulletins and films. The Association caters not only to the industrial organizations but also to the community at large by delivering community, domestic and school safety programmes to bring about a safety revolution right at the grassroots.
It also reaches out to the general public by way of public training programmes, Seminars, Conferences, Exhibitions an safety educational publicity through electronic and print media.
8.7 ANDHRA PRADESH PRODUCTIVITY COUNCIL
The Council has done several safety and safety related surveys and programmes, some of which are mentioned below:
|Sr. No.||Name of the organization / factory||Activity performed|
|1||Allwyn Metals, Hyderabad||· Survey of the existing methods and practices|
· Occupational Hazards and Environmental Safety
|2||IDL Chemicals, Hyderabad||· Operational Safety and Safety Practices|
|3||APSRTC||· Evaluation of the Occupational Hazards|
· Health and Safety Practices
In addition to the above the Council also conducts tailor made programmes on Industrial Safety, Good Housekeeping, Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health for Supervisors and Workmen at Prayagh Nutri Products, BHEL, ECIL, NTPC, Thermopads. The Council offers one year Post Graduate Diploma in Safety Management and Good Housekeeping course through distance learning under which it offers industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health as one of the papers.
APPC, Hyderabad is an autonomous non profit making body established in the year 1958 by Government of Andhra Pradesh promoting productivity awarenss in industries, service sectors, Government and Rural sectors through multifarious activities like ;
8.8 THE SINGARENI COLLIERIES COMPANY LIMITED :
The Singareni Collieries Company Limited is one of the largest public sector undertaking Coal Industry in South India. Started with the First coal mine opened at Yellandu of Khammam District in Andhra Pradesh during the year 1889.
Now the coal mining operating have extended over four districts of Andhra Pradesh viz., Khammam, Warangal, Karimnagar and Adilabad. As on date there are 12 open cast mines and 54 underground mines unearthing the black diamond.
There are 94,600 Singarenians working at the organization. The health care is rendered through a net work of 40 dispensaries and 7 hospitals. A total of 983 in-patient beds are made available at hospitals. All the medical centers are so located to be easily accessible both to the employees near the mines and to their family members at the colonies.
The Medical Facilities:
The out patient and in-patient Medicare is rendered to the employees. These services are rendered totally free of cost including the investigations and medicines as well.
All the medical specialties are provided viz., General Medicine, General Surgery, Orthopaedics, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Paediatrics, ENT, Ophthalmology, Psychiatry, Dental and Dermatology. The supportive branches are the Radiology, Ultrasonology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Histo-pathology, Clinical Laboratory and Blood Bank facilities are at the disposal of our beneficiaries. Super specialty consultations (Cardiology) are arranged at out hospitals. Corporate Medical care is provided through a panel of super specialty hospitals.
There are 9 Periodical Medical Examinations centers at the colliery areas, as a part of occupational Health services. All the occupational health services are arranged at these centers as per the statute. These include complete clinical examinations by a qualified and specially trained doctors in reading chest x-ray as per ILO guidelines. In addition to basic laboratory investigations, ECG, Pulmonary function test, audiometry, Blood sugar and Lipid estimations from the part of investigations. Depending upon the need the other specialty care is also arranged.
Occupational Health screenings:
The well-known occupational disease in coal mining industry is coal workers pneumoconiosis. And all the employees are screened to detect this occupational lung disease once in 5 years. This gap of 5 years is the minimum required periodicity for any earliest detectable changes to occur of the occupational lung disease.
Occupational Health Surveillance Scheme:-
The occupational disease in the coal mining industry being the Coal Worker Pneumoconiosis, Pneumoconiosis Surveillance Scheme (PMSS) is in existence. With this scheme the employees who are detected to be showing early changes suggestive of the Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis are kept in this scheme. Such an employees are medically examined every two years to know the progress of the changes, instead of routine examination every 5 years. This is because the early changes detected can also be seen in conditions other than the pneumoconiosis.
Computerization of Health data:-
All the health information of every employee attending the at the periodical medical examination are preserved in special latra-filing racks. The computerization of the health profile of every employee is already commenced. In due course of time it will be integrated with the hospital management system
The Occupational Medical Board:
An occupational medical board is constituted with the Chief of Medical Services as the president, the Radiologist and either the Chest Physician/Physician form the members of the board. This medical board was recognized by the Govt. of AP in the year 1965.
