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Introduction

INTRODUCTION

With the rapid growth of technology and globalization of economic review, transfer of technological knowledge has taken place throughout the world at a very fast rate. This knowledge and its application have often led to benefits such as improved productivity and reduced physical exertion. Conversely the misapplication of such technology has given rise to hazards threatening safety and health.

Both management and organized labour have agreed that safety and health on the job is the management responsibility. The duty of an employer is to protect employees against health hazards in addition to their safety . This necessitates designing of newer policies and programmes in respect of safety, health and environment.

Decision where safety is involved often present dilemma for planning authorities. In many cases the authorities have to weigh the advantages, which proposed development might bring against disadvantage that more people might be at some risk. The decision is less difficult when this risk is very great or very small, but many cases it falls between these two extremes.

With the increasing awareness about the environment world over, most of the countries have enacted legislations for protecting environment and establish machinery for their implementation. With a view to promote good standards on environmental practices, International Organization for Standards have developed ISO:14000 series which specifies requirements on environmental management system.

In the emerging scenarios, industries have to effectively deal with multitude of challenge like rapidly involving new technology, shorter life circle, globalization, increased competition and the need to substantially reduce the environmental impact. A national inventory on capabilities and management of occupational safety, health and environment will be of great help for designing and implementing various instruments to protect safety, health and environment of the large workforce working in various sectors of the economy. These requires on line assessment of the present statutes on occupational safety and health in the country. Presently information in this area is not up-to-date and also not readily available for the policy makers. As such a pilot project has been taken up for the state of West Bengal with the objective to collect and compile various information on occupational safety and health and dissemination of information regarding the extent of compilation with the important provisions under the Factories Act, 1948 and the rules framed there under including system of notification of occupational accidents and diseases as per ILO code of practice at the unit level and state level.

1.1. ROLE OF ILO ITS GUIDANCE

India is one of the member of International Labour Organization and has ratified a number of ILO conventions and Recommendations. As a result major part of the ILO code of practices on notification of occupational accidents and diseases are being followed along with the Indian standard ISO 3786 which is on the similar lines of ILO’s code of practice. ILO-OSH 2001 provides a unique international model, compatible with other management system ,standards and guides. It is not legally binding and not intended to replace national laws, regulations and accepted standards.

It reflects ILO’s values such as tripartism and relevant international standards including the Occupational Safety and Health Convention 1981 (No155), Occupational Health Services Convention 1985 (161). The ILO Guidelines encourage the integration of OSH-MS with other management system and state that OSH should be an integral part of business management. While integration is desirable, flexible arrangements are required depending on the size and type of operation. Ensuring good OSH performance is more important than formality of integration. As well as this, ILO-OSH 2001 emphasizes that OSH should be a line management responsibility at the organization.

The guidelines provide guidance for implementation at two levels – national (Chapter 2) and organizational (Chapter 3).

1.2. NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FRAMEWORK

At the national level, they provide for the establishment of a national framework for occupational safety and health (OSH) management systems, preferably supported by national laws and regulations. Action at national level includes the nomination of (a) competent institution (s) for OSH-MS, (b) the formulation of a coherent national policy and (c) the establishment of ILO-OSH 2001, either by means of its direct implementation in organizations or its adaptation to national conditions and practice (by national guidelines) and specific needs of organizations in accordance with their size and nature of activities (by tailored guidelines).

The National Policy for OSH-MS should be formulated by competent institution(s) in consultation with employers’ and workers’ organizations, and should consider:

¹ Promotion of OSH-MS as a part of overall management

¹ Promote voluntary arrangements for systematic OSH improvement

¹ Avoid unnecessary bureaucracy, administration and costs

¹ Support by labour inspectorate, safety and health and other services

The functions and responsibilities of implementing institutions should be clearly defined as well. Figure 1 of the Guidelines describes the elements of the national framework for OSH managements systems. It shows the different ways in which ILO-OSH 2001 may be implemented in a member State:

Figure 1

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1.3 ACTIVITIES COVERED

The activities of this project have been divided in the following categories:

1) Background information about the state of West Bengal –

Deals with the demographic and geographic characteristic of the state of West Bengal, population in different districts and major occupations of the people.

2) Economic activities

Deals with the various aspects of economic sectors in the state, their value of production, employment generated and contribution to the GDP.

3) Activities in manufacturing sector

Deals with the different activities carried out in the manufacturing sector as per the National Industries Code, value of production, employment generation, etc.

4) Occupational injuries and diseases

Deals with the analysis of the occupational injuries – fatal and non-fatal and cases of occupational diseases in the manufacturing sector.

5) Management of occupational safety and health

Deals with the infrastructure and resources available at the unit level and the state level for managing the crucial issue of occupational safety and health.

6) Resources available and needed for the management of occupational safety and health

Based on the analysis of occupational injuries, diseases and the capabilities available in the state of West Bengal for the management of occupational safety and health, an attempt is made to assess the resources required for the better management of occupational safety and health.

The information pertaining to various economic sectors was collected by visiting each of the departments, having detailed discussions with the respective heads and referring to the annual returns of these departments. The information related with the manufacturing sectors were collected from the annual returns submitted by the factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948. The data related to the occupational injuries and diseases were analyzed by studying the accident forms and recording them on to the data sheets specifically designed for this purpose.

For the assessment of infrastructure available and capabilities of the organizations, institutions and agencies engaged in safety and health, the profile programme on the similar lines as that developed by ILO was used.

Data collection and analysis could be efficiently completed in specific time frame because of active co-operation from various people involved with the project.

Background information

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Industrial development in West Bengal dates back to the latter part of 19th century when jute mills were set up along the sides of river Hooghly. These were followed by engineering, iron and steel, cotton textile, chemicals and other industries. At present, important large scale industries in West Bengal include (i) Jute and textile (ii) Iron steel (iii) Engineering (iv) Petroleum refining (v) Chemicals (vi) Paper (vii) Tea (viii) Cotton textile (ix) Leather.

West Bengal is dominated by tropical humid or sub-humid type of climate. This type of climate is suitable

Further, availability of raw materials, power, supply of labour, port facilities and surface transport facilities are the favourable factors for the development of industries in West Bengal.

Development of industrial base is primarily dependent on the availability of power. Rapid progress in the generation of thermal power has made a very important contribution to the development of the industries.

Installed power generation capacity in 1950-51 was less than 600 mega-watt. At present, it is nearly 7,000 megawatt. 98% of its come from coal based thermal power stations. Thermal power generation accounts for the highest proportion of coal consumption in West Bengal. Consumption of coal by this sector increased from 63% of the total consumption in 1994-95 to 70% of the total in 2000-01.

West Bengal is the pioneer and till now most important State in the country for the manufacturing of jute textiles. At present there are 81 jute mills in West Bengal (including now operating jute mills). In 2000-2001, total production of jute textiles in West Bengal was 1.39 million tones.

West Bengal is one of the leading States in the production of engineering goods. export of engineering goods from West Bengal is highly significant. Major engineering industries include machine tool, textile machinery, transport equipment, railways engine, wagon manufacturing, precision engineering tools, ship building etc.

West Bengal possesses two out of seven integrated iron and steel plants of the country. Total production of finished steel in West Bengal increased from 1.03 million tones in 1991-92 to 1.40 million tones in 1999-2000.

Tea industry plays an important role in the economy of West Bengal. Total production of tea in West Bengal increased from 133.19 million kgs in 1980 to 180.72 million kgs in 2000. During the same period, total number of tea estates remain unchanged at 306. West Bengal is the 2nd largest tea producing state in India following Assam and accounted for 21.3% of the country’s total production in 2000.

Leather industry occupies an important position in the industrial economy of the State. West Bengal is the highest foreign exchange earner from the export of finished leather goods among all the States in India. The State accounts for 15% of the total production of leather and leather products of India.

2.1. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHICAL STRUCTURE

West Bengal is essentially a flat, fearless alluvial plain, only 1% of her area in the far north is really mountainous and about 6% of the area in the west is low plateau. Thus the relief of West Bengal can be divided into 3 main divisions viz.

(1) The Northern Mountains

(2) The Western Plateau And The Fringing Uplands

(3) The Plains

(1) The Northern Mountains : The Northern Mountains occupy about northern two-third of Darjeeling district and a minor area in the north-east of the district of Jalpaiguri. The mountains of both of these district belong to the folded Himalayan system and have connection through Bhutan.

(2) The Western Plateau and the Fringing Uplands : The Western Plateau and the Fringing Uplands covers an area comprising of the whole of Purulia district, the Western part of Birbhum, Bankura and Burdwan districts and a small part in the north-east of Midnapore. The principal rivers of the plateau viz. the Bakreswar, the Kopai, the Ajoy, the Kangsabati, the Subarnarekha and some others generally flow eastward following the general slope of the country.

(3) The Plains : The whole of West Bengal excluding the Northern Mountains and the Western Plateau is an alluvial plain drained by the Ganga and its various tributaries. They are (a) the Tarai (b) the North Bengal Plain (c) The Ganga Delta, (d) the Rahr Plain and (e) the Sandy Coastal plain Kanthi.

(a) The Terai his along the junction between the hills and plains in the Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts of West Bengal. The part of Terai that lies east of the Tista is known as ‘Duars’ which is so called because it affords, as if, a number of doors to enter Bhutan. The Terai has higher elevation and steeper slope than the remaining part of the plain.

(b) The Northern Plain lying between the Ganga and the Terai comprised of newer and finer alluvium. However, a substantial part in the south of West Dinajpur and in the north east of Malda is built up with old alluvium. The tract is known as the Barind which extends beyond West Bengal to Bangladesh.

(c) The Ganga Delta : The plain south of the Ganga and east of the Bhagirathi-Hooghly is generally recognized as the Ganga Delta which occupies.

(d) The Rahr Plain: The Rahr Plain lies east of the Western Plateau Fringe, west of the Bhagirathi-Hooghly and north-west of sandy coastal plain of Kanthi. The western section of the plain is slightly higher and undulating whereas the eastern counterpart, built upon new alluvium, is lower and flat. The region is drained by a number of rivers of which the Mayurakshi, the Ajoy, the Damodar. The Darakeswar, the Silabati, the Kangsabati are the most important.

(e) The Sandy Coastal Plain, Kanthi : The plain extends as a strip along the Midnapore coast mainly from the west of the Hooghly river to the border of Orissa. Its inland extension is about 10-15 km. from the coast. A belt of sand dunes run parallel to the coast and the beaches at places are sandy and firm and at places marshy. Here are also found a number of salt creeks or which the Rasulpur river is the most important.

2.2 DENSITY OF POPULATION

West Bengal is a state covered by 87,853 sq. km. area in the eastern part of the country. Population of the state is nearly 68,077,965 (As per 1991 census) and density of population is 767 (approx.) per sq. km. This high density of population is primarily due to

(a) Progressive agricultural activities in the Gangetic plain

(b) Presence of minerals and power (including hydel power) resources in the coal fields of the Damodar basin e.g. Raniganj, Assam etc.

(c) Rapid industrialization and development of commerce and trade activities in Kolkata, Howrah , Durgapur, Asansol.

(d) Level plains with easy accessibility as developed in the flat alluvial deltaic plains of Southern West Bengal.

2.3 STRATEGIC BENEBITS AS METROPOLITAN CITY

Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal, is situated on the bank of the lower Hooghly river. It is one of the four metropolitan city of the country. Kolkata had over 10.9 million inhabitants in 1991. It is the largest metropolitan city and second biggest port of cultural, commercial and industrial centre of India. Kolkata is served by the eastern railway, South Eastern Railway, Metro Railway, numerous navigable waterways and airways(with international airport-Dum Dum).

2.3.1 MAJOR PORT

Kolkata port is one of the 11 major ports of India. It is located on the left bank of the river Hooghly in West Bengal. It is a significant port in eastern India. The port is fully equipped with dock systems for handling bulk carrier and bigger vessels. But dredging is required throughout the year due to variable depth of water in the Hooghly river.

The hinterland Kolkata serves West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Mizoram, Uttar Pradesh, parts of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. Its extensive hinterland is also rich in minerals, forest resources and different agricultural as well as industrial products and is well connected with Kolkata by roads, railways and airways. The chief exports are tea, coal, sugar, gunnies and other jute goods, iron and steel manufacture bone-meal, railways wagons, lac, mica, scrap, leather goods etc. The imports are foodgrains, flour rice, machinery, oil, sulphur, fertilizer, petroleum, cement, timber, railways equipments etc.

2.3.2 PHYSICAL DIVISIONS

According to physical features West Bengal can be divided into three physical divisions. They are:

i) Mountains and Hills

ii) Highland Plateaus

iii) Plains

i) Mountains and Hills : The middle and outer Himalaya in Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts constitute this region.

ii) Uplands of the Western Plateau Fringe: This physical region is geologically the oldest part of West Bengal. It extend over the whole of Purulia and the Western part of Midnapure, Bankura, Burdwan and Birbhum districts.

iii) Riverine Plains and Delta: The vast alluvial plains stretch from the northern foothills to the Southern coasts.

2.3.3 INTERNATIONAL BORDERS

West Bengal has international borders with three independent states – Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Besides, China is also a very close neighbour. No other state in India has so many independent neighbours.

2.3.4 CLIMATE

West Bengal experiences a hot and humid monsoon climate. But diversity in hypsographical features as well as in geographical situation of its different parts have caused diversity in climate. The climate of West Bengal can be divided into 4 principal seasons.

i) Hot weather or summer season – (March to May)

ii) Rainy season – (June to September)

iii) Autumn season – (October to November)

iv) Winter season – (December to February)

2.3.5. AGRICULTURE

Importance of agriculture

Warm and humid climate and vast areas of fertile plain lands have caused the agriculture to be developed as the most magnificent economic activity of the State. Nearly ²/³ rd of the total land area of West Bengal is used for cultivation. Importance of agriculture in the economy of West Bengal may be mentioned as follows:

1. Agricultural sector is the most important employment generating sector of the State. According to the 1991 census; 53% of the total workers of the State are directly engaged in agriculture. Agriculture also indirectly constitutes to the employment generation by promoting agro-based industries and other agriculture-related activities.

2. Contribution of agricultural sector to the State domestic product is greater than any other economic sector of West Bengal. In 1999-2000 this sector accounted for Rs. 33,241 crores which was 26% of the total domestic product.

3. Agriculture has promoted the development of agro-based industries in West Bengal. Jute is a very important commercial crop in the State and it supports the jute textile industry in the Hooghly industrial region in and around Kolkata. The State accounts for most of the jute textiles produced in India. Tea is another important industry in the State. Kolkata is the biggest auction market for tea in India. Rice mills, oil mills, silk industry etc. are other important agro-based industries in the State.

4. West Bengal is the largest producer of rice in India. Surplus rice production in the State provides income opportunities to the rice farmers.

Contribution of West Bengal to all India production of selected crops and comparative yield rates

CropsProduction (as % of the country’s total)Production rank in India (2000-01)Yield rate in 2000-01 (Kgs. Per hectare)
1980-811985-861999-912000-01West BengalIndia
Rice13.9%12.5%14.0%14.6%1st2,2871,913
Wheat1.3%1.6%1.0%1.5%9th2,4852,743
Jute57.6%59.9%60.2%71.7%1st2,1822,014
Tea23.4%24.0%20.8%21.3%2nd1,647N. A.
Potato20.4%26.5%29.5%34.7%2nd25,60618,421

[Source: Economic Review, Government of West Bengal] N. A. = Not Available

2.3.6. FAVOURABLE CONDITIONS FOR THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN WEST BENGAL

Physical Conditions

1) Climate: Climate of West Bengal in general is warm and humid which is highly favourable for the development of Agriculture. Annual average rainfall is around 200 c.m. which is most suitable Temperature is favourable for cultivation is most of the places except in the high Himalayan areas of Darjeeling district. Monsoon is the main rainfall season in West Bengal which occurs between June and September. But pre-monsoon non-western rainfall is also important for the development of agriculture in southern part of West Bengal.

2) Soil: Alluvial soil is the most dominant type of soil in West Bengal except in the places .ie fringes of the western districts and Himalayan areas of Darjeeling district. Moderately high clay content of alluvial soil of the deltaic part of the State causes high water retention capacity. This is suitable

Coarsely textured soils of the sub-Himalayan region of north Bengal and red hilly soils of the Darjeeling Himalayan are suitable

Silly alluvial soil of Hooghly and Burdwan districts is also favourable for the cultivation of potato.

3) Land Form: Depositional plain land is the most common type of landform in West Bengal with exception of northern most and Western most parts of the state. This type of landform is most favourable for the cultivation of rice, jute and many other crops and vegetable

4) Inland Waterbodies: Presence of the river Ganga and its perennial tributaries and distributaries facilitate the development of irrigation system. This is particularly more important when river valley projects have been developed.

2.3.7. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

1. Demand. West Bengal is one of the most densely populated state in India. For this reason, demand for crops is very high which results into the development of intensive agricultural practices for the cultivation of food grains. Cash crops like jute has a high industrial demand within the state that is a motivating factor for the development of jute cultivation.

2. Technology. Agriculture in West Bengal is basically traditional. But in recent years there is a rapid increase in the uses of modern technological inputs. These inputs not only include chemical fertilizers and high yielding varieties of (HYV) seeds but also sometimes portable Uses of these inputs have caused a significant increase in the production of agricultural commodities.

3. Labour. In spite of the growth of other sectors of economy, agriculture is still the dominant employment-generating sector providing employment to more than half of the state’s total working population. Labour intensive agricultural practices have been developed due to the high density of population in the rural areas. Easy availability of traditionally skilled agricultural workers is a favorable condition for the growth and development of agriculture in the state.

4. Land Reform. Redistribution of surplus agricultural land under the land reform measures had caused the more efficient and intensive utilization of the cultivable lands of the state. Till September, 2001, 4.28 lakh hectares of surplus land were distributed to 26.05 lakh beneficiaries. Registration of share croppers under the land reform programme has also created a favorable situation for the development of agriculture. It has obtained the security of tenure for the share croppers, thereby creating greater motivation and more involvement of these people in the agricultural activities.

2.3.8. MEASURES TAKEN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

1. Redistribution of surplus land. This is one of the most successful measures to involve more people in agriculture and to ensure more efficient utilization of agricultural land. This measure has increased the multiple cropping areas (areas cultivated more than once in a year) and the yield rates have also been increased.

2. Registration of share croppers. This is also a very important measure to ensure the security of tenure for the share croppers so that they are better motivated and more actively involved in the development of agriculture. Till September, 2000, 1495 lakh share croppers registered their names under the scheme Operation Barga.

3. Expansion of irrigation facilities. Development of irrigation potential has been given utmost importance mainly through the creation of minor irrigation potential. Till the end of March, 2001 total gross minor irrigation potential created in the state was 34.64 lakh hectares of which 28.68 lakh hectares were utilized. Till March, 2001, total area under major irrigation schemes was 10.39 lakh hectares. In 1999-2000, 28% of the net sown area was under irrigation. Most significant achievements in the development of irrigation in recent years have been made in Jalpaiguri district and Darjeeling district (plain area) due to Teesta Barrage Project.

4. Increase in gross cropped area. Net sown area has remained more or less same during the last years or so as it was not possible to convert the non-agricultural areas into agricultural areas. So, the only way to increase total area under cultivation was to increase the gross cropped area through the practices of multiple cropping (if one hectare of land is cultivated thrice a year, gross cropped area is 1 X 3 = 3 hectares). Due to the increase in multiple cropping, total gross cropped area increased from 86.6 lakh hectares in 1990-91 to 91.2 lakh hectares in 2000-01.

5. Uses of high yielding varieties of seeds. Increasing uses of high yielding varieties of seeds have increased the crop production to a significant extent and have increased the extent of multiple cropping. Area under high yielding varieties of rice increased from 29.6% of total rice farming area in 1980-81 to 88.6% of total rice farming area in 2000-01. Most of the Aus and all the Boro rice cultivation areas are now under high yielding varieties of rice.

6. Uses of modern agricultural machinery. Traditionally, agriculture in West Bengal is based on muscle power of man and animals. But in recent years, different measures have been taken by the government to introduce small and portable

7. Development of dry land farming. The state government has promoted modern dry land farming practices in 59 blocks of five districts, namely, Bankura, Birbhum, Purulia, Midnapore (Western part) and Burdwan (some parts). These areas suffer from low and erratic rainfall, limited irrigation potential and poor soil status. The strategy involves (i) soil and water management, (ii) cropping system management, (iii) fertilizer application management and (iv) alternative land use management.

8. Development of agricultural research. Emphasis has been given to promote research activities related to the farming practices, seeds, fertilizer applications, soil and water management techniques etc. A Dryland Research Station has been set up in Bankura, Bidhan Chandra Agricultural University has been set up in Kalyani to promote research and development of agriculture.

2.3.9. ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIES IN WEST BENGAL

Agricultural resource laid the foundation of early industrial development in the state when jute textile industry was developed at the later part of 19th century. It was followed by other industries some of which became important at the national level.

Agriculture in West Bengal has promoted industrial development in the following ways:

i) Some of the agricultural crops produced in West Bengal are used as raw materials for agro-based industries. Most important crop for this purpose is jute that supports the jute textile industry in West Bengal. Other important crops are tea promoting, tea packaging industry and sugarcane promoting, sugar industry. Besides this, mulberry cultivation promotes silk textile industry.

ii) Development of agriculture has created an economic base in the rural areas which encourages industrial development. There is an expansion of market in the rural areas for the industrial goods which is a motivating factor for the development of consumer goods industry.

iii) Agricultural sector creates demand for certain industrial products which are used as inputs for agriculture. These include fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural machinery, etc. There is an increasing demand for these inputs in the rural areas of West Bengal which encourage the setting up of these industries.

2.3.10. DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIES BASED ON AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES

1) Jute textile industry. West Bengal is the single largest producer of raw jute in India. Industrial development in the state started with the development of jute textile industry. It is not only one of the most important industries in West Bengal, it is an export earning industry for the country. At present West Bengal possesses 47 out of 58 jute mills in the country and accounts for 85% of the country’s total value of jute output.

2) Tea industry. West Bengal is the 2nd largest tea producing state in India and accounts for little more than ¹/5 th of the country’s total production. Development of tea leaf processing (like CTC tea) and tea packaging industry in the state is based on the cultivation of tea in the northern districts of West Bengal. Kolkata is the biggest auction market for tea in India. Rice mills, oil mills, silk industry etc. are other important agro-based industries in the State.

3) Sugar industry. Sugarcane cultivation in West Bengal is mainly found in Nadia and Murshidabad districts and also in Birbhum district. Cultivation of sugarcane has promoted the development of sugar mills in Palasi (Nadia district), Beldanga (Murshidabad district) and Ahmedpur (Birbhum district).

4) Silk industry. Mulberry cultivation for sericulture has become highly significant in Malda and the development of silk industry in Murshidabad and other districts is largely based on it.

5) Other industries. Other agro-based industries in West Bengal include rice mills, oil mills, fruit processing industry (mainly in north Bengal), tobacco industry, etc.

2.4. CROPS

Major Crops

Jute: Jute is one of the very important cash-crops in India and West Bengal has virtually monopolized the cultivation of this crop by accounting for 71.7% of the country’s total production in 2000-2001. Yield rate of jute increased from 1,310 kgs. per hectare in 1980-81 to 2,182 kgs. per hectare in 2000-01. Production of jute in West Bengal increased from 4.42 million tones to 7.43 million to 7.43 million tones during the same period. But unlike other major crops of the state production shows a fluctuating trend from year to year. There had been a sharp increase of production between 1980-81 to 1985-86 with a rise of 67% but declined in the next 5 years by 25%. It again increased by 35% in the following 10 years. These fluctuations are caused by the instability of jute textile industry.

Favourable condition for cultivation: Jute requires an average temperature of more than 25ºC and an average rainfall of more than 150 cm. Deep loamy soil and plain land are other favourable physical conditions. All these are present in greater part of the state. Presence of jute textile industry in the Hooghly Industrial Region creates a good demand for jute.

Producing area: With the exception of hilly areas of the north and plateau margins of the west, jute is cultivated in all places of West Bengal. Major jute cultivating districts are Hooghly, Nadia, Murshidabad, North 24 Parganas, Uttar and Dakshin Dinajpur, Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri.

Producing

Tea: West Bengal is the 2nd largest tea producing state in India following Assam. In 2000-01, West Bengal accounted for 21.3% of the country’s total production. This share has remained more or less unchanged since 1990-91. The production increased from 133.2 million kgs. in 1980-81 to 180.7 million kgs. in 2000-01. Yield rate during the same period made an increase from 1,424 kgs. to 1,647 kgs. per hectare.

Favourable conditions: Tea cultivation normally does not compete with rice cultivation for location as the required physical conditions are largely different. Tea requires (i) high rainfall, preferable around 200 cm. in a year, (ii) moderate to high temperature, (iii) sloping ground to avoid inundation, (iv) well-drained and preferably porous soil. These conditions are found in Darjeeling district and in foothill and other areas of Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar districts. Long tradition of tea cultivation, high internal demand and high demand for Darjeeling tea in the international market are other favourable for the development.

Producing areas: Mountain slopes of Darjeeling normally below an altitude of 2,000 metres and Terai and Dooars region of north Bengal in Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar districts are the tea producing areas of West Bengal. More than ¾ th of the total production of the state come from the Dooars region.

2.4.1. MINERAL RESOURCES

West Bengal is not very rich in mineral resources. Vast alluvial plains in West Bengal has made it a poorly prospecting zone for the development of mineral resources. Most important mineral resource in the state is coal. Among the non-fuel minerals only fire clay is found in an adequate amount. Metallic mineral resources are mostly absent or found in meager amount.

Coal

West Bengal is presently the 6th largest producer of coal in India. In 2000-01, it produced 20.09 million tones of coal and accounted for 6% of the country’s total production.

In spite of a large production, West Bengal is a coal deficit state due to high demand and the consumption far exceeds the production as indicated below:

YearProductionConsumptionDeficit
  Power GenerationSteelOthersTotal 
1994-9517.2415.315.423.6724.40-7.16
1997-9817.8916.633.293.5623.48-5.56
2000-0120.0919.344.533.8227.69-7.60

‘-‘ indicates deficit in production which is met by the supply from other states.

[Source: Compiled from different sources]

Thermal power generation accounts for the highest proportion of coal consumption in West Bengal. Consumption of coal by this sector increased from 63% of the total consumption in 1994-95 to 70% of the total in 2000-01. Steel is the second largest consumer but consumption by this sector declined from 22% to 16% of total consumption of coal in West Bengal during the same period. Brick-klins are in the category of other major consumers of coal.

Major coal-based thermal power stations in West Bengal are Bandel, Santaldih, Mejhia, Durgapur, Waria, Disergarh, Kolaghat, Titagarh, Cossipure, Mulajore, Metiabruj, Budge Budge and Farakka. Installed capacity of these power project with an installed capacity of 630 mega-watt has recently started commercial production.

2.4.2. IMPORTANCE OF COAL IN WEST BENGAL AS A SOURCE OF POWER

1. Development of iron and steel industry. Early development of iron and steel industry in West Bengal was caused by the availability of coal. IISCO at Burnpur (near Asansol) which started commercial production in 1919, was developed primarily due to the availability of coal in the Raniganj-Asansol coal belt. After independence, Durgapur plant was developed during Second Five-year Plan and the location near Raniganj coalfield was a major factor for development.

2. Development of other industries. Development of industrial base is primarily dependent on the availability of power. Availability of coal in Raniganj coalfield has promoted the early development of industries in this state. Durgapur-Assansol industrial region largely includes heavy industries which are based on coal and engineering industries which are based on steel and also on coal as a source of power. In recent years, rapid improvement of power generation has encouraged the development of industrial and commercial activities in the state.

3. Power generation. Rapid progress in the generation of thermal power has made a very important contribution to the economic development of the state. Installed power generation capacity in 1950-61 was less than 600 mega-watt. At present, it is nearly 7,000 megawatt.

2.5. INDUSTRIES

Industrial development in West Bengal dates back to the latter part of 19th century when jute mills were set up along two sides of river Hooghly. These were followed by engineering, iron and steel, cotton textile, chemicals and other industries. At present, important large scale industries in West Bengal include (i) jute textile, (ii) iron and steel, (iii) engineering, (iv) petroleum refining, (v) chemicals, (vi) paper, (vii) cotton textile, (viii) leather and (ix) tea industry.

2.5.1. FAVOURABLE FACTOR FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIES IN WEST BENGAL

1. Availability of raw materials. Two kinds of primary raw material are important in West Bengal for the development of industries.

(i) West Bengal is noted for its rich agricultural base. Some of the agricultural crops produced in West Bengal act as raw materials for industries. Of these, jute is most important which is the basis for the development of jute textile industry in the state. Other crops include tea (for tea industry), sugarcane (for sugar industry) and mulberry cultivation (for sericulture promoting silk industry).

(ii) Mineral resources form the secondary category of raw material for the development of industries. Production of mineral resources in the state is not considered to be very significant but some of these have promoted the localization of industries. Most of these industries are in the small scale. For example, availability of china clay has promoted the development of potteries in Bankura and Purulia districts. Fire clay is found in the coalfield areas of Raniganj and it has promoted the manufacturing of refractory bricks which are highly heat resistant.

Among the large scale industries, iron and steel industry in Burnpur initially started by using iron-stone deposits of Raniganj, but the deposit was soon exhausted.

2. Availability of power. Coal is the most important power resource in West Bengal. The state is presently the 6th largest producer of coal in India and in 2000-01, it accounted for 6% of the country’s total production. Raniganj is the main coal mining area of the state. Early development of the iron and steel industry in West Bengal took place due to the availability of high quality coal in Raniganj which is used both as a source of power as well as raw material. Total generation of power in the state at the end of 1998 was 6,441 mega-watt and 98% of it came from coal-based thermal power stations. Major thermal power stations are Bandel, Santaldih, Kolaghat, Farakka and recently commissioned Bakreswar. Recent developments of hydropower in north Bengal would encourage the development of industrial activities in the region.

West Bengal is presently designated as a power-surplus state and this condition is likely to promote further industrial growth.

3. Transport development. Landform in West Bengal does not create any obstacle for the development of surface transport except in the hills of Darjeeling district. West Bengal is linked with other states both by roadways and railways. Total length of all types of roads in West Bengal (as on 31-03-2000) is 80,433 km. Of these, 17,472 km. of roads, are maintained by the Public Works Department (P.W.D.) of Government of West Bengal. Road density in the state is 0.91 km. of road per sq. km. of area, which is much higher than the national average of 0.59 km. Total route km. of railways in West Bengal (as on 31-03-2001) is 3,102 km. with 1,073 railway stations. All the districts of West Bengal are connected by a dense network of roads and also by railways. These ensure easy movement of raw materials to the industrial centers and finished products from the industrial centers to the market areas.

Waterways also play an important role in the development of industries in southern parts of West Bengal. Navigability of river Hooghly was one of the most important factors for the early development of industries on the two sides of river Hooghly.

4. Port facilities. Kolkata port is regarded as a gateway to eastern India and it is one of the most important ports in the country. The port facilitates, the import of raw materials and machinery and the export of finished products. Haldia port in Midnapore district is also a major and it has been developed to reduce the pressure on Kolkata port. Port facility at Haldia has promoted the development of Haldia industrial region.

5. Supply of labour. West Bengal is the most densely populated state in India. As a result, there is no dearth in the availability of labour force for the development of industries. Besides, this, number of educated manpower is significantly high which is another advantage for the development of industries.

6. Growing market in the rural areas. Presence of a rich agricultural base, increase in foodgrains production and land reform measures have increased the purchasing power in the rural areas. As a result, there is a growth of market in the rural areas for the consumer goods industries. This is a motivating factor for the development of industries in the state.

7. Climatic conditions. Climate of West Bengal is dominated by tropical humid or sub-humid type of climate. This type of climate is suitable

8. Government policies. State Government has set up West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation (WBIDC) to promote industrial development in the state. The state Government also established West Bengal Infrastructure Development Finance Corporation (WBIDFC) in May, 1997, for providing financial assistance for implementation of infrastructure projects in the state. These infrastructures development would facilitate the development of industries.

2.5.2. JUTE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

1. Growth and present position. West Bengal is the pioneer and till now most important state in the country for the manufacturing of jute textiles. First jute mill was set up in 1859 at Rishra near Kolkata. Since then a number of mills were established in and around Kolkata and the production was increased rapidly. India became world leader in the production of jute textiles due to the development of the industry in West Bengal. But during the post-independence period, the performance has not been found to be encouraging. Total number of mills have been declined and production has remained more or less stagnant during last 20 years.

At present there are 81 jute mills in West Bengal (including non-operating jute mills). In 2000-01, total production of jute textiles in West Bengal was 1.39 million tones. The products comprised Hessian, sacking and others. Of these, sacking material accounted for 58% of the total production.

2. Location pattern. Jute textile industry in West Bengal is predominantly concentrated on the top banks of river Hooghly near Kolkata. Major centers of production are Naihati, Bhatpara, Titagarh and Kamarhati in North 24 Parganas district; Bansberia, Baidyabati, Rishra and Sreerampore in Hooghly district; Salkia, Howrah and Uluberia in Howrah district and Budge Budge in South 24 Parganas district. Major factors for the development of jute textile industry in these centers are (i) navigability of river Hooghly offering the cheapest mode of transport, (ii) presence of Kolkata port facilitating the export of jute goods, (iii) cultivation of jute in the adjoining areas and (iv) availability of power and other infrastructure facilities.

2.5.3. ENGINEERING INDUSTRY

West Bengal is one of the leading states in the production of engineering goods and export of engineering goods from West Bengal is highly significant. Major engineering industries include machine tools, textile machinery, transport equipment, railway engine, wagon manufacturing, precision engineering goods, ship building, etc.

Favorable factors for the development of engineering industries in West Bengal may be mentioned as follows:

1. Development of engineering industries mainly depends on the skill varieties. Skilled labours are adequately available in different urban areas.

2. Presence of Kolkata port and later the development of Haldia port have facilitated the import of raw materials (as and when necessary) and export of finished engineering goods.

3. Availability of power resource is an advantage for the growth of engineering industries in this state. West Bengal is now regarded as a power surplus state.

4. Iron and steel plants in Durgapur and Burnpur, mini steel plants (mainly rolling mills) and aluminum plants supply the necessary raw materials for the engineering industries.

5. Presence of market for different engineering goods is another favorable factor for the development of these industries.

Locational patterns of engineering industries show the agglomeration of these industries primarily in two places – Hooghly industrial region in an around Kolkata and Durgapur-Asansol industrial region. Some of the important centers are Hind Motor (automobile industry), Garden Reach (ship building and repairing), Belghoria (textile machinery), Chittaranjan (railway engine), Kolkata (precision engineering), Durgapur (heavy machinery), etc. Haldia is expected to grow as an important centre for engineering industries in near future.

2.5.4. IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

West Bengal possesses two out of seven integrated iron and steel plants in India. These are Indian Iron and Steel Co. (IISCO) in Burnpur near Asansol and Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) in Durgapur, both of which are located in Burdwan district. IISCO in Burnpur is the second oldest steel plant in India after TISCO in Jamshedpur. It was set up under private sector and started production in 1918. The steel plant was nationalized at a much later date in 1972. It is located at the heart of the Raniganj-Asansol coalfield area and hence, it may be described as a coal-based location. Initially the steel plant obtained iron ore from the iron ore deposit in Raniganj, but it was soon exhausted. At present, iron ore comes from Gua in Jharkhand. Types of production include steel rods and structural bars. The steel plant has not yet undergone modernization and as a result capacity utilization is the lowest in the country.

Durgapur steel plant was developed during 2nd Five-year Plan under public sector. The location of the plant is on the bank of river Damodar at a distance of 160 km. from Kolkata. The most important locational advantage is its nearness to Raniganj coalfield. Iron ore is brought from Noamundi in Jharkhand. This steel plant has specialized in the production of railway items like wheels, axles, sleepers, etc. Capacity utilization is being increased with the modernization of the steel plant.

Total production of finished steel in West Bengal increased from 1.03 million tones in 1991-92 to 1.40 million tones in 1999-2000.

2.5.5. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

Chemical industry in West Bengal may be divided into different categories. Major categories include (i) heavy chemicals, (ii) petrochemicals, (iii) medicines, (iv) pesticides, (v) soaps and detergents, (vi) cosmetics and (vii) chemical fertilizer.

(i) Heavy chemical industry in West Bengal primarily includes sulphuric acid. Production of Sulphuric acid in West Bengal is mostly concentrated in the Hooghly industrial region of West Bengal. At present there are more than 30 sulphuric acid producing units in West Bengal, many of which are small scale units. Chlorine is another important heavy chemical produced in West Bengal.

(ii) Development of petrochemical industry in West Bengal is a recent phenomenon. Biggest project which has been implemented in the state is Haldia Petrochemicals in West Bengal. It has started production from 02-04-2000. Products of this petrochemical complex mainly include ethylene and propylene which are used as raw materials for other petrochemicals. These two are obtained by cracking naptha, which is imported. Industries which use the products of Haldia Petrochemicals are known as downstream industries. The end products of these industries include plastics, polythene, benzene etc.

(iii) There are several drugs and pharmaceutical manufacturing units in the state most of which are located in and around Kolkata.

(iv) Manufacturing of pesticides is important in the state due to the growing demand from the agricultural sector.

(v) Soaps and detergents have high demand in the urban areas and as a result several manufacturing units have been developed in the urban and metropolitan areas of south Bengal. A big project has been taken up in Haldia by Hindustan Lever Ltd., for the manufacturing of detergent that is under implementation.

(vi) Cosmetics industry is primarily developed in Kolkata metropolitan region. But some of the old cosmetic manufacturing companies have become sick due to several reasons. Recently cosmetic manufacturing has been developed in Durgapur by using the by-products of coal.

(vii) Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Ltd. has two nitrogenous fertilizer producing units in West Bengal. These are located in Durgapur and Haldia. At present, Haldia unit is closed. Two major centers of the production of phosphoric fertilizer are Khardah and Rishra both of which are located near Kolkata. Hindustan Lever Ltd. (HLL) has set up a phosphoric fertilizer plant at Haldia.

Besides, there are other categories, which include paints and varnishes, bleaching powder, hydrochloric acid, etc.

Some of the favorable factors for the development of chemical industry in West Bengal are (i) presence of a large market, (ii) availability of skilled workers, (iii) presence of Kolkata and Haldia ports facilitating import of raw materials, (iv) availability of raw materials from the by-products of coke ovens of the steel plants and (v) infrastructure facilities.

Public sector has an important role to play in the development of chemical industry in the state. Activities of some of the public sector enterprises for chemical industry may be mentioned as follows:

1. The Eastern Distilleries and Chemicals Ltd. manufacture rectified spirit and industrial alcohol.

2. Durgapur Chemicals Ltd. produces soda lye, liquid chlorine, synthetic phenol, etc.

3. Gluconate Health manufacture drugs, particularly life-saving drugs like pethidine and sibanate.

4. West Bengal Chemical Industries manufacture chemicals for pharmaceuticals and other industries.

5. Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation manufacture nitrogenous fertilizer at Durgapur.

2.5.6. PAPER INDUSTRY

Manufacturing of paper in India started in West Bengal. So, it is the pioneer in paper production in India. Following Maharashtra, it is now the 2nd largest state in India on the basis of production capacity (about 1/5th of the country’s total).

Favourable factors for the development of paper industry may be mentioned as follows:

1. Initially the raw material was sabai grass which was brought from Uttar Pradesh and Nepal. Later bamboo was introduced as raw material which is in abundance in West Bengal and also in north-eastern India.

2. Huge amount of waste paper is collected regularly in Kolkata and from surrounding urban areas. These waste papers are also recycled in the paper industry as raw material.

3. Adequate supply of water is needed for paper industry. Paper mills located on the banks of river Hooghly have the advantage of the availability of water from the river.