The Occupational injuries are broadly divided into Reportable injuries, Serious injuries and the fatal injuries. All the hospitals have the trauma care facilities round the clock. At times of necessity, the injured are referred to corporate super specialty medical care centers at Hyderabad. The data pertaining to the reportable and the serious injuries during the year 2002 are:
|Year||Nature of injury Rate (per 1000 persons employed)|
Man days lost : The man days lost due to the accident injuries is ;
|Sl.No||Year||Man days lost|
Health is best protected by promoting healthy life> This component is taken care by scheduled calendar of health education activities both at the mines and at employee colonies. This is a regular features with atleast two health education programs per month. The health education cover the preventive and promotive aspects on the diseases of local prevalence and those of behavior based illnesses.
Screening camps for early detection diseases is a regular phenomenon the organization. The information and the number of beneficiaries of the screening camps is:
|Sl.No||Name of the screening camp||Beneficiaries|
|02||Cardiac Screening camp||6,735|
|03||School health Camp||26,230|
As a follow-up measure, the people detected to be having cataracts are operated with IOL implants free of cost.
Thus a holistic occupational health services are present at the Singareni Collieries company Limited with an aim of protecting and promoting the health of the employees. Any other guidance / recommendation as suggested by the Directorate of mines safety will be implemented from time to be in compliance with the statute.
The organization of the Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) or the Central Industrial Relations Machinery (CIRM) as it is often referred to, performs various functions which, inter-alia, include prevention and settlement of industrial disputes in industries, in respect of which the Central Government is the ‘appropriate Government’ under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947; implementation of the settlements and tribunal awards in the Central Sphere as also the recommendations of the Central Wage Board, administration of various labour laws to the extent which their administration is a Central responsibility, verification of membership of unions affiliated to Central Trade Union Organization of Workers and those operating in the nationalized banks and the State Bank of India and its seven associated banks, Ports and Docks and under Code of Discipline for the purpose of according representations in conferences/committees/ILO and of unions to determine the representative character for recognition under Code of Discipline of the Union. It also undertakes investigation into breaches of Code of Discipline.
The Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) is also responsible for the enforcement of labour laws, such as the Payment of Wages Act 1936, the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946; the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, the Minimum Wages Act, 1948; the Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act, 1948; the Maternity Benefit Act 1961 in the Circus Industry; Hours of Employment Regulation framed under the Railways Act, 1890; the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965; the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970; the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972; the Equal Remuneration Act 1976 and the Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979 in their application to establishments falling in the Central Sphere. Besides, the C.L.C. © is also the implementing authority for Fair Wage Clause and MES Contract Labour Regulations.
8.10 Directorate Of Economics and Statistics
At apex level Directorate of Economics and Statistics is responsible for co-ordination of Statistical activities in the State besides collection, compilation, collation, analysis and dissemination of data pertaining to various sectors of the State Economy. Thee is a large measure of centralization Statistical activities in this Directorate. Major areas covered are Agriculture Statistics, Price Statistics, Estimation of State Income, Compilation of Index of Industrial Production and the State matching samples of the National sample Survey Organisation. In addition to these, Censuses like Land Holding Census, Census of State Public Sector Employees Economic Census and Minor Irrigation Census are being taken up Quinquennially within a definite time frame.
The Industrial Statistics are presented under two parts, viz., i) Organised factory sector and ii) Unorganised non-factory sector. The former covers all units registered under sections 2m(i) and 2m (ii) of the Industries Act, 1948 and the latter, all other (household and non-household) manufacturing units
The Government of Andhra Pradesh constituted the Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (APPCB) under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 bifr G.O.Ms.No.27 Dt.24-01-76. APPCB was established with effect from April 1976. The Board started function with two Regional Offices in addition to the Head Office. Subsequently, it has expanded its structure and personnel.
The Board is implementing the following Acts:
The functions of the Board are specified in section 17(1) of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 which are as follows:
8.12 Fire And Emergency Service Department
The A.P. Fire and Emergency Services Department is headed by the Director General of Fire Services who is assisted by an Additional Director, 3 Regional Fire Officers and 11 Divisional Fire Officers.
The A.P. Fire and Emergency Services Department has 251 Fire Stations. 25 Fire
Stations sanctioned by the Government recently are yet to be opened. The following is the District-wise break-up:
|Sl.No.||Name of the District||No. of Fire Stations functioning||No. of Fire Stations sanctioned and yet to be opened|
8.13 The Federation of Andhra Pradesh, Chambers of Commerce & Industry
The Federation of Andhra Pradesh Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FAPCCI) is a State Level Apex Body of industry, commerce and trade devoted to the cause of commercial and industrial development of Andhra Pradesh. It was established in 1917 as the Hyderabad Chamber of Commerce & Industry and renamed in 1958. Its membership is about 2800.
The Federation holds conferences, seminars & meetings for the benefit of members on latest development in the fields of economy, industry, investment, taxation and their procedures and the regulations. The Federation invites top dignitaries and senior officials of the State and Central Government to address and interact with members on various problems of industry, commerce and trade. Representations are made to the authorities for seeking gainful solutions to the problems faced by industry and trade from time to time.