4. River Hooghly provides the cheap water transport facility.

5. Kolkata is a big market for different varieties of paper and this is a favorable conditioin for the development of paper industry.

6. Consumption of power in paper industry is significantly high. Requirement of power is equivalent to four tones of coal per tonne of paper. Initially coal from Raniganj was used as fuel. Later, the industry began to use electricity generated by thermal power stations.

Present location pattern shows that there are five large paper mills in West Bengal. These are located at (i) Titagarh (Titagarh Paper Mills Ltd.), (ii) Naihati (Indian Paper Pulp Co. Ltd.), (iii) Dakshineswar (WIMCO Paper Mills Ltd.), (iv) Triveni (Triveni tissues Ltd.) and (v) Raniganj (Bengal Paper Mills Ltd.). West Bengal accounts for 1/5th of the total production capacity of paper in India.

Paper industry in West Bengal has a good prospect for future growth due to the following reasons:

1. Kolkata is the focal point of all commercial activities in eastern India. It ensures the presence of a stable

2. There is a steady growth in the literacy rate of West Bengal that causes the increasing demand for paper (mainly writing paper).

3. Growing printing and publishing industry is an advantageous factor for the development of paper industry.

4. Adequate availability of power is another advantage for the development of paper industry.

2.5.7. LEATHER INDUSTRY

Leather industry occupies an important position in the industrial economy of the state. West Bengal is the highest foreign exchange earner from the export of finished leather goods among all the states in India. The state accounts for 15% of the total production of leather and leather products of India.

Bata Shoe Company in Batanagar near Kolkata is the most famous shoe manufacturing company in India. But leather industry in West Bengal primarily consists of small scale industrial units. Total number of small scale units engaged in the manufacture of leather and leather products is more than 20,000 providing employment to more than 2 lakh persons. Most of these units are located in and around Kolkata.

The ‘Charmaja’ outlets under West Bengal State Leather Industrial Development Corporation provide marketing facilities for the products of small scale leather units in the state.

The construction of leather complex with modern effluent treatment plant and other modern facilities near Kolkata is going to boost the leather industry of the state in future. Most of the existing tanneries in Kolkata will be relocated very soon in this complex.

2.5.8. TEA INDUSTRY

2.5.8.1. IMPORTANCE

Tea industry plays an important role in the economy of West Bengal in the following ways:

1. Tea industry generates employment in different ways that include production, processing and distribution. Average daily employment in the tea plantations of north Bengal is around 260 thousands.

2. Tea is one of the most important commodities for export from West Bengal. Total value of tea export from West Bengal increased from Rs. 626.27 crore in 1985-86 to Rs. 2,302 crore in 1998-99.

3. Kolkata port is the biggest tea-handling port in India. Export of tea from Kolkata has generated export-related economic functions like storage facility, commercial services, etc.

4. Kolkata is also the biggest tea auction market in India. It has promoted tea trading activities.

5. Tea industry has promoted other economic activities like manufacturing of tea chests (Wooden box for tea packing), development of transport, setting up of tea trading companies, etc.

2.5.8.2. GROWTH OF TEA INDUSTRY AND PRESENT SITUATION

The plantation in West Bengal developed during late 19th century by the European planters. Early success of tea plantation encouraged rapid growth of tea plantations in the northern districts of West Bengal. Darjeeling district became important for the production of world famous Darjeeling tea, which still obtains the highest price in the world tea auction in London. After independence, tea industry in the state continued to grow, although some of the garden became sick due to improper management and over exploitation.

Total production of tea in West Bengal increased from 133.19 million kgs. in 1980 to 180.72 million kgs. in 2000. During the same period, total number of tea estates (large tea gardens) remained unchanged at 306. West Bengal is the 2nd largest tea producing state in India following Assam and accounted for 21.3% of the country’s total production in 2000.

2.5.8.3. CAUSES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

1. Tea plantations require humid climate, acidic soils with significant iron content and rolling land to avoid stagnation of water. These conditions are found in Dooars and Terai regions of north Bengal which have facilitated the development of tea plantations.

2. Tea plantations were originally developed in those areas which were not suitable These areas are more commonly found in the northern districts of West Bengal.

3. Industrial development in north Bengal is poor. For this reason cheap laborers are easily available in the early period. Laborers used to come from the tribal and other backward areas of Bihar.

4. Early development of Kolkata port has facilitated the export of tea produced in this region. Kolkata is well connected with tea producing areas both by railways and roadways.

5. Presence of forest in north Bengal is favorable for the making of packing box for tea.

6. Kolkata metropolitan region is a very big market for tea. This is a favorable condition for the development of tea industry in the State.

2.5.8.4. PROBLEMS OF TEA INDUSTRY AND FUTURE PROSPECT

Tea industry in West Bengal faces several problems which may be mentioned as follows:

1. Nearly half of the total area under tea cultivation in the state comprises tea bushes which are over 50 years old. Neglect in the replanting of tea bushes has resulted into low productivity.

2. Lack of replanting and lack of proper management have resulted in a number of tea gardens in the state turning sick.

3. Increasing cost of production results into increasing prices. This situation adversely affects export opportunities, as the international market is highly competitive. This is more significant in case of Darjeeling variety of tea.

4. In some cases short-term profit motivation results into over exploitation of tea gardens which adversely affects long-term prospect.

In spite of several problems, tea industry in West Bengal has a good prospect in future. Greatest strength of the industry is the growing demand for tea in the domestic market. Efforts have been made to establish new tea gardens and to expand the existing tea gardens with government support. Many new tea gardens, most of which are small, have been set up in Cooch Behar, Uttar Dinajpur, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts. Efforts are also made to start tea cultivation in non-traditional areas. In the Ayodhya hills in Purulia, under a pilot project, tea bushes have been successfully planted in 8.15 acres of land.

2.6. HOOGHLY INDUSTRIAL REGION

2.6.1. LOCATION

Hooghly idustrial region is located on the banks of the river Hooghly in and around Kolkata. On the left bank it is extended from Kalyani in the north to Birlapur in the south. On the right bank it is extended from Tribeni in the north to Uluberia in the south. Total north-south extension of this region is more than 70 km. and total east-west extension is between 5 km. to 7 km. This region covers parts of Kolkata, South 24 Parganas, North 24 Parganas, Nadia, Hooghly and Howrah districts.

2.6.2. FAVOURABLE FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT

(i) Site condition. Hooghly industrial region is located on the deltaic land-form of West Bengal. Industrial areas are mainly found on the natural levees (elevated river banks caused by the deposition) which are free from water logging.

(ii) Historical factor. East India Company of Great Britain first settled in Kolkata and started their business activities. Later, British rulers set up their base in Kolkata and till 1911 it was the capital of India. It encouraged the British merchants to develop industries in this region.

(iii) Port facility. Colonial economy thrived on the export of raw materials and later the export of finished products. Port facility was developed in Kolkata at an early period and as a result it became the collection center of raw material like jute. This facilitated the development of jute textile industry in this region. Later, engineering industry was developed due to the advantage of importing machinery and exporting finished engineering goods through Kolkata port.

(iv) Water transport facility. Navigability of river Hooghly has been considered as a great advantage for the development of industries on the two banks of the river. Bulk goods like raw jute and others can be brought to the factories and finished goods can be sent to Kolkata by using water transport facility.

(v) Supply of raw material. Raw jute, the basis of the most important jute textile industry, is cultivated in the nearby areas. Previously, the raw jute was brought from the erstwhile East Bengal (now Bangladesh) through the river routes. Raw material for paper industry like bamboo is available in south Bengal and huge amount of waste papers is collected from Kolkata city and suburban areas.

(vi) Densely populated delta region is a large source of Labour for the industries and other related economic activities. Laborers have also migrated from Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.

(vii) Availability of power. Industrial development in this region started by using coal from Raniganj coalfield. At present, power supply in this region comes from thermal power generating stations developed in Bandel, cossipore, Mulajore and Budge Budge. Part of the generation and the distribution of power are undertaken by Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation (CESC). Adequate availability of power is favorable not only for the present industries but also for future growth.

2.6.2. INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES

(i) Jute textile industry. Hooghly industrial region is pioneer in the development of jute textile industry in India. Industrial development in this region started with jute textiles. Availability of raw material from the adjoining districts and also from Assam and Bangladesh, cheap water transport facility through river Hooghly, port facility in Calcutta, cheap Labour, etc. are the important factors for the concentration of this industry in the Hooghly industrial region. On the left bank of the river the major centers of jute manufacturing are Naihati, Bhatpara, Titagarh, Kamarhati and Budge Budge. On the right bank the major centers are Bansberia, Baidyabati, Rishra, Sreerampore, Salkia, Howrah and Uluberia.

(ii) Engineering industry. Decline of jute textiles has made engineering as the most important type of industry of Hooghly industrial region in recent years. But unlike jute, this industry varies most widely from a very humble small scale type of highly modernized capital-intensive types of operation. On the basis of the production pattern, factories are categorized into four types: (i) re-rolling mills producing various iron and steel products in conformity with the specifications of locomotives and different structural items, (ii) forging and casting plants most of which are located in Howrah, (iii) modern and capital-intensive industrial machinery manufacturing industry like TEXMACO in Belghoria and Britannia Engineering in Kolkata (Taratala area) and (iv) others which include precision engineering (National Instruments in Jadavpur), ship-building (Garden Reach, etc.)

(iii) Cotton textile industry. This industry was developed in the Hooghly industrial region after the 1st World War. Most important factor for the development was the rapid growth of market in eastern India. But after independence there was a gradual decline of the industry for various reasons. At present there are 20 cotton textile mills operating in this region. Major centers of production are Panihati, Sodepur, Belghoria, New Barackpur, Rishra, Sreerampore and Uluberia.

(iv) Chemical industry. Major chemical products manufactured in the Hooghly industrial region are sulphuric acid, paints, alkali, soaps and detergents, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, etc. Many of theses are manufactured under small scale, but some are big and capital intensive units.

(v) Paper industry. Four out of five large paper mills in West Bengal are located in this region. These centers are Titagarh, Naihati, Dakshineswar and Triveni.

(vi) Other industries. These include leather, tea packaging, food processing, plastics etc.

2.6.4. MAJOR PROBLEMS OF THE HOOGHLY INDUSTRIAL REGION

(i) Siltation of river Hooghly:. Rapid silting of river Hooghly has caused enormous problems for the water transport system. It has also adversely affected Calcutta port and big ships cannot reach Kolkata any more. So, siltation of the river has not only affected movement of goods along the rivers, it has also affected import of raw materials and export of finished products.

(ii) Obsolete machinery. This problem is particularly acute in jute and cotton textile industries as many of the manufacturing units are old and required changes have not been made. Use of obsolete machinery has resulted into low level of production efficiency and high cost of production.

(iii) Poor industrial relations. Lack of co-ordination between labour and management, labour unrest, industrial disputes and in some cases, lack of discipline have resulted into loss of man-days and decline in production.

(iv) Transport bottleneck.: Hooghly industrial region is a narrow north-south elongated corridor. It results into the movement of road transport through a restricted space, causing reduction of speed and frequent bottlenecks. This affects supply schedule of input material and the delivery of outputs.

2.6.5. PROBLEM-SOLVING MEASURES

(i) Farakka barrage has been constructed to increase the navigability of river Hooghly. Recently water-sharing agreement with Bangladesh has ensured higher water discharge through the river.

(ii) Development of Haldia port has reduced the pressure on Kolkata port and the latter is specializing more and more on the movement of container cargo.

(iii) Power supply to the industrial units has been ensured by the presence of the thermal power stations like Bandel, Kolaghat, Mulajore, Budge Budge etc.

(iv) Efforts are made by the government to bring new industries during the post-liberalisation period.

(v) Kolkata Mega-city project is expected to boost the infrastructure facilities for the development of industries.

2.7. DURGAPUR-RANIGANJ-ASANSOL INDUSTRIAL REGION

2.7.1. LOCATION

This industrial region is located in the western part of Burdwan district at the north of river Damodar. It extends from Durgapur through Raniganj and Asansol to Chittaranjan for a distance of more than 70 km. Industries are primarily concentrated near the Grand Trunk Road.

2.7.2. FAVOURABLE FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT

(i) Availability of coal. Raniganj coalfield which extends upto Asansol is one of the major coal producing regions of India. Availability of coal is the basis for the development of iron and steel industries and other power consuming industries. Durgapur-Raniganj-Asansol industrial region is primarily identified as a coal-based industrial region. Jharia coalfield in Jaharkhand, which produces prime quality coking coal, is located not far from this region.

(ii) Transport facilities. This region is connected with Kolkata and other parts of the country both by railway and roadway.

(iii) Connectivity with Kolkata. Direct connectivity with Kolkata port and market is a favorable factor for the development of this industrial region. Durgapur is located at a distance of 160 km. from Kolkata and Asansol is located at a distance of 210 km. Direct connectivity with Kolkata is provided by the rail transport to Eastern Railway and by the road transport through Grand Trunk Road.

(iv) Other factors. Other favorable factors include power supply from D.P.L. thermal power project, availability of cheap Labour force and supply of water for industries from river Damodar.

2.7.3. MAJOR INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES

(i) Iron and steel industry. Iron and steel industry is the focus of all other industrial activities in this region. Both the iron and steel plants of the state are located in this region. (a) Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO) set up its steel plant at Burnpur near Asansol which started production in 1918. It is the second oldest steel plant in India after TISCO in Jamshedpur. The steel plant is located at the heart of the Raniganj-Asansol coalfield area. Initially the steel plant was based on Raniganj iron stone deposits but these were soon exhausted and now the iron ore is brought from Gua which is located at a distance of more than 300 km. (b) Durgapur Steel Plant was set up during 2nd Five-year plan as a public sector unit under Steel Authority of India Ltd., (SAIL). It is located on the bank of river Damodar at a distance of 160 km. from Kolkata. Coal comes from nearby Raniganj coalfield but the iron ore comes from the distant iron orefield at Noamundi in Jaharkhand. This steel plant has specialized in the production of railway wheels, axels, sleepers and light structural items for various purposes.

2.7.4. DURGAPUR IS KNOWN AS RUHR OF INDIA DUE TO FOLLOWING REASONS

(a) Ruhr industrial region is located in the Ruhr valley coalfield. Similarly, Durgapur is located near the Raniganj coalfield area of Damodar valley region.

(b) In both the places, iron and steel industry is the most important type of industry. Development of other industries is based on iron and steel industry.

(c) In both the places, concentration of heavy industry is a significant feature.

(d) In both the places, iron ores are not available locally.

Other industries. Other important industries include (a) railway engine manufacturing in Chittaranjan, (b) aluminium industry in Anupnagar near Asansol, (c) bicycle manufacturing in Asansol, (d) alloy steel plant in Durgpaur, (e) manufacturing of mining equipments (Mining and Machinery Manufacturing Corporation) in Durgapur, (f) cement plant in Durgapur, (g) fertilizer factory in Durgapur, (h) paper mill in Raniganj etc. Besides these, there are many small and medium scale engineering and other industries.

2.7.5. MAJOR PROBLEMS

Major problems of the Asansol-Durgpur industrial region may be listed as follows:

(i) Performance of iron and steel industry, which is considered to be the core industry of the region is not satisfactory. Burnpur steel plant has the lowest capacity utilization in the country and Durgapur steel plant is not faring very well either. This has resulted into the poor growth of those industries which are based on steel.

(ii) Transportation of coal from the coal mines to the industries (mainly iron and steel industry) sometimes becomes a problem due to transport bottleneck.

(iii) The region is dominated by heavy and capital goods industries. Demand for these goods in recent years is more or less stagnant.

(iv) Infrastructure facilities are not adequate to meet the requirements of the industries.

2.7.6. PROBLEM-SOLVING MEASURES

Following measures may be adopted to solve the problems of this industrial region.

(i) Modernisation programme is necessary for the steel plants to increase the production efficiency and to reduce the cost of production.

(ii) Road networks can be expanded and more railway wagons are necessary to improve the movement of goods.

(iii) Fresh investments are necessary for setting up modern consumer goods and capital goods industries.

(iv) Emphasis should be given to improve road conditions, telecommunications and other infrastructure facilities.

2.8. HALDIA INDUSTRIAL REGION

2.8.1. LOCATION

Haldia is located in East Midnapore district of West Bengal at a distance of about 100 km. from Kolkata. The port and township of Haldia is located on the right bank of river Hooghly at the confluence of river Haldi with the river Hooghly. The industrial region has been developed with the port as the focal point. The industrial region is under the jurisdiction of Haldia Development Authority with a total area of more than 300 sq. km.

2.8.2. FAVOURABLE FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT

(i) Port facility. Development of port facility at Haldia is the most important factor for the development of Haldia industrial region. Officially Haldia is not a separate port. It is under the administration of Calcutta Port Trust and hence, it is mentioned as Haldia Dock Complex. Harbour of this dock complex is wide and can accommodate more ships than Calcutta port. Depth of water is around 10 metres which is highly suitable

(ii) Transport network. Haldia industrial region is served by all the three modes of surface transport, namely road, rail and water. National highway (NH 41) connects Haldia with national highway joining Kolkata with Surat (NH 6). Panskura-Haldia electrified rail rout is highly suitable Recently, Shalimar (near Howrah)-Haldia Inter-city Express has been introduced. Fast water transport service (Catamaran service) makes it possible to reach Haldia from Kolkata within 2 ½ hours. Transport connectivity with Kolkata and its hinterland is a major one for the development of Haldia industrial region.

(iii) Supply of power. Development of Kolaghat thermal power station has ensured the necessary supply of power to this industrial region.

(iv) Supply of Labour. Availability of labour force from the nearby densely populated areas of East and West Midnapore district, is a favorable factor for industrial development. Skilled laborers are also drawn from other parts of south Bengal and from Orissa.

(v) Supply of land. Haldia is a newly developing area. As a result, plenty of vacant land is available for the setting up of large scale industrial units. Land rent is much cheaper than the Hooghly industrial region which is another advantage for setting up new industries in Haldia.

(vi) Government support. West Bengal state government has taken up an active role in the development of industries in Haldia in different ways. These include special monitoring cells for giving approval to the project proposals, arrangement of loan through West Bengal Finance Corporation, development of infrastructure facilities to facilitate industrial growth, etc.

2.8.3. MAJOR INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES

(i) Haldia petrochemicals project. Haldia petrochemicals project is the largest industrial project of this region. The Rs. 6,000 core project has been completed. Haldia Petrochemicals Ltd. is a joint venture project of West Bengal government with the participation of private sector. It is basically a naptha cracking plant and it feeds ethylene, propylene and other chemical derivatives are used for further processing. The end products are polythelene, polypropylene, benzene and butadiene. But more importantly this project will have tremendous cascading effect on numerous other industries. Haldia petrochemicals has started production with effect from 02-04-2000.

(ii) Petroleum refining. Haldia refinery was set up in 1969 by Indian Oil Corporation. Presently capacity of this refinery is 3.75 million tones. This refinery is mainly based on imported crude oil and for this purpose, separate oil jetty has been developed at Haldia dock. The refinery yields both fuel and non-fuel products.

(iii) Fertilizer industry. There is big nitrogenous fertilizer plant in Haldia which is owned by Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation. This is one of the two nitrogenous fertilizer plants in West Bengal, another being located in Durgapur. But presently, the plant is closed. Hindustan Lever has set up a phosphatic fertilizer plant.

(iv) Other industries. Other existing industries include pesticides manufacturing by Shaw Wallace, battery manufacturing by Exide India Ltd. etc. Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation has set up a chemical plant based on Haldia petrochemicals and it has started commercial production. South Asian Petrochem Ltd. has set up a plant for producing plastic bottles and other products. Besides these, there are several small scale industries.

2.8.4. UP COMING INDUSTRIES

Important industries which are coming up in the Haldia industrial region may be listed as follows:

(a) SHAMON Ispat Limited will be manufacturing cold coils with an annual capacity of 50,000 tonnes.

(b) Haldia Carryon and Construction is setting up a downstream petrochemicals project.

(c) A big project has been implemented in Haldia by Hindustan Lever Limited for the manufacturing of detergents.

(d) Praxair is setting up a nitrogen plant at Haldia mainly to meet the requirement of Haldia petrochemicals.

(e) Paharpur group is planning to set up a fertilizer plant.

Besides, many subsidiary industries in small and medium scale are expected to come up in this region.

Manufacturing sector

MANUFACTURING SECTOR

3.0 MAJOR INDUSTRIES

Number of registered factories in the state of West Bengal are 11,949 (As on 2000) and the average daily numbers of industrial workers are 8,99,071. The distribution of employments in organized sector of West Bengal are given below:

  • Central Government : 16%
  • State Government : 17%
  • Quasi Government : 24%
  • Local Bodies : 7%
  • Private Sector : 36%

Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics Constructs the Index number of Industrial production for West Bengal. It was previously being compiled with 1980 as the basic year, afterwards, in 1999-2000 a new series of index of Industrial production with base 1993-1994 = 100 has been introduced.

Considering the census and non-census sectors, the net value added in million to industrial production in the state on the year 1997-98 is given below:

NIC Code No.Details of industryNet value added in Millions
20 & 21Manufacture of Food Products2993.2
22Manufacture of Beverage, Tobacco Tobacco Products724
23Manufacture of Cotton Textiles2720.5
24Manufacture of Wool, Silk and Synthetic fibre, Textiles1267.2
25Manufacture of Jute, Hemp and Mesto textiles105143
26Manufacture of Textile products (including wearing appraisal other than Footwear)408
27Manufacture of Wood, Wood products, Furniture and Fixtures165.9
28Manufacture of Paper Paper products, Printing, Publishing Allied industries1889.8
29Manufacture of Leather and Leather, fur products2105.9
30Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemicals Products (except products of petroleum and coal)5311.2
31Manufacture of Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum and Coal Products4655.6
32Manufacture of Non-Metallic, Mineral Products1184.2
33Basic Metals and Allay Industries6097.2
34Manufacture of Metal Products and Parts except Machinery and Transport equipment1610.2
35 36Manufacture of Machinery, Machine Tools and Appliances and Supplies and parts8779.4
37Manufacture of Transport Equipment Parts5367.7
38Other Manufacturing Industries993
40Electricity386434
41Gas and Steam186
42Water Works and Supply259.9
74Storage and Warehousing322.9
97Repair Services12535

3.1 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATION - DISTRIBUTION

The state of West Bengal consists of 18 districts in total. The distribution of industrial concentration is given in the following table

Distribution of Registered Factories by Districts in West Bengal
DistrictYear (1999)Year (2000)
Burdwan736752
Birbhum140143
Bankura133136
Midnapore212217
Howrah24512512
Hooghly522536
24 Parganas (North)
24 Parganas (South)
54865596
Kolkata955955
Nadia166166
Murshidabad2425
Uttar Dinajpur6367
Dakshin Dinajpur2525
Maldah3334
Jalpaiguri427434
Darjeeling252255
Coochbehar2828
Purilia6768
Total1172011949

3.2 INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES, STRIKES, LOCKOUTS AND MANDAYS LOST

Industrial disputes in the state are declining over the years except the year 1999 and 2000 when these were marginally increased. In the year 2001, total number of industrial disputes handled decreased to 4873 from 5326 in 2000. Out of 4873 industrial disputes handled in 2001, 2404 cases were raised during the year. 2570 number of disputes were disposed of during the year, out of which 1120 numbers of disputes settled through conciliation (including cases where parties did not pursue). During the year 2001 there were 325 cases of work stoppage (Strike Lockout) affecting about 1.48 lakh workmen with a loss of 21.17 million man-days against 313 cases affecting 3.72 lakh workmen with a loss of 19.17million man-days in the year 2000.

Disputes classified by different types of industries in West Bengal
Sl.No.IndustryNo. of disputes
  1998199920002001
1.Cotton14131117
2.Jute14263122
3.Engineering71106120113
4.Plantation5111115
5.Misc.134142140158

Manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES COVERED UNDER FACTORIES ACT, 1948

Registered Factories

As on 31.12.2000 there are 11,949 number of registered factories out of which 25 numbers are defence establishments.

Industry-wise progress of manufacturing industries in West Bengal

NIC Code No.Detail of IndustryTotal Factories
  19961997199819992000
 Total West Bengal1102211213114161169511924
20 & 21Manufacture of Food Products14961506154115851622
22Manufacture of Beverage, Tobacco & Tobacco Products4344464952
23Manufacture of Cotton Textiles327329332339344
24Manufacture of Wool, Silk and Synthetic fibre, Textiles4039393939
25Manufacture of Jute, Hemp and Mesto textiles9494939497
26Manufacture of Textile products (including wearing appraisal other than Footwear)264269277284294
27Manufacture of Wood, Wood products, Furniture and Fixtures420419427429434
28Manufacture of Paper & Paper products, Printing, Publishing & Allied industries605608612625633
29Manufacture of Leather and Leather, fur products264266276291305
30Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemicals Products (except products of petroleum and coal)633660672693712
31Manufacture of Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum and Coal Products12321297133613851447
32Manufacture of Non-Metallic, Mineral Products390394405415421
33Basic Metals and Alloy Industries10901113112711501166
34Manufacture of Metal Products and Parts except Machinery and Transport equipment12681285130513241333
35Manufacture of Machinery, Machine Tools and Appliances and Supplies and parts874885899916922
36Manufacture of Transport Equipment & Parts583586589610615
37Other Manufacturing Industries265267271277280
38Other Manufacturing Industries192200203212215
39 4646464849
40Gas and Steam8080818181
41Water Works and Supply66666
42 2020212323
50Construction11111
66Retail trade in textiles--111
68Retail trade other than textiles     
70Land transport66667
71Water transport66666
73Services incidental to transport1313141414
74Storage and warehousing252257263264269
75Communication services11111
82Real estate and business service     
89Business services not elsewhere2626262630
91Sanitary services99999
92Education, scientific research services1414141414
95Recreational and cultural services88888
96Personal services2523232424
97Repair services (other than capital goods)423430434440443
99Services not elsewhere >66666

4.1 Manufacturing Activities Covered under the Factories Act, 1948

In the statistics collected by Employment Market Information units of Employment Exchanges the following employment status is noticed:

Altogether 10539 employees in the Public Sector and 6167 employees in Private Sector have been identified in the State as on 31-03-2001. The total estimated employment in organized sector in West Bengal as on 31-03-2001 stands 22.30 lakhs out of which the Public Sector accounts for 15.24 lakh (%) and the Private Sector 7.06 lakh (%).

The industry wise classification of total estimated employment in organized sector as on 31-03-2001 is shown below (in lakhs):

DivisionPublicPrivateTotal
Agriculture & Allied0.212.082.29
Mining and Quarrying1.57-1.57
Primary Sector Sub Total1.782.083.86
Manufacturing1.773.985.75
Electricity & Gas0.340.260.60
Construction0.570.040.61
Secondary Sector Sub Total2.684.286.96
Wholesale and Retail Trade/ hotel & Restaurants0.130.240.37
Transport, Storage & Communication3.110.053.16
Financing, Insurance & Real Estate0.990.161.15
Services6.550.256.80
Tertiary Sector Sub Total10.780.7011.48
Grant Total15.247.0622.30

4.2 Employment Position

The employment position in factories under important industrial groups for the last five years is shown below:

Average daily number of workers employed in major industrial groups in West Bengal as per statutory returns furnished by the employers.

IndustryYear
 19961997199819992000
Rice1253512659128831275313901
Tea2936526434286062638527473
Cotton Textiles4771046776461494570546945
Jute225871217662221135215263222133
Paper & Paper Industry1433513233125971336812392
Printing & Allied Industry1540315257160131663815914
Rubber & Rubber Product1641115221152441499115131
Chemical & Chemical Products3726636800356723639338192
Glass & Glass Products88928751880587548495
Engineering343500325116320315315714316467
Ship Building & Repair77318469921381638217
Electricity1738911178195181931417435
All Industries925503
(22580)
889857
(22203)
891179
(22470)
885788
(21120)
899071
(21430)

The figures in the bracket show the women employment in factories which excludes the women employment in plantation work.

Occupational injuries in manufacturing activities covered under Factories Act 1948

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

(Covered under the Factories Act, 1948)

5.0 PRESENT STATUS

The State of West Bengal has 11,949 number of registered factories covered under the Factories Act, 1948. In the year 2000, there are 34,767 reportable Out of which 57 are fatal and 34,710 non-fatal injuries. All the cases of fatal injuries were analyzed (Special events any).

For The industries were The fatal and non-fatal injuries have been dealt with separately.

5.1 FATAL INJURIES

The fatal injuries in the State of West Bengal as reported in the annual returns submitted by the factories for the year 2000 is 57. The 57 fatal injuries are recorded in the 17 types of industries and analyzed as per Indian Standard 3786 and the ILO code of practice of recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases. The analysis has been done industry group-wise, cause-wise, agency-wise, nature of injury-wise, location of injury-wise, size and age-wise.

5.1.1 INDUSTRY-WISE

Of the total fatal injuries analyzed. 16 accidents were in the units manufacturing basic metals and alloy industries which was followed by the units of manufactures of jute and other fibre textiles with 9 accidents. The industry-wise analysis of fatal accidents show that 31.6% of the accidents in the industry of basic metal and alloy industries when 15.8% of the accidents in the manufacturing of Jute and other fibre textiles. The industry-wise fatal injuries are given below:

Sl. No.IndustryNo. of Accidents%
1.Manufacture of Food Products11.80
2.Manufacture of Beverage, Tobacco & Tobacco Products11.80
3.Manufacture of Jute and other fibre textiles915.8
4.Manufacture of Wood, Wood products, Furniture and Fixtures11.80
5.Manufacture of Paper & Paper products, Printing, Publishing & Allied industries11.80
6.Manufacture of basic chemicals and chemicals products including fire works23.5
7.Manufacture of Rubber, Plastic, Petroleum and Coal Products, processing of nuclear fuels.23.5
8.Manufacture of Non-Metallic, Mineral Products11.80
9.Basic Metals and Allay Industries1628
10.Manufacture of Metal Products and Parts except Machinery and Transport equipment47
11.Manufacture of Machinery & equipment other than Transport Equipment including electrical machinery.23.5
12.Manufacture of Transport Equipment & Parts35.3
13.Repair of capital goods610.5
14.Electricity generation, transmission and distribution.11.80
15.Gas and Steam generation, transmission and distribution through pipes.23.5
16.Water Works and Supply47
17.Storage and warehousing11.80
Total57 
5.1.2 AGENCY-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF FATAL ACCIDENTS
Sl. No.IndustryNo. of Accidents%
1.Transmission Machinery11.8
2.Lifting Machinery35.3
3.Machine tools for metal working11.8
4.Other machine moved by mechanical power35.3
5.Railways11.8
6.Other vehicles23.5
7.Electricity47
8.Fibres47
9.Gassing11.8
10.Molten metal, other hot or corrosive substances610.5
11.Use of hand tools11.8
12.Struck by falling bodies47
13.Persons falling1933.33
14.Stepping on or against the object58.77
15.Others23.5
Total57100

CAUSE-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF ACCIDENTS
(NON-FATAL FOR THE YEAR 2000)

Sl. No.CauseNo. of Accidents%
1.Machinery1124332.39
2.Struck by falling body377110.86
3.Stepping on or striking against object586616.90
4.Handling of goods32339.31
5.Persons falling430412.40
6.Hand tools31719.14
7.Fires--
8.Gassing--
Total31228.99
5.1.3 INDUSTRY-WISE ACCIDENTS IN WEST BENGAL FOR THE YEAR 2000
 Total accidentIncidence rate (Per 1000 workers)% of total West Bengal accidents
Jute2138096.2561.60
Engineering618119.4417.81
Cotton352675.1110.30
Chemicals90123.592.60
Total34710  
5.1.4 DETAILS OF FATAL NON FATAL ACCIDENTS IN FACTORIES FOR THE YEAR 2000
Type of accidentsNo. of accidentsIncidence rate (Per 1000 workers)
Fatal570.06
Non-fatal3471038.61
Total  

5.2. MAJOR ACCIDENT HAZARDS UNITS

There are 72 MAH units in the State. The industry-wise break-up is given below:

Sl. No. No. of Units
1.Petroleum refinery2
2.L. P. G. bottling plant9
3.Petroleum product storage10
4.Fertilizers and pesticides9
5.Chemicals including petrochemicals19
6.Cement1
7.Engineering17
8.Electric lamp1
9.Glass2
10.Paper & palp2
 Total72

Occupational diseases and poisoning in manufacturing activities

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE, OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES AND POISONING IN MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

6.1. SURVEY OF PHYSICAL STRESS PARAMETERS

Altogether 52 surveys were conducted for assessment of physical stress parameters like Heat stress, Noise, Illumination. Air- temperature, air velocity and level of Oxygen in the work environment of different factories the break up of which is as follows:

Stress parametersNo. of surveys
Heat stress9
Noise15
Illumination13
Air temperature2
Air velocity12
Level of oxygen01

Amongst the above physical stress parameters, illumination level and air velocity were below the recommended values and the air-temperature was above the ambient temperature in all the cases. The other parameters like heat stress, noise, exceeded in about 66 percent cases and the noise levels exceeded in 80 percent cases while the oxygen (volume %) was not deficient. The following control measures have been recommended for improvement of the working conditions:

0.1 For work places with low level of illumination – Replacement of opaque roofing sheets by roofing sheets of transparent material at suitable>

0.2 For work places with inadequate air movement – additional window opening within a still level of 3 feet as far as practicable and arrangement for effective air movement and air changes by mechanical means of ventilation.

0.3 For work places with high air temperature- Arrangement for effective air movement and air changes by mechanical means of ventilation and for supplying out side air cooled by means of control air washing plant during summer.

0.4 For exposure to heat stress- Arrangement for control of heat radiation, forced fresh air circulation, cool drinking water and salt replenishment for the workers, rest room/shelter with fresh air circulation and minimizing work exposure by administrative control.

0.5 For exposure of high noise level- proper maintenance of machinery in respect of looseness of components and defects in foundation, and controlling vibration with in the limits prescribed by machine designer, reduction of time of exposure by administrative control as far as practicable and use of personal protective equipment such as ear plug/ear muffs etc.,

6.2 OTHER IMPORTANT ACTIVITIES

The cell displayed and demonstrated sampling and monitoring instruments at an exhibition held at Gangenendra Art Gallery (1st floor) adjacent to Sisisr Manch, 1/!A, AJ C Bose Road. Kolkata-20 on 5.3.2001 as a part of observance of 30th National Safety Day by National Safety Council, West Bengal chapter in collaboration with the Directorate of factories.

The cell also conducted in its laboratory premises, demonstration of sampling, direct reading and analytical instruments and practical work for the students undergoing the Diploma course- Safety Engineering of Ashutosh College Training Centre, Kolkata.

6.3 SURVEY/STUDIES CONDUCTED BY THE INSTITUTE

Work Environment Survey/Studies conducted by the Industrial Hygiene Division Regional Labour Institute , Lake town, Kolkata-89.

Table –21
No.Survey/Studies ConductedNo. of WorkersNature of IndustriesObser-vationsRecommen-dationsRemarks
1Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals     
2Survey/study of airborne concentration of lead fumes in the work environment25Mfg. Of steel strapping chemical--Samples under analysis
3Survey/study of airborne concentration of carbon monoxide in the work environment.15ChemicalWithin the permissible limit of exposure--
4-do-40Mfg. Of pig iron and liquid metal-do---
5-do-10Mfg. Of Industrial Refractories-do---
6-do-10Mfg. Of steel strapping-do---
7Survey/study of airborne concentration of toluene in the work environment07Mfg. Of rubber chemicalsWithin the permissible limit of exposure--
8Survey/study of air borne concentration of sulphur dioxide in the work environment50Chemical industry-do---
9-do-24Chemical &fertilizer manufacturingExceeded permissible limit of exposure at some locations1. To prevent leakage of gas from joints in the pipeline of hot gas filter unit.
2. To provide respiratory protective equipment for use of the workers exposed.
-
 -do-50Chemical industryWithin the permissible limit of exposure--
10.Survey/study of airborne concentration of Chlorine in the work environment50Chemical industryCoincided with the permissible limit of exposure at some locations1. To provide respiratory protective equipment to the workers working in the bleaching powder plant.-
11.Survey/study of airborne concentration of ammonia in the work environment.05Mfg. Of steel strappingWithin the permissible limit of exposure.--
12.Survey/study of airborne concentration of mercury in the work environment.40Chemical industry--Samples under analysis
13Survey/study of airborne concentration of Hydrogen in the work environment10Chemical industryWith in the permissible limits.--
14.Survey/study of airborne concentration of Cyanide fumes in the work environment.20Mfg. Of engineering steel files.-do---
15.Survey/study of airborne concentration of Hcl fumes in the work environment10-do--do---
16.-do-05Mfg. Of steel strapping-do---
17.Survey/study of airborne concentration of MIBK in the work environment05-do--do---
18.Survey/study of airborne concentration of Acetone in the work environment05Rubber & chemical manufacturing-do---
19.Survey/study of airborne concentration of Alcohol in the work environment15-do--do---
20.-do-15Ayurvedic Formulation-do---
21.Survey/study of airborne concentration of carbon dioxide in the work environment10-do--do---
22.Survey/study of airborne concentration of Welding fumes (Nitric acid) in the work environment40Engineering (Railway wagon manufacturing)-do---
 B. toxic/ Hazardous dust     
23.Survey/study of airborne concentration of coal dust in the work environment15Thermal powerExceeded the permissible limit of exposure at some locations.1.To properly moisten the coal before and during tripling.

 

2.To provide respiratory protective equipment

-
24.-do-35Soap and detergent industryWith in the permissible limit of exposure.--
25.Survey/study of airborne concentration of R.E (pentachloro-thiophenol disulphide)dust in the work environment.06Rubber chemical manufacturingTraces-No occupational exposure limit assigned.
26.Survey/study of airborne concentration of fly ash in the work environment100Thermal powerExceeded the permissible limit of exposure1.To achieve correct degree of wetting fly ash before discharging it from the bunker to the lorry for transportation.

 

2.To prevent the moistened fly ash including waste and spillage from getting dried out.

 

3.to provide respiratory protective equipment to the persons exposed.