Services of an Industrial Relations Specialist are made available to membes to advise them on resolving industrial disputes, enforcement of labour legislation i.e. Factories Act, Provident Fund, ESI, Bonus, Gratuity, Shops & Establishments, Minimum Wages, Workmen’s Compensation, Maternity Benefits, etc. Changes brought about in labour policy and legislation are promptly brought to the notice of the members and on matters affecting them adversely, representations are made to Government at all levels besides meeting the Minister concerned, Secretary and Heads of Department. Wherever required, necessary legal help is obtained for taking steps collectively to safeguard the interest of members.
8.14 The Employers’ Federation Of Southern India
The sluggish world economy and its fall out on Indian economy continued during the year under review, though there were signs of recovery towards the end of the period. The Indian industries in general continued to face stiff competition from cheaper imports but nevertheless there were improvements in industrial protection and exports. However, information technology and software industries in India continued their growth and sustained its position as one of the leading players in the world in that field. Though the job growth in other industries was practically nil, this industry alone maintained growth in employment as well as substantial earnings from exports and its services. The inflation rate according to the Economic Survey presented in the Parliament was 4.4% compared to 2.6% for the same period last year and the economic growth was scaled down to 4.4% from 5.6% a year ago.
As far as labour reforms were concerned much was expected out of the Recommendations of the Second National Commission on Labour submitted to the Government in June 2002. The Commission made some positive recommendations regarding creating new work culture, economic sufficiency and special problems of small industries and also extensive measures to be taken for the protection of unorganized sector of the labour.
The Standing Labour Committee traditionally settles the agenda for the Indian Labour Conference. The Workers’ and the Employers’ Organisations were requested to furnish the suggestions in this regard. The following four items have been considered for inclusion of any two of these in the agenda for the 38th Session of the Indian Labour Conference:
There was one meeting of the ESI Medical Council which considered matters relating to provision of medical benefits and other related matters. Some of the important issues discussed by the Medical Benefit Council were:
ILO – IPEC (AP State based) Project is working for elimination of Child Labour. Towards achieving the objective, APSBP selected Consortium of Employers’ Associations for the elimination of Child Labour (CEASE – Child Labour) as an implementing Agency to sensitise in general for the elimination of Child Labour in Andhra Pradesh.
EFSI – AP Branch as one of the Executive Agencies has to take up the following activities among other things;
Towards this end and for successful completion of the above activities, EFSI – AP Branch has identified a Focal Point for Child Labour (FPCL), Mr. A.S. Prasad, Sr. General Manager (P & A), AGI Glaspac and advised him to complete the activities assigned to SFSI – AP Branch within the stipulated period. The support structure around FPCL is also selected with “Key senior Members” from HR field from member organizations.
The scope of the study was limited to cover the organisations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948 was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident forms. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, availability of safety reports, etc. as per the provisions of the Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was outside the scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, a more elaborate and in-depth study is required to be taken up to get a comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.
The findings and recommendations as brought out by the study are summarised below :
1. Submission of returns by the factories
In the State of Andhra Pradesh, there are 36,290 registered factories out of which 30,747 factories are working factories. This includes 15,275 factories registered under Section 85(i). The number of factories submitting returns is 10348. As the annual returns contain vital information such as average daily employment, man-hours worked, man-days lost, number of accidents, provision of health and welfare facilities, etc. which are essential for the compilation of State level inventory on Occupational Safety and Health, it is recommended that the submission of annual returns should be made compulsory for all the registered factories.
2. Analysis of Accidents
The analysis of accidents according to industry reveals that 22 % of the total fatal accidents are in the ‘Manufacture of food products & beverages’ and 60.27 % of total Non Fatal accidents are in the "Manufacture of Textile" . The Causation-wise analysis of fatal accidents indicates “person falling” accounted for 22 % of the total accidents and non fatal accidents indicates “Stepping and Striking against object” accounted for 14.30 % of the total accidents followed by 32.61 % of total accidents accounted for "Others" reason. The analysis is indicative of the fact that more enforcement and training efforts are required in the above mentioned classifications. It is therefore, recommended that housekeeping measures and use of personal protective equipment should be insisted upon during the inspection rounds of the enforcement authorities and during the training sessions
3. Organising Seminars, Workshops, etc.
In addition to what is being done by the non-governmental organization such as the National Safety Council AP Chapter, the Loss Prevention Association of India may also take up similar activities in the field of Occupational Safety and Health on a large scale. This should include organizing Seminars, Workshops on the issues arising out of liberalization, privatization and globalization, modern manufacturing techniques, technological developments in the field of manufacturing etc. vis-a-vis their impact on the safety, health and welfare of the workers.