-
27.-do-15Thermal power generation-do-To prevent leakage of fly ash in ESP hopper area.
To provide respiratory protective equipment.
-
28.Survey/study of airborne concentration of Talc dust in the work environment45Soap and Detergent industryWithin the permissible limit of exposure--
29.Survey/study of airborne concentration of Iron ore dust in the work environment.10Mfg. Of pig iron & liquid metal-do---
30.Survey/study of airborne concentration of Asbestos fiber in the work environment40Mfg. Of asbestos cement roofing sheet.-do---
31.Survey/study of airborne concentration of Asbestos fiber in the work environment10Mfg. Of asbestos cement pressure pipe-do---
32.Survey/study of airborne concentration of Herb dust in the work environment15Ayurvedic formulationExceeded the permissible limit of exposure.1. To arrange for creating negative pressure in the feeding hopper of herb grinding machine and for keeping the upper mouth of the hopper closed during grinding operation.
2. To arrange for mixing of ground herbs in container by mechanical means and for collecting the mixed ground herbs in bags.
3. To provide respiratory protective equipment.
-
33.Survey/study of airborne concentration of mixed dust in the work environment30Mfg. Of Industrial refractories.Within the permissible limit of exposure.--
34.-do-10-do--do---
35.-do-20Mfg. Of fire works--Preliminary survey conducted.
 C. FIRE/EXPLOSION RISK     
36.Survey/study of the risk of fire and explosion due to handling of flammable solvents.50Receipt, storing & distribution of petroleum oil.Concentration of flamm-able vapour in the work environment was with in the lower explosive limit.--
37.-do-180Soap and detergent-do---
38.-do-20Mfg. Of industrial refractories.-do---
39.-do-10Mfg. Of engineering steel files.-do---
 D.PHYSICAL STRESS PARAMETERS     
40.Measurement of heat stress in the work environment.30Mfg. Pig iron & liquid metalExceeded the permissible limits1. To control heat radiation during liquid metal flow from the blast furnace as far as practicable.
2. To provide adequate arrangement for cool drinking water and salt replenishment for the workers exposed.
3. To provide rest room shelter with fresh air circulation.
-
41.Measurement of heat stress in the work environment.50Chemical industryExceeded the permissible limits.1. To prevent heat radiation from the hot pipe lines and the waste heat boiler by providing proper heat insulation.
2. To provide forced fresh air circulation.
3. To provide adequate arrangement for cool drinking water and salt replenishment for the workers.
4. To provide rest room /shelter with fresh air circulation.
-
42.Measurement of heat stress in the work environment20Chemical &Fertilizer manufacturing.Exceeded the permissible limits.To prevent heat radiation from the sulphur burner by covering it with heat insulating material and /or by putting heat insulating barrier.-
43.-do-10Chemical-do-To prevent heat radiation from the pipelines carrying steam in the melting pit areas by covering material.-
44.-do-20Mfg. Of industrial refractories.Within the permissible limit of exposure.--
45.-do-06Rubber chemical manufac-turing.-do---
46.-do-20Lubricating grease and lubricating oil.-do---
47.-do-30Mfg. Of steel strappingExceeded the permissible limit of exposure.1. To provide forced fresh air circulation
2. To minimize work exposure by admini-strative control.
3. To provide adequate arrangement for cool drinking water and salt replenishment for the workers.
4. To provide rest rooms/shelter with fresh air circulation.
-
48.-do-45Mfg. Of engineers steel files.Exceeded the permissible limit of exposure at some locations.-do--
49.Measurement of noise level in the work environment20Electrical items (Mfg. Of resin bonded insulator)With in the permissible limit--
50.-do-100Engineering (Railway wagon manufacturing)Exceeded the permissible limit.1. To substitute wagon riveting process by welding as far as practicable.
2. To carry out riveting work as remote as possible from the area where others are working.
3. To provide earmuff to the workers engaged in riveting work.
-
51.Measurement of Noise level in the work environment.20ChemicalExceeded the permissible limit at some locations.1. To adopt engineering control measures like regular maintenance of machinery in respect of looseness of components defects in foundation.
2. To maintain the vibration within the limits prescribed by the machine designer.
3. To adopt admini-strative control measure like change of place of work to reduce time of exposure.
4. To wear ear plug/ear muff where the noise level cannot be reduced to permissible level by engineering control.
-
52.-do-50Thermal power plant-do--do--
53.-do-50Mfg. Of pig iron & liquid metal-do--do--
54.-do-60Mfg. Of Asbestos cement roofing sheets.-do--do--
55.-do-10Mfg. Of Asbestos cement pressure pipe-do--do--
56.-do-50Chemical-do--do--
57.-do-20Chemical &fertilizer mfg.-do--do--
58.-do-200Soap and detergent-do--do--
59.-do-50Ayurvedic formulation.-do--do--
60.Measurement of noise level in the work environment50ChemicalExceeded the permissible exposure limits at some locations.-do--
61.-do-20Mfg. Of industrial refractoriesWith in the permissible limit--
62.-do-30Mfg. Of steel strappingExceeded the permissible limit at some locations.1. To adopt engineering control measures like regular maintenance of machinery in respect of looseness at compo-nents defect in foundation.
2. To maintain the vibration within the limits prescribed by the machine designer.
3. To adopt administrative control measures like change of place of work to reduce time of exposure.
4. To wear ear plug/ear muff where the noise level cannot be reduced to permissible level by engineering control.
-
63.-do-150Mfg. Of engineering steel files.-do--do--
64.Measurement of illumination level in the work environment.20Electrical items (Mfg. Of resin bonded insulator, current transformer & potential transformer)Illumination level was below recommended value at some locations.1. To replace the opaque roofing sheets by suitable
2. To provide additional artificial lighting where necessary.
-
65.-do-200Soap and detergent-do--do--
66.-do-75Engineering (Railway wagon)-do--do--
67.Measurement of illumination level in the work environment20chemical industry.Illumination level was below the recommended value at some locations.1. To replace the opaque roofing sheets by suitable
2. To provide lighting where necessary.
-
68.-do-50Thermal power plant-do--do--
69.-do-50Chemical industry-do--do--
70.-do-20Chemical fertilizer manufacturing-do--do--
71.-do-50Ayurvedic formulations-do--do--
72.-do-20Lubricating grease & lubricating oil-do--do--
73.-do-50Mfg. Of industrial refractories-do--do--
74.-do-50Mfg. Steel strapping-do--do--
75.-do-150Mfg. Of engineering steel files-do--do--
76.-do-10Mfg. Of fire works--Preliminary survey conducted.
77.Measurement of temperature of air in the work environment10Electrical items ( Mfg. Of resin bonded insulator current transformer & potential transformers.Above the ambient temperature1. To arrange for effective air movement and air changes by mechanical means of ventilation.
2. To arrange for supplying outside air cooled by means of control air washing plant or such mechanical means of ventilation during summer.
-
78.Measurement of temperature of air in the work environment300Mfg. Of leather & canvas foot wearAbove the ambient temperature1. To arrange for effective air movement and air changes by mechanical means of ventilation.
2. To arrange for supplying outside air cooled by means of control air washing plant or such mechanical means of ventilation during summer.
-
79.Measurement of air velocity in the work environment10Electrical items (mfg. Of resin bonded insulator, current transformer & potential transformer)Below the recommended value at some locations.1. To provide additional window opening within a still level of 3 feet as far as practicable.
2. To arrange for effective air movement and air changes by mechanical means of ventilation.
-
80.-do-100Engineering (Railway wagons)-do--do--
81.-do-20Chemical-do--do--
82.-d0-200Soap and detergent-do--do--
83.-do-150Mfg. Of Asbestos Cement roofing sheet-do--do--
84.-do-50Mfg. Of Asbestos Cement pressure pipe--do--
85.-do-300Mfg. Of Leather & Canvas footwear-do--do--
86.-do-50Mfg. Of Industrial Refractories-do--do--
87.Measurement of air velocity in the work environment35Mfg. Of Steel StrappingBelow the recommended value at some locations1. To provide additional window opening within a sill level of 8 feet as far as practicable.
2. To arrange for effective air movement air changes by mechanical means of ventilation.
-
88.-do-100Mfg. Of Engineers Steel files-do--do--
89.-do-10Mfg. Of fire works-do--do--
90.-do-50Ayurvedic formulations-do--do--
91.Survey/study of level of oxygen in the work environment100Engineering (Railway wagon manufacturing)Oxygen content (Volume %) was bit deficient--
 E. BIO- CHEMICAL STUDY

 

     
92.Biochemical study/survey of lead in blood of the workers exposed to lead process09Mfg. Of Electric lampBlood lead content was with in the biological exposure indices.To monitor periodically as per statute the lead content in blood of workers exposed to lead process.-
       

Ref:-Labour in West Bengal 2001 Department of Labour , Government of west Bengal. Survey of physical stress parameters from page 116 to 126.

6.4. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

ILO code of Practice on Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases defines occupational diseases as “ a disease contracted as a result of an exposure to risk factors arising from work activity ”. Under Section 89 of Factories Act, 1948 where any worker in a factory contracts any disease specified in the Third Schedule, the manager of the factory shall send a notice thereof to such authorities and in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.

Any Medical Practitioner attending on a person who is or has been employed in a factory and is suffering from diseases specified in the Third schedule shall also without delay send a report in writing to the office of the Chief Inspector of Factory of the respective state..

The Medical Cell of Directorate of Factories, Government of West Bengal undertook project since 1997 to assess the occupational hazards associated with handling, storage and use of lead, silica, chlorine, manganese, asbestos etc.

Table- I shows the details of the examinations carried out on workers employed in dangerous operation ( Under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948 ) and in other hazardous processes during the last 5 years.

6.4.1 MEDICAL EXAMINATION

TABLE – I

Medical Examination of workers employed in dangerous operation and hazardous processes during the period 1997 to 2001.

Description of the operation or process19971998199920002001
Manufacture, treatment or handling of lead alloy & certain compounds of lead & printing press.462520451514381
Electrolytic plating or oxidation of metal - article by use of chromic acid or other chromium compounds.4 20429
Manufacture of chromic acid or manuf- acture or recovery of dichromate or sodium, potassium & other chemical process.380373373233832
Glass manufacture and pottery1459475945
Manufacture or repair of electric accumulator.22059475945
Shot blasting     
Printing process and type foundry     
Grinding and glazing of metals 6   
Handling of coal in Thermal Power Plant     
Asbestos Process14920412383245
Manganese Process1958297845
Dangerous Pesticides2455298530
Welding Process     
Others1168514186505896
Total :24401859131616172594

Table-II shows the details relating to the examinations carried out in 2000 & 2001 on workers of different factories subjected to pathological & radiological examination of occupational diseases.

6.4.2. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY EXAMINATION

TABLE – II

Clinical & Laboratory Examinations of workers during 2000 & 2001

Nature of Laboratory Examination20002001
Pathological :
Blood16251781
Urine286-
Stool--
Radiological (X-Ray)452669
Physiological :
Lung Function Test57212
Sputum Test340200
Liver Function Test340200
Audiometry30-
Occupational Diseases Suspected;-46
Occupational Diseases detected :21-
No. of workers declared unfit for further work:8453
Others275575

However, the ESIC, which deals with the compensation to the workers for any loss while working in the factory has 23 cases and 14 cases of occupational disease cases ( detected at Occupational Disease OPD, Belur ESI Hospital, Howrah, W.B. in 2000 & 2001 respectively ). List of occupational disease cases is given in Table-III. Occupational disease cases detected by this hospital and compensated by Spl. Medical Board in the year 2000 is mentioned in Table IV.

6.4.3. OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES -STATUS

TABLE – III

Occupational Diseases Cases

Sl No.Occupational DiseasesNo.of Cases
  20002001
1.Silicosis88
2.Silico TB42
3.Talcosis 3
4.Byssinosis21
5.Asbestosis4-
6.Jute Byssinosis1-
7.Other Pneumoconiosis4-
 Total :2314

6.4.4 Dection and compensation for Occupational disease

TABLE – IV

Occupational Disease cases detected and compensated by

Special Medical Board in year 2000

Occupational DiseaseNo of Cases
(a) Asbestosis3
(b) Byssinosis2
(c) Silicosis13
Total18

The cases reported above are only from the industries covered by the ESIC Act, 1948 and therefore cannot be taken as a true sample of the total population of the workers working in the manufacturing sectors in the state of West Bengal. However, the figures are sufficient indicators of the dangers of the Occupational Diseases arising from the risk factors existing in the work place and need to be looked into.

6.4.5 CONSULTANCY STUDIES NATIONAL STUDIES BY THE INSTITUTE

Regional Labour Institute, Govt. of India, Ministry of Labour, Kolkata undertook some Consultancy Studies as well some National Studies since last few years in the State of West Bengal. Table – V shows the industry wise distribution of workers examined in each year.

TABLE – V

Workers examined

Industry1998199920002001
Petroleum Industry ( for TEL toxicity)23   
Pesticide Industry7610  
Iron Dust Industry   7
Total :9910-7

Table-VI shows the details of the examinations carried out since 1998 on workers of different factories by this Institute subjected to pathological, Radiological etc. examinations for investigation of occupational diseases. In 1999 out of 10 workers examined in a Organophosphate Pesticide Unit, 7 workers showed severe over-exposure of organophosphate pesticide in their blood cholinesterase estimation.

6.4.6 IDENTIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES BY THE INSTITUTE

TABLE - VI

Clinical Laboratory examination of workers

Name of the examinations1998199920002001
Pathological :
Blood7610-7
Urine7610-7
Biochemical:
Blood----
Cholinesterase:7610--
Organic Lead:23--(TEL)-
Urine:
Organic Lead:23---
Radiological (X-Ray) :7610-7
Physiological:
Lung Function Test:7610-7
Lung Function Test:7610--

6.5 ESI CORPORATION : WEST BENGAL

6.5.1 INTRODUCTION

The Employees’ State Insurance Scheme, the largest multi-dimensional Social Security Scheme in south East Asia, was introduced in West Bengal with the issuance of Notification u/s. 1(3) of ESI Act, 1948 w.e.f. 14th August, 1955. Now w.e.f. 20.10.89, the factories engaging 10 or more persons and using power, and 20 or more persons without use of power and defined as factory u/s. 2(12) of the Act were covered under the purview of ESI Act,In the first instance, in Kolkata, Howrah and Tollygunge Municipality (now under Kolkata Municipal Corporation), Other sectors of employments ( viz. Hotels, Restaurants, Cinema, including Preview Theatres, Newspaper Establishments, Road Transport, Shops and Establishments) have been brought within the ambit of coverage in phased manner with various dates of implementation. The Scheme is presently implemented in 9 (nine) industrial centers with medical services being rendered by a network of 13 (thirteen) ESI Hospitals administered by the State Government and 1 (one) Hospital-cum-O.D.C. run directly by ESI Corporation. In addition, the Medical Services are rendered through 36 (thirty six) Service Dispensaries operating in various areas within the implemented zones. Beds have also been kept reserved in a few Government Hospitals to support medical facilities available through ESI Hospital.

Disbursement of Cash Benefit, which forms another distinct area of Social Security scheme, is ensured through a network of 66 Local Offices situated in various industrial centers within the easy reach of the Insured Persons attached to such Local Offices.

6.5.2 COVERAGE :

Wage ceiling for coverage of employees is now fixed at Rs. 6,500/- which excludes the O.T. wages earned by an employee in a month. The ceiling was enforced w.e.f. 01.01.1997. As on 31.03.2001, 6,59,600 employees with 7,42,250 insured Persons are covered under the Scheme and 28,21,000 beneficiaries are in receipt of protection of Social Security under the Scheme in the State.

6.5.3 ADMINISTRATIVE SET-UP OF ESI CORPORATION :

The administration of ESI Scheme other than the Medical Benefit provided under the Scheme is run through the Regional Office of ESI Corporation under the Regional Director who is the local administrative head and the Regional Office is functioning from Panchdeep Bhawan, 5/1, Grant Lane, Kolkata-12.

Under the Regional Office there are 66 Local Offices in respect of which Local Office Managers are the local administrative heads and 22 Inspectorates being assigned with specific zones who undertake inspection/survey of factories/establishments falling within their respective assigned areas.

The Dy. Medical Commissioner (EZ), ESI Corporation is entrusted with the responsibility of Hospitals/Dispensaries and other medical institutions under the ESI network. He is also responsible for maintaining liaison with the State Government and ESI Corporation regarding the administration of the Medical Benefit Scheme. Dy. Medical Commissioner also acts as advisor in Health measures adopted by ESI Corporation as well as ESI (MB) Scheme with a view to ensuring better services to the Beneficiaries. Under Dy. Medical Commissioner 12 Medical Referees are posted in different zones to cater to the Insured population to check on lack of services/offering of second medical opinion in chronic/difficult cases requiring prolonged treatment in case of sickness/Temporary Disability etc. Dy. Medical Commissioner also undertakes inspection of Service Dispensaries/IMP’s Clinics located in different centers and provides useful guidance for their better performance.

6.5.4 MEDICAL BENEFIT UNDER THE SCHEME

Medical Benefit under the Scheme are provided to the employees and workers and their dependants from the day of their entering the insurable employment.

Medical Benefit package also ensures reimbursement of expenditure for speciality and super speciality treatment including advance payment for such treatment.

The expenditure incurred on provision of medical care is shared between the ESI Corporation and the State Government in the ratio of 7 : 1 within the prescribed ceiling of Rs. 600/- per insured person family unit per annum.

6.5.5 ESI HOSPITAL-CUM-ODC, JOKA

The ESI Hospital-cum-ODC situated at Joka, Kolkata is the only OD Centre/Hospital being run by ESI Corporation directly in the State. The Hospital was commissioned with effect from 1.10.1994 for the benefit of IPs of West Bengal as also for the IPs scattered in various States of Eastern Zone to cater to the treatment for occupational disease. The Hospital is a referral hospital in nature and normally caters to specialist treatment. The Hospital was initially started with 60 beds. The beds strength has now increased to 152. Further action is under way to raise the capacity of the hospital to 200 beds.

6.5.6 CASH BENEFIT

Disposal of Cash Benefit, including long-term benefits occupies special place of priority of the activities of ESI Corporation, West Bengal Region. The cases disposed of under the category included disposal of claims arising out of recommendation of Medical Board assuming loss of earning capacity and claims of D.B. arising out of death of Insured Persons in employment related injuries. As a result of sustained effort, substantial progress has been made in this field of activity with Regional Authority constantly monitoring the pendency and taking remedial measure to bring down the pendency to a minimum with a view to settling the Insured Persons’ claims within a specific time limit.

6.5.7 LEGAL ACTION

During the year 2001 (1.1.2001 to 31.12.2001) prosecution cases under various provisions of ESI Act have been filed against 42 defaulting units. The following total is indication of the progress achieved in prosecution cases during the period under report.

Nature of actionNo. of cases filedDisposedWithdrawn under Amnesty Scheme
Cases filed u/s 85429637
Cases filed u/s 85ANil53
Cases filed u/s 406/409 IPCNil18Nil

6.5.8 IMPLEMENTATION OF ESI SCHEME

Name of the CentreNo of Employees Covered
Burdwan District
Burnpur15,672
Ranigunj under J.L.No.24310
Hooghly
Polba325
Singur50

6.5.9 ORGANIZATION OF WORKSHOP ON ESI SCHEME

The ESI Corporation Regional Office has been organizing workshop on ESI Scheme for educating employers and with a view to promoting interaction, ensuring better compliance/liaison with the employers and to apprise the employers of changes/amendments etc. in procedural matters. During the period under report, a total of 4 such workshops have been organized in which about 200 employers/ representatives took part.

6.5.10 ESI SCHEME AT A GLANCE IN WEST BENGAL REGION
1Name & Address of the Regional OfficeESI Corporation Panchdeep Bhawan 5/1, Grant Lane,Kolkata-700012 Tel.No. 236-4451 to 55/237-5366 E.Mail – esiccal@ wb.nic.in
2Name & address of Chairman of the Regional BoardHon’ble Minister of State,Labour, ESI & Employment Tel. No. 214-5741 (Office)
3The Regional DirectorTel. No. 225-9236 (Office) Fax 225-9236
4Name & address of the Officer in-Charge of the Medical Side of ESI SchemeDirector, ESI(MB) Scheme, Govt. of W.B.P-233, C.I.T. Road, Scheme-VII, Kolkata-700054 Tel No. 355-6385
5No.of Centres covered9 (nine)
6No. of Employees6,59,600
7No. of Insured Persons7,42,250
8No. of beneficiaries including family members28,21,000
9No. of Employers13,248
10No. of Local Offices66
11No. of Inspection Zones29
12No of ESI Hospitals including O.D.C.(EZ)14
13No of Beds-
aESI Hospitals3449
bReserved in other Hospitals440
Total Beds 3889
14No. of ESI service Dispensaries36
15No. of Insurance Medical Officers303
16No of Insurance Medical Practitioners1172
17No. of Ambulance Vans37
18No. of RBOs (Govt.)52
19No. of Panel Clinics (Pvt.)64
20No. of Diagnostic Centers2
21No. of Specialist Centers430
22Actual Per Capita expenditure on Medical care during 1998-99 (W.B.)Rs.68,4.03
23ESI Coverage wage ceiling w.e.f.1.1.97Rs. 6,500/- per month
24Share of contribution (w.e.f.1.1.97)Employees – 1.75% on wages
Employers-4.75% on wages
25Employees exempted from paying employers’ share of contributionAverage daily wage up to Rs.40/- (w.e.f.8.4.2000)
26Ceiling on medical care per Insured Person w.e.f.1.4.99Rs. 600/- (inclusive Rs.170/- for drugs and dressings)
27Medical Bonus on a/c confinement expenditure in out station IW/Wife of Insured PersonsRs. 250/-
28Upper limit of commuted value of PDB PaymentsRs. 10,000/-
29Re-imbursement of conveyance/loss of wageRs. 125/-(maximum) per day
30Minimum S.B. rateRs. 14/- per day
31Contribution arrears due from defaulting Employers up to 30.9.2001 as on 28.2.2001Pvt.-4848 Units – Rs.10350.46 lakhs Govt.-87 Units – Rs. 2852.42 lakhs Grand total -4935Units Rs.15,202.88 lakhs
32Disposal of reimbursement claims from 2001-2002 out of Revolving Fund ( from1.1.2001 to 31.12.2001)Rs. 147.84 lakhs
33Revenue Recovery2000-2001 :Rs. 1800.02 lakhs
2001-2002 :Rs. 990.16 lakhs (up to 31.12.1)
34Contribution Income1999-2000 : Rs. 118.20 crores
2000-2001 : Rs. 131.91 crores
35Revenue Expenditure1999-2000 : Rs. 135.70 crores
2001-2002 : Rs. 122.06 crores
36New areas where Scheme has been implemented during 2001-2002-(1) Hooghly District
(a)Polba (w.e.f.1.9.2001)
(b) Singur
(2) Burdwan District
(a) Burnpur under Hirapur P.S (w.e.f.1.9.2001)
(b) Ranigunge ( JR No.24)
2001-2002 : Rs. 122.06 crores

Reference :

(1) Labour in West Bengal 2001 By: Department of Labour, Government of West Bengal.

(2) Study Reports : Regional Labour Institute, Kolkata

Management of occupational safety and health at unit level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY HEALTH AT UNIT LEVEL

This Chapter deals with the management of Occupational Safety and Health at unit level i.e. manufacturing units. The state has total number of 11,949 manufacturing units, the breakup of which according to factories registered under section 2(m), section 85 of the Factories Act, 1948 is given in Chapter 4. In order to have a fair idea, about the safety and health status in these units, the following aspects on safety and health have been covered under the chapter:-

  • Safety Policy
  • Appointment of safety officers
  • Safety Committee
  • Occupational Health Center
  • Welfare
  • On-site emergency plans
  • Safety reports

There are some statutory requirements as provided under the Factories Act, 1948 and Rules framed there under, for each of the aspects stated above. Items 7.6 to 7.7 are additional requirements exclusively applicable to MAH installations which are covered by separate set of rules. Each of the aspect with its status has been discussed in the following paragraph.

7.1. SAFETY POLICY

The Rule 63B of the West Bengal Factories Rule framed under the provisions of sections 7A(3), 41-B(2) and 112 requires preparation of a written statement of policy in respect of health and safety of workers at work by the factories meeting of the following criteria:-

  • Units covered under Section 2(m) (i) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.
  • Units covered under section 2(m) (ii) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 100 workers.
  • Units covered under Section 87 of Factories Act, 1948.
  • Units covered under section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948.

In addition to the above, the Chief Inspector may require the occupier of any of the factories of >

As per the details available 207 units required preparation of Safety Policy, however, 196 units have only prepared the safety policy which is about 95% of the total.

7.2 APPOINTMENT OF SAFETY OFFICERS

As per the provisions of Section 40B of the Factories Act, 1948. Safety Officer is required to be appointed for the units meeting the following criteria:

7.2.1. Units employing more than 1000 workers wherein any manufacturing process or operation is carried on involving any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or diseases or any hazard to health. As per the details available 256 Safety Officers were required to be appointed as against 207 Safety Officers were appointed in various factories in the State.

7.3. SAFETY COMMITTEE

The Rule 63C of the West Bengal Factory Rules 1958 framed under the provision of Section 41 and 41G of the Factories Act, 1948 require constitution of Safety Committee in the factories meeting the following criteria:-

  • Units employing 250 or more workers
  • Units covered under Section 87 of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.
  • Units the covered under Section 2(cb) of the Factories Act, 1948 and employing more than 50 workers.

As per the information 117 units required constitution of Safety Committee. However, only 87 units have constituted safety Committees.

7.4 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH CENTRES

As per the Rule 63K of the West Bengal Factory Rules 1958 prescribed under Section 41-C of the Factories Act, 1948 Occupational health centers are required to be set up in the Factories carrying hazardous process as described under section 2(cb) of the Act. The industries have been divided into 3 categories. Industries employing upto 50 workers, employing 51 to 250 workers and employing above 250 workers. .

7.5 WELFARE

For the welfare of workers employed in factories Chapter V of the Factories Act, 1948, and the West Bengal Factories Rules, 1958 the following welfare measures are required..

  • Washing facilities
  • Facilities for storing and drying cloths
  • Facilities for sitting
  • First aid appliances
  • Shelters, rest room and lunch room (if more than 150 workers are ordinarily employed)
  • Canteen (if more than 250 workers are ordinarily employed)
  • Crèche (if more than 300 women workers are ordinarily employed)
  • Ambulance room (if more than 500 workers are ordinarily employed).
  • Welfare officers (if more than 500 workers are ordinarily employed).

The violations of various provisions as observed by officers of the Directorate of Factories during the year 2001 are shown in the Table-I below. Table-II shows the employment position of Welfare Officers in factories during the last 5 years.

7.5.1 VIOLATIONS OBSERVED

Table-I

a)Washing facilities (Section 42)3
b)First-Aid (Section 45/R-65)339
c)Ambulance Room (Section 45/R-66)14
d)Canteen (Section 46)22
e)Shelter/Rest or Lunch Room (Section 47)21
f)Crèche (Section 48)5

7.5.2 EMPLOYMENT OF WELFARE OFFICERS IN FACTORIES (1997-2001)

Table-II

YearNo. of Welfare Officers requiredNo. of Welfare Officers appointed
1999339295
2000348315
2001398325

7.5.3 ONSITE EMERGENCY PLAN

As per the provisions of Rule 13 of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard (West Bengal) Rules, 1989” an occupier who has the control of the industrial activity as described under the Rule shall prepare an on-site emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on site on which industrial activity is carried on.

As per the information available 72 nos. of MAH installations are required to prepare the on-site emergency plan. However, 67 MAH installation have prepared the plans and submitted to the Director of Factories.

7.5.4 SAFETY REPORTS

As per the provision of rule 10 of “The Control of Major Industrial Accident Hazard (West Bengal) Rules, 1989” it is mandatory for an occupier to prepare and submit to the Chief Inspector before the commencement of an industrial activity the Safety Report of the industrial activity to which these rules apply. The Safety Report is to be submitted in prescribed format. Further, it is advisable that all the units after the commencement of the industrial activity shall carry out an independent Safety Audit of the respective industrial activities with the help of an expert not associated with such industrial activities. This will help the management to know the weak points in their system and to take suitable>

As per the information available 20 no. of units were required to prepare Safety Reports. However 19 units have prepared the Safety Report and submitted to the Director of Factories.

7.5.5 RISK ASSESSMENT STUDIES

The HAZOP study (Hazard and operability studies ) are carried out in advance on any plant to examine the process or at least the relevant parts of the process to discover how deviation from the intention of design can occur and to decide whether such deviations can give rise to hazardous conditions.

The technique aims to simulate the imagination in a systematic way and is useful in identifying potential hazards in advance and allow the user to take corrective measures.

Management of occupational safety and health at state level

MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH AT STATE LEVEL

Administration and enforcement of Occupational Safety Health Act primarily vested with the State Government because the instruments like policies, legislation etc. are required to be more comprehensive to take care of safety and health issues. Apart from the Factories Act 1948, there are other legislations for providing a better work environment, safety, health and welfare facilities.

The act grants OSH authority, among other things, (a) to promulgate, modify and revoke safety and health standards, (b) to conduct inspections and investigations and to issue citations including proposed penalties (c) to require employees to keep records of safety and health data (d) to petition the courts to restrain imminent danger situations and (e) to approve or reject state plans for programme under the act.

The safety and health as workplace is governed by various statutes in the state depending on the nature of workplace, manufacturing activity and specific aspect of safety and health. Some of the important statutes are given below:-

  • The Factories Act, 1948 and the Rules framed there under (The West Bengal Factories Rules, The West Bengal Welfare Officers Rules, the West Bengal Safety Officers Rules)
  • Indian Boilers Act 1923 and Rules framed thereunder.
  • The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation Act, 1986 and the West Bengal Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Rules 1995.
  • The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989.
  • Dock Workers’ Safety, Health and Welfare Regulation.
  • Indian Electricity Act and Rules Framed thereunder.
  • Dangerous machines (Regulations) Act.
  • Indian Explosive Act.
  • The petroleum Act and Rules.
  • Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels Rules.

There are different departments of Central Government and State Government entrusted with the responsibility of enforcement of these statutes. The other organisation such as training and research institution (Regional Labour Institute, Kolkata), employers associations (Confederation of Indian Industries), employees organiastion (Trade Unions) etc. also supplement the efforts of enforcement agencies to promoting occupational safety and health in the state.

Department of Factories and Boilers

These departments are under the Department of Labour, Government of West Bengal. The Department of Factories is headed by the Chief Inspector of Factories and the Department of Boilers is headed by the Chief Inspector of Boilers. Thus in the state of West Bengal the Directorate have to look after the enforcement of Factories Act, 1948. The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, 1989, the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 and the Payment of Weges Act 1936 and the West Bengal Payment of Wages Rules, 1965.

The Directorate of Boiler enforces (a) the Indian Boiler Act 1923, (b) the West Bengal Boiler Rules 1963, (c) The West Bengal Boiler Operation Engineer Rules 1960 (d) The West Bengal Boiler Attendant Rules 1958 (e) The West Bengal Economiser Rules 1958.

8.1.1. Organization

The Department of Labour, Government of West Bengal is headed by the Principal Secretary, who is assisted by the Special Secretary, Joint Secretary, Deputy Secretary and Assistant Secretary.

The Chief Inspector of Factories is the administrative head of the Directorate of Factories. He is assisted by other officers as shown below:

Officers under the Chief Inspector of Factories
DesignationHead QuartersKolkata & part of 24 ParganasHowrahRegional Office
Joint Chief Inspector of Factories3---
Joint Chief Inspector of Factories (Chemical)1---
Joint Chief Inspector of Factories (Medical)1---
Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories2412
Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories (Chemical)1---
Deputy Chief Inspector of Factories (Medical)1---
Inspector of Factories11358
Inspector of Factories (Chemical)4---
Inspector of Factories (Medical)6---
Jr. Chief Inspector of Factories-622
Industrial Chemist2---
Statistician2---
Administrative Officer1---

The Directorate has seven branches officers situated at Barrackpore, Serampore, Kalyani, Asansol, Durgapur, Jalpaiguri and Haldia.

ACTIVITIES OF THE DIRECTORATE OF BOILERS

The Directorate of Boilers of West Bengal is an important department to ensure safety to human life and property through sound manufacturing practice, Safe operation and proper maintenance of the Boiler by applications of the provisions of the Indian Boilers Act, 1923 and the regulations made thereunder. The following rules have been framed by the State Government under Act.

  • The West Bengal Boiler Rules, 1963.
  • The West Bengal Operation Engineer Rules, 1960.
  • The West Bengal Boiler Attendant Rules, 1958.
  • The West Bengal Economizer Rules 1958.
OFFICERS AND AREAS COVERED

In order to exercise effective control over manufacture and erection and to ensure periodical inspection of Boilers in different parts of the State, apart from its Head Office three branch offices headed by one Deputy Chief Inspector of Boilers are functioning at Durgapur, Sitarampur and Malda.

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

The department is headed by Chief Inspector of Boilers and supported by 3 Jt. Chief Inspector of Boilers three branch offices. These three Jt. Chief Inspector of Boilers are assisted by 3 Deputy Chief Inspector of Boilers who are heading the three branch offices at Durgapur, Sitarampur and Malda. The administrative structure of the Directorate of Boilers is given below:

ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE
STRUCTURE
INSPECTION ACTIVITIES
INSPECTION ACTIVITIES ON NEW PROJECT

Safety is ensured at the manufacturing stages of the Boilers by applications of the Indian Boiler Regulations, 1950 (as amended up-to-date) and different National and International Codes. For application of the safe operation and maintenance of the Boilers, the different project works for Boiler Installation are performed under the supervision of the Inspecting Officers of the Directorate. 10 such activities which are either computed or in progress are performed by the during the year 2000.

INSPECTION ACTIVITIES FOR THE BOILERS IN USE

The boilers and economizers were inspected for renewal of certificates and permission was granted for use for further periods. If found defective, repairs were recommended and fitness certificates are issued after completion of repairs. Details of such inspection during the year 2000 are given below:

No. of Boilers inspected1870
No. of Economizers inspected120
No. of Boilers certified1401
No. of economizer certified93
No. of Boilers recommended for repairs469
No. of economizer recommended for repair27
EXEMPTION

The boilers and economizers are normally granted certificates, for further use for a definite period. Sometimes it required, permission is granted to run beyond the certificate period to meet public interest particularly in power sector. While granting exemption, due consideration is given to safety by assessment of age, quality of feed water, different control arrangements and record of past performance. 22 such boilers are granted exemption during the year 2000.

Testing Laboratory

The testing laboratory under the Directorate of Boilers, West Bengal is conducting the different tests as per the requirements of Indian Boiler Regulations, 1950 for boiler parts and other ancillaries. It also conducts welders’ qualification tests for welders to the engaged in high pressure welder welding jobs. Both distribution and non-destruction tests are carried out by the laboratory. Apart from the routine tests it witnessed the tests conducted by the international inspection agencies like Lloyds Register of Shipping, Bureau Varitas etc. This laboratory not only renders its service to the Directorate of West Bengal but also to the similar authorities of other tests. The testing facilities available in the laboratory are listed below:

  • Mechanical testing
  • Chemical testing
  • Metallagraphy
  • X-ray and Gamma-Ray Radiography
  • Ultrasonic and Magnetic Partial testing
  • Welders Certification
  • Workshop
DISTRIBUTION OF STRENGTH AS PER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENT
OFFICERS AND AREAS COVERED

The Directorate of Factories for the State of West Bengal apart from his Headquarters Kolkata has seven branch officers situated at Barrackpore, Sreerampur, Kalyani, Asansol, Durgapur, Jalpaiguri and Haldia. Each branch officers are headed by Inspector of Factories and is assisted by Jr. Inspectors for the enforcement of statutes.

ACTIVITIES

The different activities undertaken by the department are given below:-

ENFORCEMENT

The Directorate enforces provisions contained in the following status:-

  • The Factories Act, 1948 and Rules Framed there under (The West Bengal Factories Rules, the West Bengal Welfare Officers Rules, the West Bengal Safety Officers Rules etc.)
  • The payment of Wage Act 1936 and the West Bengal payment of Wage Rules 1965.
  • The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 and the West Bengal Maternity Benefit Rules, 1965.
  • The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989.
  • In Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 and the West Bengal Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Rules, 1995.

Activities of the Directorate of Factories are primarily aimed at establishing a safe and healthy work environment in factories with the elimination of every possible accident. Occupational diseases and industrial disasters in and around the factory premise. Ensuring welfare of the workers in factories is also a major concern of this Directorate.

EDUCATION AND TRAINING

The Directorate of Factories, West Bengal conducts a number of Seminars, meetings, in-plant safety training/orientation courses/symposium for increasing safety and health awareness amongst various target group from factories. Seminars and workshops are also organized to find out a practicable solutions on safety and health problems. Four such seminar/workshop was conducted during the year 2000 when twenty five in plant training programme/symposium/orientation course was conducted.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT WORK

The Directorate of Factories of West Bengal conducts multidisciplinary studies on safety and health problems in factories. For this work a Research and development wing has been formed. This wing has four cells namely chemical cell, Medical cell, Industrial Hygiene Cell and Research statistics cell. The major activities of the cells during the year under review are outlined below:

Chemical Cell

The chemical cell of the Directorate undertakes thorough inspection of chemical factories and suggests remedial measures to prevent and control chemical hazards lime fire, explosion and toxic release arising out of industrial activities and affecting plant personnel, outside population and general environment.

During the year 2000, the officers of the cell paid 497 visits in 255 factories. The cell has also identified a Major Accident Hazard Factories and deal with 84 on site emergency plans submitted by different factories engaged in hazardous process.

Medical Cell

The Medical Cell undertake projects during the year to assess the occupational hazards associated writs handling, storage and use of lead, silica, chlorine manganese, asbestos etc. 1617 workers who were employed in dangerous operations and hazardous process were examined medically during the year 2000.

Industrial Hygiene Cell

The main activity of the cell is to undertake safety and occupational health surveys in factories all over the state as per provision of section 91A of Factories Act, 1948. The work is devoted to anticipation, recognition evaluation and control of environment of factors or stresses arising from the workplace inside factories to which the workers are exposed.

The cell during the year 2000 conducted 79 multidirectional surveys/studies in different factories involving a total number of 5925 workers. The cell conducted 17 surveys in the work environment at different factories for assessment of levels of air-borne concentration of nine toxic chemicals and four toxic and hazardous dust. In about 50% of the cases the airborne concentration of such chemicals and dust exceeded the permissible exposure limit prescribed under the National and International standards. 58 surveys were conducted for assessment of physical stress parameters. During this survey it was found physical stress parameters noise level exceeded the permissible limit while illumination level and air velocity were below the minimize recommended values in almost all the cases.

Inspection Activities

The state of West Bengal has 11,949 number of registered factories out of which 4054 factories were visited by the officers of this Directorate.

No. of visits to factories by the Inspector (1998-2001)

YearRegistered FactoriesNon-Registered FactoriesNon-Amendable FactoriesTotal
 U/S 2(m)U/S 85U/S 2(m)U/S 85  
199834691484661212234427
199934541495401202284551
200032401264521122174147
200131341444921141694054

Amongst 11,949 registered factories 10,676 factories are registered under section 2(m) (i) while 154 under 2(m) (i) and 1,119 factories notified under section 85 of Factories Act 1948 during the year 2000.

Prosecutions and Conviction

Under section 92 of the Factories Act 1948 the Directorate of Factories of West Bengal has instituted total 226 prosecution cases for validation of various provisions of the Acts and rules framed thereunder during the year 2000. Total 97 factories were prosecuted and total number of conviction attained were 125. Out 228 prosecution cases 87 nos. is about 40% of the total were due to violation of safety provisions. Total amount Rs. 6,85,300/- were collected against the 125 number of conviction.

ACTIVITIES OF LABOUR DIRECTORATE

The office of the Labour Directorate is one of the most important office under Government of West Bengal. There are total 49 officers of the Labour Directorate in West Bengal. This comprises with 47 offices and two State Labour Institutes. The main objective of the department to:

  • Look after the welfare of the workers.
  • See that the facilities as per various statutes are mode available to the workers.
  • Look after the labour dispute and industrial relations.
  • Register the trade unions.
  • See functioning of various committees formed for the workers engaged the different occupations.
  • See the functioning of the welfare boards
  • Carry out inspections, prosecutions and convictions for the violation the provisions of various acts enforced by the Labour Commissioner.
  • Implement formation schemes for workers working in different occupations.
  • Implement group insurance scheme.
Organization structure and officers and areas covered

This Directorate is headed by Chief Labour Commissioner and was assisted with 5 Additional Labour Commissioner who are sitting at Kolkata. There were 6 Joint Labour Commissioner who also officiates in Kolkata except one having office at Siliguri. There are 22 Deputy Labour Commissioner having 11 officers throughout the State rest are all the officers of 115 Asstt. Labour Commissioner.

Activities

The major activities of this department is to see the welfare of the labour working in all the occupations in the state. The activities include enforcement of the following acts:

  • The trade union Act, 1926.
  • The payment of Wages Act, 1936
Inspections, Prosecutions and Convictions

The department enforces various acts for the welfare of people engaged in various occupations. The details of the inspections made under each act number of prosecutions and no. of cases disposed by the court by conviction during the year 2000.