4. Training for Trade Union Officials
In order to promote safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories, training programmes, seminars and workshops should be organized to increase the awareness of the Trade Union Officials in the field of occupational safety and health. The Unit level Trade Union Officials should be involved in training and education of workers in the field of Occupational Safety and Health. In such programmes, more emphasis should be given on the role of Union Leaders in the field of Safety and Health at the workplace.
5. Collection and Dissemination of Data on Occupational Safety and Health in the State
While collecting the statistics regarding the factories as well as the accidents, it was found by the study team that although the factories were submitting the annual returns in the prescribed format to the local offices as well as to the Regional Offices and Headquarters, the information was not being compiled and sent to the Headquarters in time. As a result the collected information could not be processed and the trends regarding various parameters on occupational safety and health could not be established. A closer examination of the issue reveals that the information at the field level could not be compiled or is taking time for compilation because of manpower shortage. It is, therefore, suggested that all field level offices should be equipped with suitable> This arrangement will also improve the communication among the offices under the Chief Inspector of Factories leading to effective implementation of the orders issued under the provisions of the Factories Act eliminating the delays.
6. Constitution of State Level Tripartite Committee
In order to review the status of safety, health and welfare in the factories and formulate an action plan on the basis of findings from time to time, a state level tripartite committee on occupational safety and health should be constituted under the Chairmanship of the Labour Minister. In this committee representatives of Government departments, connected with factories and labour, representatives of employers’ and employees’ may be included. This is also in line with the recommendations made by Standing Labour Committee to the Indian Labour Conference.
7. Interaction between DGFASLI and CIF Office
For better interaction between DGFASLI, RLI and CIF Office and for exchange of information relating to Occupational Safety and Health frequent interaction among the officers DGFASLI and the CIF Office is necessary.
THE THIRD SCHEDULE
(See Section 89 and 90)
THE THIRD SCHEDULE
|Sl. No.||Occupational Disease||Employment|
|1||Infectious and parasitic diseases contracted in an occupation where there is a particular risk of contamination.|
|2||Diseases caused by work in compressed air.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|3||Diseases caused by lead or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|4||Poisoning by nitrous fumes||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|5||Poisoning by organphosphorus compounds||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|Sl. No.||Occupational Disease||Employment|
|1||Diseases caused by phosphorus or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|2||Diseases caused by mercury or its toxic compounds||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|3||Diseases caused by benzene or its toxic homologues||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|4||Diseases caused by nitro and amino toxic derivatives of benzene or its homologues||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|5||Diseases caused by chromium or its toxic compounds||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|6||Diseases caused by arsenic or its toxic compounds||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|7||Diseases caused by readioactive substances and ionizing radiations||All work involving exposure to the reaction of readioactive substances or ionizing radiations.|
|8||Primary epithelomatous cancer of the skin caused by tar, pitch bitumen, mineral oil, anthracene or the compounds, products or residues of these substances||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|9||Diseases caused by the toxic halogen derivatives by hydrocarbons (of the aliphatic and aromatic series)||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|10||Diseases caused by the carbon disulphide||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|11||Occupational cataract due to infra-red radiations||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|12||Diseases caused by manganese or its toxic compounds||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|13||Skin diseases caused by physical, chemical or biological agents not included in other items.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|14||Hearing impairment caused by noise.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|15||Poisoning by dinitrophenol or a homologue or by substituted dinitrophenol or by the salts of such substances.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|16||Diseases caused by beryllium or its toxic compounds.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|17||Diseases caused by cadmium or its toxic compounds||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|18||Occupational asthma caused by recognized sensitizing agents inherent to the work process||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|19||Diseases caused by fluorine or its toxic compounds||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|20||Diseases caused by nitroglycerine or other nitroacid esters.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|21||Diseases caused by alcohols and ketones||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|22||Diseases caused by asphyxiants, carbon monoxide, and its toxic derivatives, hydrogen sulfide.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|23||Lung cancer and mesotheliomas caused by asbestos.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|24||Primary neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder or the kidneys or the ureter.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|Sl. No.||Occupational Disease||Employment|
|1||Pneumoconiosis caused by solerogenic mineral dust (silicosis, anthraoosilicosis asbestosis) and silico tuberculosis provided that silicosis is an essential factor in causing the resultant incapacity or death.||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|2||Bagassosis||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|3||Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by cotton, flax hemp and sisal dust (Byssinosis)||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|4||Extrinsic allergic alvoelities caused by the inhalation of organic dusts||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|
|5||Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by hard metals||All work involving exposure to the risk concerned.|