Sl. No.Name of the ActsNo. of InspectionsNo. of ProsecutionsNo. of Convictions
1.The Payment of Wages Act 1936310666128
2.The Minimum Wages Act, 1948.23456503299
3.The Plantations Labour Act 195112915157
4.The Motor Transport Workers Act 196139585447
5.The West Bengal Shops and Establishment Act 19631684411347211103
6.The Benefit & Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment Act, 1966)38753812
7.The Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970385013534
8.The West Bengal Workmen’s House Rent Allowance Act 1974812NILNIL
9.The Equal Remuneration act 19762563NIL1
10.The Sales Promotion Employees (Condition of service) Act 197632NILNIL
11.The Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act 19799527NIL
12.The Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act 19861402023

Apart from the above acts and their enforcement, the activities on the other acts are as follows:

The Trade Union Act 1926

The No. of application handled during the year – 1030

The no. of Trade Unions registered during the year – 352

A total number of 21 court cases regarding mostly inter union and inter union rivalry and some regarding the recognition of trade unions were handled during the year. Among those only 10 cases were disposed of and 11 remain pending at the end of the year.

DIRECTORATE OF ELECTRICITY

The Indian Electricity Act 1910 lays down the law relating to “The Supply and use of electrical energy is Indian and Regulates the procedures for grant of license to Electrical undertakings prescribing obligation in respect of execution of works and delivering supplies and regulates the relations between the licenses and the consumers.

To enforce Indian Electricity Act, 1910 and rules framed thereunder, Directorate of Electricity, Govt. of West Bengal has set up 14 offices in the State. The Inspectors of the Directorate conducts inspection, investigate electrical accidents and file court case 882 and 950 inspections were carried out during 2001 and 2002 respectively. No. of electrical accidents occurred in the state were 102 and 89 during 2001 and 2002. all the electrical accidents were investigated.

WEST BENGAL POLLUTION CONTROL

West Bengal Pollution Control Board has been constituted either representative of the Government, local bodies, technical and scientific community the representative of the State Controlled Co-operatives. Principal Secretary, Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal is the Chairman of the Committee. The constitution of the members of the Board is follows:

Chairman
Representatives of the Government:
  • Secretary, Deptt. of Environment or his nominee
  • Secretary, Deptt. of Commerce & Industries or his nominee
  • Secretary, Deptt. of Science & Technology or his nominee
  • Secretary, Deptt. of Transport or his nominee
  • Chief Inspector of Factories
Representatives of the Local Authorities:
  • Mayor, Calcutta Municipal Corporation
  • Mayor, Howrah Municipal Corporation
  • Mayor, Durgapur Municipal Corporation
  • Chairperson, Haldia Municipality
  • Chairperson, Bhadreswar Municipality
Representatives of the Technical Scientific Community:
  • Ex Head of Dept., ENT, Calcutta Medical College
  • Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University
  • Deptt. of Metallurgy, Bengal Engineering College
Representatives of the State Controlled Co-operatives:
  • Managing Director, West Bengal Forest Development Corporation
  • Managing Director, Calcutta State Transport Corporation
Member Secretary:

B.E. (Civil), IIT-Roorkee
Masters (Economics), University of Manchester, UK.

The Regional Offices of the West Bengal Pollution Control Board are given below:

NameAddress / Phone NumberJurisdiction
Regional Office - I10, Camac Street (2nd Floor)
Calcutta - 700017
Tel/Fax : 2823402
A. CMC WARD NOS: 21 - 28, 36 -55, 59 - 88, 90 - 93, 105 - 107,133 - 141
B. Area Under Calcutta Port Trust within CMC.
C. Area Under Fort William within CMC
Regional Office - IIParibesh Bhavan,
10A, Block-LA
Sector - III, Salt Lake City
Calcutta-700 091
Tel : 335 3913
A. CMC WARD NOS: 1 - 20, 29 - 35, 56 - 58, 108 - 109.
B. 24 PGS(SOUTH) POLICE STATIONS - Sonarpur, Baraipur and Bhangar.
C. All the Police Stations of
Bidhannagar, Lake Town,
Barahanagar, Airport, Dum Dum, Rajarhat, Nimta and Minakha I & II blocks of 24 Pgs (N).
24 Pgs(S) Regional OfficeBhawani Bhavan , Alipur
Calcutta - 700 027
Tel/Fax : 4790298
A. CMC WARD NOS: 89, 94 - 104, 110 - 132.
B. 24 PGS(SOUTH) POLICE STATIONS - Thakurpukur, Metiaburuz, Regent Park, Maheshtala, Budge Budge, Bishnupur, Canning, Gosaba, Basanti, Jaynagar and Kulti.
C.Diamond Harbour Sub-Divn.
Howrah Regional
Office
Bhawani Bhawan, Alipur,
Calcutta - 700027
Tel/Fax : 479 9212
District of Howrah
Durgapur Regional OfficeCommercial Estate,
City Centre ,Durgapur, Burdwan. Tel : (03 43) 546708
Districts of Burdwan, Bankura, Birbhum and Purulia
Kankinara Regional
Office
Panpur More
Kalyani Express Way
P. O. - Narayanpur
The entire district of Murshidabad, Nadia and 24 Pgs (N) excepting areas of all the Police Stations of Bidhannagar, Lake Town, Barahanagar, Airport, Dum Dum, Rajarhat, Nimta and Minkha I & II blocks of 24 Pgs (N).
Haldia Regional
Office
Super Market Building,
Durgachawk,Haldia, Midnapore. Tel : (03224) 74190.
District of Midnapore
Siliguri Regional
Office
Rama House,19/176, Patel Road Pradhan Nagar, Siliguri.Darjeeling - 734403
Tel : (0353) 512200
Districts of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Coochbihar, Uttar Dinajpur, Dakshin Dinajpur and Malda.
Hooghly Regional
Office
Himalaya Bhavan
Dankuni, Delhi Road
Hooghly
Tel : 659 0957
District of Hooghly.
Asansol Sub Regional Office

 

(This office will work under the Regional Office of Durgapur and cover specific areas)
60, G. T. Road
Ghanty Mansion (2nd Floor),
Asansol 713 301
Asansol Sub Division of Burdwan District and the District of Purulia

As per provisions of Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 all new intending projects (Developmental & Industrial) required to obtain "Consent to Establish"(popularly termed as NOC) from State Pollution Control Board. Depending upon the pollution and hazard potential of industrial activities, the industries are categorized as special red, ordinary red,orange andgreen. There are sitting restrictions for special red, ordinary red and orange category of industries.

Some of the important information and documents required to be submitted along with the application form are as follows.

Information

  • List of raw materials consumed (with quantity) and products (with quantity) per day.
  • Process flow chart and details.
  • Amount of water and different type of fuels per day.
  • Quantity of liquid wastes generated per day and its characteristics.
  • Expected quantity and characteristics of gaseous emissions (fuel burning and process)
  • Expected quantity of solid wastes generated including hazardous solid waste.

Proposal for controlling/ treatment of liquid, solid and gaseous emissions.

Running units and the units starting operation after establishing as per NOC issued by the Board have to applyfor consent to operate. TheBoard, considering compliance of environmental laws by the industry issues a letter of consent to the industry allowing it to continue it's operation. The consent is normally granted for five years for green category, three years for Orange category, two years for Red category and one year for Specified Industries.

(A) Liquid
Sl.NoParameterStandards
 Inland surface waterPublic sewersLand of irrigationMarine/coastal areas
(a) (b) (c) (d)
1.Colour and odourremove as far as practicable 
2.Suspended solids mg/l. max.100600200(a) For process waste water 100
(b) For cooling water effluent 10% above total suspended matter of influent.
3.Particle size of suspended solidsshall pass 850 micron IS Sieve  (a)Floatable> (b)Settable>
4.pH value5.5. to 9.05.5 to 9.05.5 to 9.05.5 to 9.0
5.Temperatureshall not exceed
50C above the receiving water temperature
  shall not exceed 50C above the receiving water temperature
6.Oil and grease, mg./l, max.10201020
7.Total residual chlorine, mg/l. max.1.0  1.0
8.Ammonical nitrogen (as N.) mg/l max5050 50
9.Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (as NH3) mg/l. max100  100
10.Free ammonia (as NH3), mg/l.max5.0  5.0
11.Biochemical oxygen demand (3 days at 270C), mg/l. max.30350100100
12.Chemical oxygen demand, mg/l, max.250  250
13.Arsenic (as As) mg/l, max.0.20.20.2
0.2
14.Mercury (As Hg), mg/l, max.0.010.01 0.01
15.Lead (as Pb) mg/l, max0.11.0 2.0
16.Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l. max2.01.0 2.0
17.Hexavalent chro- mium (as Cr. +6). mg/l, max0.12.0 1.0
18.Total Chromium (as Cr) mg/l, max2.02.0 2.0
19.Copper (as Cu) mg/l, max3.03.0 3.0
20.Zinc (as Zn) mg/l, max5.015 15
21.Selenium (as Se) mg/l, max0.050.05 0.05
22.Nickel (as Ni) mg/l, max3.03.0 5.0
23.Cyanide (as CN) mg/l, max0.22.00.20.2
24.Fluoride (as F) mg/l, max2.015 15
25.Dissolved phosphates (as P) mg/l, max5.0   
26.Sulfide (as S) mg/l, max2.0  5.0
27.Phenolic compounds (as C6H5OH) mg/l, max1.05.0 5.0
28.Radioactive materials:
(a)Alfa emitters microcurie/ml, max.
(b)Beta emitters micro curie/ml,max.
10-7
10-6


10-7

10-6


10-8

10-7


10-7

10-6
29Bio-assay test90% Survival of fish after 96 hours in 100% effluent90% survival of fish after 96 hours in 100% effluent90% survival of fish after 96 hours in 100% effluent90% survival of fish after 96 hours in 100% effluent
30.Manganese (as Mn)2 mg/l2 mg/l 2 mg/l
31.Iron (as Fe)3 mg/l3 mg/l 3 mg/l
32.Vanadium (as V)0.2 mg/l0.2 mg/l 0.2 mg/l
33.Nitrate Nitrogen10 mg/l  20 mg/l
(B) NOISE
General
Area CodeCategory of AreaLimit in dB(A) Leq.
  Day TimeNight Time
A.Industrial area7570
B.Commercial area6555
C.Residential area5545
D.Silence zone5040

Note-1Day time is reckoned in between 6 a.m. And 9 p.m.

Note-2Night time is reckoned in between 9 p.m. and 6 a.m.

Note-3Silence zone is defined as areas upto 100 meters around such premises as hospital, educationalinstitutions and courts. The silence zones are to be declared by the Competent Authority.

Note-4 Mixed categories of areas should be declared as "one of the four above mentioned categories by the Competent Authority and the corresponding standard shall apply.

Generator Set run with Petrol or Kerosene
 Effective From
 September 1, 2001September 1, 2000
Sound power Level L-wa90 dBA86 dBA
Vehicles (with effect from the 1st January, 2003)

The following noise limits for vehicles shall be applicable from 1st day of January, 2003. The test method to be followed shall be IS:3028-1998.

Sl. No.Type of vehicleNoise Limits from 1st January,2003, dB(A)
01.Two Wheeler
Displacement upto 80 cm3
Displacement more than
80cm3 but upto 175 cm3
Displacement more than 175
cm3
75
77
80
02.Three Wheeler
Displacement upto 175 cm3
Displacement more than 175
cm3
77
80
03.Passenger Car75
04.Passenger or Commercial Vehicle
Gross vehicle weight upto 4
Tonne
Gross vehicle weight more than 4
tonne but upto 12 tonne
Gross vehicle weight more than
12 tonne
77
80
82

The existing limits on pass-by noise shall continue with the test method IS 3028-1998 till 1st January, 2003.

(C)AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
PollutantsTime weighted averageConcentration in ambient airMethod of measurement
Industrial AreaResidential AreaSensitive of Rural other Areas
123456
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)Annual Average
24 hours
80 µg/m3
120 µg/m3
60 µg/m3
80 µg/m3
15 µg/m3
30 µg/m3
1.Improved West and
Geake method
Oxides of Nitrogen
as NO2
Annual Average
24 hours
80 µg/m3
120µg/m3
60 µg/m3
80 µg/m3
15 µg/m3
30 µg/m3
1. Ultraviolet fluorescence
2. Jacob & Hochheiser
modified(NaArsenite)Method
3. Gas Phase Chemiluminescence
Suspended Particulate
Matter(SPM)
Annual Average
24 hours
360 µg/m3
500 µg/m3
140 µg/m3
200 µg/m3
70 µg/m3
100 µg/m3
High Volume sampling
(Average flow rate not less
than 1.1 m3/minute)
Respirable Particulate
matter (size less than
10 um)(RPM)
Annual Average
24 hours
120 µg/m3
150 µg/m3
60 µg/m3
100 µg/m3
50 µg/m3
75 µg/m3
Resopirable particulate
matter sampler
Lead(Pb)Annual Average 24 hours1.0 µg/m3
1.5µg/m3
0.75 µg/m3

 

1.00 µg/m3
0.50 µg/m3

 

0.75 µg/m3
AAS Method after sampling
using EPM 2000 or equivalent Filter paper
Carbon Monoxide (CO)8 hours
1 hour
5.0 µg/m3
10.0 µg/m3
2.0 µg/m3
4.0 µg/m3
1.0 µg/m3
2.0 µg/m3
Non dispersive infrared
spectroscopy

Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval.

24 hourly/8 hourly values should be met 98% of the time in a year. However, 2% of the time, it may exceed but not on two consecutive days.

Note :

1. National Ambient Air Quality Standard: The levels of air quality with an, adequate margin of safety,to protect the public health, vegetation and property.

2. Whenever and wherever two consecutive values exceeds the limit specified above for the respective category, it would be considered adequate reason to institute regular/continuous monitoring and further investigations.

The State Government/State Board shall notify the sensitive and other areas in the respective state within a period of six months from the date of Notification of National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT CELL

Authorisation for Hazardous waste: The Government of India published Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules in the year 1989 and amended it in January 2000. According to the amended version of the said Rule, any Industrial activity defined by the following criteria shall have to obtain authorization from the Board.

  • Industrial activities involving process(es) generating Hazardous Waste as per schedule 1 of the said amended Rule
  • Activities generating waste substances with concentration limits as per schedule 2 of the said amended Rule
  • Activities importing and/or exporting wastes as per schedule 3 of the said amended Rule

Prescribed form for application for authorisation for collection / reception / treatment/ transport/storage/ disposal of hazardous waste is available at the Hazardous Waste Management cell of the Board at its Head Office or may be downloaded clicking here.

LIST OF REGISTERED HAZARDOUS WASTE REPROCESSING UNITS IN WEST BENGAL

Name of the Hazardous Waste reprocessing units in West Bengal registered by Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India

Sl. No.Name & Address of the UnitNature of hazardous waste to be recycledRegistration valid upto
1.M/s. Azad Metal Works, 158-B, Picnic Garden Road, Kolkata - 700 039.Used lead acid battery scraps 300 MTA27.10.2003
2.M/s Bijay Metal Works, 76, Canal Circular Road, Kolkata-700054Used lead acid battery scraps 96 MTA7.11.2003
3.M/s. Jai Shambo Metal Co., 158, Picnic Garden Road, P.O.Tilijala, Kolkata –39.Used lead acid battery scrap 290 MTA7.11.2003
4.M/s. Kashi Metal Works, 158, Picnic Garden Road, P.O. Tiljala, Kolkata - 39Used lead acid battery scraps 300 MTA7.11.2003
5.M/s. National Metal Works, 158, Picnic Garden Road, P.O Tilijala, Kolkata - 39.Used lead acid battery scrap 150 MTA27.10.2003
6.M/s. Panchwati Metal Works, B-8-C/H/8, Jagodyan Lane, P.O. Kankurgachi, Kolkatta - 54.Used lead acid battery scrap 140 MTA07.11.2003
7.M/s. Raj Finoxides (P) Ltd., Village Kharial, P.O. - DCC, Distt. Hoogly, Pin - 712 310Used lead acid battery scrap/lead scrap 1440 TPA27.10.2003
8.M/s. Ram Dular and Brothers, 158, Picnic Garden Road, P.O. Tilijala, Kolkata -39.Used lead acid battery scrap 150 MTA27.10.2003
9.M/s. Rama Shankar Daya Shankar, 8-C/H/17, Jagodyan Lane, P.O. Kankurgachi, Kolkata - 54.Used lead acid battery scrap 150 MTA07.11.2003
10.M/s. Samata Metal Industries, 76, Canal Circular Road, Kolkata-700054Used lead acid battery scrap 60 MTA07.11.2003
11.M/s. Shiv Shakti Metal Works, 158, Picnic Garden Road, Tilijala, Kolkata -39.Used lead acid battery scrap 260 MTA27.10.2003
12.M/s. Shiv Shankar Metal Works, 158, Picnic Garden Road, P.O. Tiljala, Kolkata -39.Used lead acid battery scrap 150 MTA07.11.2003
13.M/s. Shree Ganesh Metal Works, 158, Picnic Garden Road, P.O. Tiljala, Kolkata-39.Used lead acid battery scrap 150 MTA07.11.2003
14.M/s. Singh Metal Company, 158, Picnic Garden Road, P.O. Tilijala, Kolkata - 39.Used lead acid battery scrap 150 MTA27.10.2003
15.M/s. Tarak Metal Industries, 76, Canal Circular Road, Kolkata -700054.Used lead acid battery scrap 108 MTA07.11.2003
16.Bristol Petroleum Pvt. Ltd., 26/5/D-, A.M. Ghosh Road, Budge-Budge, 24 Pg (S)Used/Waste oil 370 KLA08.10.2003
17.Vermillion Petrochem (P) Ltd., 28/3, Salkia School Road, Howrah,-711 106.Used oil -1000 KLA17.10.2003
18.J.G. Chemicals Pvt. Ltd., 34-A, Metcalfe Street, 3rd Floor, Flat 3-F, Calcutta,Zinc Metal Scrap & Zinc Dross – 1200 TPA01.01.2004
19.Metacon Industries, P-153, Beneras Road, Howrah,cAsh 1000 MTA03.06.2003
20.R.K. Industries, Vill. Ramdiha, P.O. Aswinkota, Kotalpur, Bankura,Zinc dross, Zinc ash, Zinc dust, Zinc skimmings & Zinc scrap – 900 MTA14.03.2004
21.Salts & Chemicals Private Limited, P.O. Sugandha, Hooghly – 712 102Zinc ash – 10 TPA06.01.2005
22.Cross Point Chemical Industries P.O. Sugandha, Hooghly – 712 102Zinc ash – 400 MTA30.12.2004
23.Bachhelal Metal Industries, 22 G, Shib Krishna Daw LaneUsed Lead Acid Battery Scrap - 360 MTA19.12.2003
24.Shri Vishnu Industries, Jalan Industrial Complex, Biprannapara, HowrahZinc Ash/Skimmings/Scrap/Dross - 1800 TPA04.12.2004
INSPECTORATE DOCK SAFETY, KOLKATA

The Inspectorate Dock Safety, Kolkata is a sub ordinate office of the Chief Inspector of Dock Safety. The Inspectorate Dock Safety, Kolkata is also the Regional Head Office of Inspectorate Dock Safety, Paradip and Inspectorate Dock Safety, Visakhapatnam. The Inspectorate is responsible for the Administration of Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Act, 1986 that came into force on the 15-04-1987 and the Regulations (Dock Workers’ Safety, Health and Welfare Regulation, 1990) framed thereunder.

As per Schedule 5 of MSIH Rules, 1989, the Chief Inspector Dock Safety under the Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Act, 1986, is the concerned authority for enforcement of directions and procedures in respect of the isolated storages dealing with hazardous chemicals and pipe lines inside a port. The Amendment Rules 1994 further provide the concerned authority to undertake the following activities:

  • Inspection of the Industrial Activity at least once in a calendar year.
  • Preparation of Annual Report on the compliance of the Rules.
  • After full analysis of the accident, the requisite information is to be complied and sent within 90 days to the Ministry of Environment and forces through Ministry of Labour.
  • Approval of written report on the notification of the site within 60 days from the date of receipt of report and issue of notice under Rule 19 on the contraventions of the provisions of the Act or the Rules after consideration of the report.
  • Preparation of safety report by the occupier in consultation with the Chief Inspector of Dock Safety within one year from the commencement of the Amendment Rules 1994.
  • Scrutiny of Safety Audit report submitted by the occupier and issue of improvement notice if deemed fit within 45 days after submission of the said report.
  • Ensuring rehearsal/mock drill of the on-site emergency plan to be conducted at least once in a period 6 months.

Ensuring rehearsal/mock drill of the off-site emergency plan to be conducted at least once in a calendar year.

Inspections

One of the principal activities of the Inspectorate Dock Safety is the inspection of Ship, gears, and docks in Kolkata Port (Netaji Subhas Dock, Khidderpur Dock, Haldia Dock complex) to determine the extent of compliance of the Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations 1990. Details of the inspection carried out during 2001-2002 are given below:

Ship Inspection218
Dock Inspection168
Gear Inspection218
Mobile Crane018
Total570

In addition to the above, the inspectors during their routine dock inspections also inspected the health and welfare measures, canteens, first-aid centre and ambulance room. The inspectors have also held enquiries into causes of accidents and dangers occurrences resulting from collapse or failure of lifting appliances, loose gear, transport equipment etc. and for non-compliance with any of the provisions of the act or regulations. 48 investigations of accidents/dangerous occurrences were carried out during the 2001-2002.

Further, the inspectors carried out inspection visits following complaints received from dock workers. 15 complaints were attended by the officers during the year 2001-2002. They also visited the listing establishments and witnessed the tests carried out by the competent persons to determine the quality of work done by them in carrying out testing and examination of lifting appliances, loose gears and wire ropes as required under regulations. The inspector also rendered technical advice to the port authorities, Dock Labour Board and other users of the port on various aspects of Safety, Health and Welfare of Dock Workers, personal protective equipment and testing and examination of lifting appliances and loose gear etc.

Prosecutions

Based on the findings and recommendations of the enquires into the causes of accidents and dangerous occurrences held by the inspectors prosecutions were launched against the agencies responsible for non-compliance of the statutory provisions. Every care is exercised to pursue the policy obtaining the compliance with statutory provisions guidance and co-operation. Inspectorate Dock Safety, Kolkata launched 1 prosecution case during 2001-2002. Total pending cases at the end of the year were 3.

Training Activities

Inspectorate Dock Safety, Kolkata conducted 10 training programmes during 2001-2002 on various aspects of Safety in dock work for the benefit of 1639 participants of middle management personnel, technicians, supervisors, crane operators and which operators and other dock workers from various organizations such as Port Trusts, Dock Labour Board and Stevedoring companies etc. These training programmes were conducted in either English or the regional languages as follows:

Sl. No.TitleDurationNo. of ProgrammeNo. of ParticipantsLanguage
1.Safety in Container Handling1 Day118English/Hindi/ Bengali
2.Safety in Cargo Handling1 Day465English/Hindi/ Bengali
3.Safety in Derriks/Cranes1 Day17English/Hindi
4.Occupational Safety and Health1 Day327English/Hindi
5.Provision of Dock Workers (S. H. & W.) Regulations 19901 Day15English/Hindi

Safety Committees

Regulations 114 of the Dock Workers’ (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulation, 1990 provides for the consultation of Safety Committees at every port. Accordingly, Kolkata Port authorities have constituted two Safety Committees, one for Kolkata and another for Haldia Dock Complex. The Committees are headed by the Deputy Chairman. The Safety Committee for Kolkata comprised of 23 members and the same for Haldia comprised of 26 members from Kolkata Port, Stevedores Association, Steamer Agent Association, Worker representatives, Association of Ship Industries in Kolkata. The members met 12 occasion during the period 2001-2003 to discuss Occupational, Safety and Health matters of Kolkata Port. Further, the Committee organizes Safety Week at Kolkata as well as in Haldia.

NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION
Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd, Kolkatta

Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd, Kolkata with its headquarters at Mumbai is a non-profit safety promotional organization supported and funded by the nationalized general insurance companies. LPA, Kolkata office started its functioning since April, 1980. LPA uses the mass media to create an awareness on safety among different target segments such industry, schools, public place, homes etc.

LPA has developed safety training programmes on different modules to cater the need of the personnel at various levels in an organization. It also organizes workshops, conference and seminars on different aspects of safety and loss prevention. LPA also provides risk management, consultancy and advisory services for diverse types of industries. It also undertakes major fire loss investigation. Apart from this LPA also undertake inspection and certification of fire protection systems as per the guidelines of Tariff Advisory Committee. The association also provides a technical library to render services for member organizations. It also produces video films, safety journals, road safety digest safety posters etc. as a part of safety awareness programme.

During the 2000-2002, LPA organized the following Seminars in Kolkata.

Sl. No.Title of the SeminarDateNo. of Participants
1.Fire Safety in Buildings21-07-200078
2.Observation of Global Ozone Day16-09-200030
3.Ergonomics & Occupational Safety22-03-2001
to
23-03-2001
29
4.Transportation of dangerous Goods24-04-200154
5.Loss prevention in Coal Storage & Handling27-09-2001
to
28-09-2001
42
6.Occupational Health and Safety and ISO 9001:200022-02-200250
NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL

(West Bengal Chapter)

The West Bengal Chapter of the National Safety Council was formed to carry out various activities in the state of West Bengal to fulfill the following objectives of the council.

  • To devise effective methods of safety protection of health and propagate then among industrial workers and public at large.
  • To organize safety training programmes seminars, workshop and other safety promotional activities.
  • To conduct educational campaign to rouse public opinion and interest of employers and employees.
  • To enlist the co-operation of public and private organizations interested in the promotion of industrial safety.
  • To public books, journals, posters etc. for promoting the objectives of the council.

The membership of the council is open to industrial establishments, employers organizations, employees organizations, professional bodies, institutes etc.

National Safety Council (West Bengal Chapter) organized seminar, workshop, Safety Day Celebration and Sit & Draw Competition during the period 2000-2002 as follows:

YearTitleNo. of Participants attended
2000-2001Seminar on “Safety in Stectric Furuace in Steel Industry”22
Seminar on “Safety in Welding & Gas cutting operation”.32
Seminar on “Occupational Safety and Health”55
Safety in Construction Work32
Organized Sit & Draw Competition on Safety28
Organised National Safety Day Celebration470
2001-2002Organised seminar on “Safety in Plywood Industries”18
Organised seminar on “Safety at Workshop”48
Organised Sit and Draw Competition on Safety48
Organized National Safety Day Celebration400
EMPLOYERS ASSOCIATIONS
Confederation Of Indian Industry

The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) works to create and sustain an environment conducive to the growth of industry in India partnering industry and government alike through advisory and consultative processes.

CII is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry led and industry managed organisation playing a pro-active role in India’s development process. Founded over 100 years ago it is India’s premier business association with a direct membership of over 4250 companies from the private as well as public sectors.

As facilitator, CII catalyses change by working close with government on policy issues, enhancing efficiency, competitiveness and expanding business opportunity for industry through a range of specialized services and global linkages.

Confederation of Indian Industry (Eastern Region) is an organization of 32 members from 27 companies of the Eastern Region. Its office is set up at 6, Netaji Subhas Road, Kolkata – 700 001. CII (Eastern Region) has constituted a sub-committee on Industrial Safety and Pollution Control in the year 1986. The Executive Director of Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation is presently the Chairman of the sub-committee.

The Industrial safety sub-committee organizes seminars, workshops, safety training programmes for the benefit of the industries. The sub-committee organized the following workshop during 2001-2003.

Sl. No.Title of the SeminarDateNo. of Participants
1.Workshop on “Electrical SafetyMarch 200127
2.Workshop on “Safe Handling of Hazardous Waste’November 200235
3.Workshop on Safety as a Profit Making ToolNovember, 200243
4.Workshop on Safety in Construction IndustryMarch, 200320
Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association

Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association represents the philosophy and the values of the chemical industry. It endeavors to consistently and substantially contribute towards the industrial development of the country and to improving the quality of life.

One of the key tasks and objectives is to monitor, procure and disseminate information relating to topical developments of Safety, Health and Environment. Ti promotes the responsible care initiative under the structural approach to self regulation. International Council of Chemical Association has granted the status of ‘Corresponding Member’ to ICMA.

SHE expert committee organizes periodic meetings and deals with various issues concerning safety, health and environment. It publishes important publications relating to safety e.g. MSDS, reprints on Safety and Environment (Originally published by the Chemical Industries Association, UK) guidelines on Occupation and Health etc.

The recent publication from the Eastern Region is a short guide to organe Book (Regulations concerning the transport of dangerous goods).

SHE Activity of ICMA (ER) during April, 2002 to March, 2003 is given below:

  • A workshop on Occupational Safety and health : Employee Participation – Challenges in the New Millennium on April 19, 2002
  • A seminar on Responsible Care Movement at Haldia on July 25, 2002.
  • Observance of Global Ozone Day on September 16, 2002.
  • A two-day training programme on Prevention and Management of Chemical Accidents, February 14 & 15, 2003.
  • Conducted Safety Audits at two industries.
INSTITUTION

Regional Labour Institute, Kolkata a sub-ordinate office of the Directorate General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institute under the Ministry of Labour, Government of India was set up in 28-06-1962 to cater the need of the industry of the Eastern Region in the field of Occupational Safety and Health. The Institute conducts occupational Safety and Health Study, Survey, Audits. Specialized training programmes for the identified target groups such as Senior Managers, Safety Officers, Factory Medical Officers, Supervisors, Trade Union Officials and Safety Committee Member Industry.

In view of the need for inspection of specific industries and Major Accident Hazard Units, specialized courses are also conducted to impart technical knowledge and skills to the Inspectors of Factories.

To fulfill the need of qualified Safety Officers in industry, the Institutes conducts one year Post Diploma Course in Industrial Safety and three months Associate Fellow of Industrial Health Certificate Course. Further, the Institute conducts one month certificate course for the Supervisors engaged in Hazardous process.

Details of the activity of the Institute during 2002 are given in Annexure.

PROFESSIONAL PROGRAMMES (ADIS, AFIH, IH Techniques, etc. )
Sl.No.TitleNo.of StudentsNo.of Organisations
  PubPvt.PubPvt.
1.Diploma Course in Industrial Safety, Session 2001-2002215104
2.Course on Associate Fellow of Industrial Health2727
3.Diploma Course in Industrial Safety, Session 2002-20037646
4.One month Specialist Certificate Training Programme for Supervisors engaged in Hazardous Industries4232
SEMINARS/WORKSHOPS

(To be reported by concerned coordinator along with an appropriate brief including information such as objectives, level of delegates, constitution of delegates, etc)

Sl. NoTitleVenueDate FromDate ToLanguageDetails of Participants
      No. of ParticipantNo. of Organizations
      PubPvt.PubPvt.
1.Seminar on Emergency Planning and Preparedness in Hazardous Industries (Institute Day)RLI, Kolkata28-06-02-English420415
2.Workshop on Monitoring of work Environment- Do -19-08-0223-08-02English1414

*Level code: 1-Mgt/Exe, 2-Sup, 3-TU, 4-Workers, 5-Joint, 6-ForeignTrainee, 7-Medical, 8-Para-medical, 9-Factory Inspectors, 10-DS Inspectors., 11-Other Enforcement Officers, 12-Educational Institutes.

LONGER DURATION TRAINING PROGRAMMES
Sl.No.TitleVenueDate FromDate ToLanguageDetails of Participants
No. of ParticipantNo. of Organisations
PubPvt.PubPvt.
1.Training Programme on “Industrial Safety for State Labour Institute, KolkattaR.L.I., Kolkata07-01-0211-01-02English31-1-
2.Training Programme on “Techniques of Chemical Safety Management”R.L.I., Kolkata28-01-0201-02-02English2312
3.Training Programme on “Chemical Safety for Worker Members of Safety Committee”R.L.I., Kolkata19-03-0221-03-02Hindi/ English72739
4.Training Programme on “ Prevention & Control of Fire in Industry for Worker Members of Safety Committee”R.L.I., Kolkata17-04-0219-04-02Hindi/English10753
5.Training Programme on “ Techniques of Hazards, Identification & Assessment for Executives from Industries ”R.L.I., Kolkata25-06-0227-06-02English3333
6.Training Programme on “ Safety Engineering & Management ”R.L.I., Kolkata01-07-0205-07-02English51553
7.Training Programme on “ Safety Audit ”R.L.I., Kolkata24-09-0227-09-02English31727
8.Training Programme on “ Safety and Health for Workers ”R.L.I., Kolkata11-11-0215-11-02Hindi/English/ Bengali51023
9.Refresher Course on “ Occupational Health for Plant Medical Officers ”R.L.I., Kolkata25-11-0229-11-02English8363
10.Training Programme on “ Appreciation Course on Industrial Hygiene ”R.L.I., Kolkata09-12-0213-12-02English2916
11.Training Programme on “ Chemical Safety for Inspector of Factories ”R.L.I., Kolkata16-12-0220-12-02English6-4-

*Level code: 1-Mgt/Exe, 2-Sup, 3-TU, 4-Workers, 5-Joint, 6-ForeignTrainee, 7-Medical, 8-Para-medical, 9-Factory Inspectors, 10-DS Inspectors., 11-Other Enforcement Officers, 12-Educational Institutes.

1-2 DAYS DURATION TRAINING PROGRAMMES
Sl.No.TitleVenueDate FromDate ToLanguageDetails of Participants
No. of ParticipantNo. of Organisations
PubPvt.PubPvt
1.Training Prorgramme on Product Safety ManagementRLI, Kolkata26-03-0227-03-02English4533
2.Training Prorgramme on Industrial Safety for
Asian Workers Development Industries. Rourkela, Orissa
RLI, Kolkata23-04-0224-04-02English-17-1
3.Specialist Training Prorgramme on Occupational Safety & Health for Supervisors of Dock WorkRLI, Kolkata16-07-0217-07-02English-20-5
4.Workers Development Prorgramme on Occupational Health , First Aid & P.P.E.RLI, Kolkata24-07-0217-07-02Hindi/Bengali4-2-
5.Training Prorgramme on Occupational Health & Hygiene and its Control (for Numaligarh Refinery Ltd. Guwahati, Assam)RLI, Kolkata18-11-0219-11-02English5-1-

*Level code: 1-Mgt/Exe, 2-Sup, 3-TU, 4-Workers, 5-Joint, 6-ForeignTrainee, 7-Medical, 8-Para-medical, 9-Factory Inspectors, 10-DS Inspectors., 11-Other Enforcement Officers, 12-Educational Institutes.

IN-PLANT TRAINING PROGRAMMES
Sl.No.TitleVenueDate FromDate ToLanguageDetails of Participants
No. of ParticipantNo. of Organisations
PubPvtPubPvt
1.Inplant Training Programme on Knowledge Attitude Participation for employees Hazards Identification Techniques like Dow Mond Indices for ManagementKesoram Rayons, Nayasarai, Hooghly, W.B.14-11-02-English-60-1

*Level code: 1-Mgt/Exe, 2-Sup, 3-TU, 4-Workers, 5-Joint, 6-ForeignTrainee, 7-Medical, 8-Para-medical, 9-Factory Inspectors, 10-DS Inspectors., 11-Other Enforcement Officers, 12-Educational Institutes.TALKS (Delivered in programmes conducted by other organizations. Talks delivered by any officer in the programme conducted by any division/office under DGFASLI will not be included. However, any talks given by our officer in the seminars, even if conducted by any division of DGFASLI, will be included. )

Sl.NoTitleVenueDate FromDate ToLang-uageDetails of Participants
No. of ParticipantNo. of Organisations
PubPvtPubPvt
1.Philosophy of Accident Prevention in Power PlantHotel Peerless Inn, Kolkata (Trg. Progm. on Safety Health Environment Conducted by NTPC)07-02-02-English45-1-
2.Hazard Identification Safety Audit- Do -08-02-02-English45-1-
3.Electrical Safety and PTW System- Do -08-02-02-English45-1-
4.Accident Investigation Techniques- Do -08-02-02-English45-1-
5.Environmental Monitoring Occupational Health- Do -08-02-02-English45-1-
6.Industrial Safety Accident PreventionMetal Steel Factory, Ishapore, 24-Pgs.(N)26-02-02-English2311-
7.Industrial Safety and HealthInstitute of Public Health

 

Engineers, India, Salt Lake, Kolkatta
12-03-02-English-40-1 
8.Industrial Safety and Health- Do -14-03-02-English-40-1 
9.Industrial PollutantKalyani University, Kalyani14-04-02-English--10-1 
10.Industrial Pollutant- Do -19-04-02-English--10-1 
11.Factories ActIOCL, Kolkata23-09-02-English23-1- 
12.Personal Protective Equipment- Do -24-09-02-English23-1- 
13.SMPV Rule and Petroleum Act Rule- Do -24-09-02-English23-1- 

*Level code: 1-Mgt/Exe, 2-Sup, 3-TU, 4-Workers, 5-Joint, 6-ForeignTrainee, 7-Medical, 8-Para-medical, 9-Factory Inspectors, 10-DS Inspectors., 11-Other Enforcement Officers, 12-Educational Institutes.

APPRECIATION AND PROMOTIONAL PROGRAMMES
Sl. NoTopicNo. of ProgrammesNo. of ParticipantsNo. of Organisations
   PubPvtPubPvt
1January 2002

a) Appreciation programme (Half day duration)

b) Visit to industrial safety, health and welfare center

c) Mobile safety exhibition displays outside the institute

1

3

6

28

80

-

-

5

5000

1

12

-

-

4

6

2

February, 2002

a) Appreciation programme (Half day duration)

b) Visit to industrial safety, health and welfare center

c) Mobile safety exhibition displays outside the institute

-

2

3

-

23

-

-

8

830

-

11

-

-

6

2

3

March, 2002

a) Appreciation programme (Half day duration)

b) Visit to industrial safety, health and welfare center

c) Mobile safety exhibition displays outside the institute

-

2

2

-

28

-

-

32

1100

-

13

-

-

13

1

4

April, 2002

a) Appreciation programme (Half day duration)

b) Visit to industrial safety, health and welfare center

c) Mobile safety exhibition displays outside the institute

2

5

-

-

14

-

24

37

-

-

8

-

2

9

-

5

May, 2002

a) Appreciation Programme (Half Day duration)

b) Visit to Industrial Safety, Health & Welfare Centers

c) Mobile Safety Exhibition displays outside the Institute

-

1

-

-

2

-

-

7

-

-

2

-

-

7

-

6

June, 2002

a) Appreciation Programme (Half Day duration)

b) Visit to Industrial Safety, Health & Welfare Centers

c) Mobile Safety Exhibition displays outside the Institute

1

3

-

-

2

-

3

14

-

-

2

-

1

9

-

7

July, 2002

a) Appreciation Programme (Half Day duration)

b) Visit to Industrial Safety, Health & Welfare Centers

c) Mobile Safety Exhibition displays outside the Institute

-

5

-

-

14

-

-

65

-

-

14

-

-

33

-

8

August, 2002

a) Appreciation Programme (Half Day duration)

b) Visit to Industrial Safety, Health & Welfare Centers

c) Mobile Safety Exhibition displays outside the Institute

-

3

-

-

18

-

-

12

-

-

12

-

-

12

-

9

September, 2002

a) Appreciation Programme (Half Day duration)

b) - DO -

c) Visit to Industrial Safety, Health & Welfare Centers

d) Mobile Safety Exhibition displays outside the Institute

1

1

1

-

1

1

7

-

4

4

6

-

1

1

4

-

4

4

6

-

10

October, 2002

a) Appreciation Programme (Half Day duration)

b) - DO –

c) Visit to Industrial Safety, Health & Welfare Centers

d) Mobile Safety Exhibition displays outside the Institute

1

1

2

-

13

13

16

-

-

-

17

-

  

11

November, 2002

a) Appreciation Programme (Half Day duration)

b) - DO –

c) – DO –

d) Visit to Industrial Safety, Health & Welfare Centers

e) Mobile Safety Exhibition displays outside the Institute

2

2

3

3

-

9

9

14

14

-

2

12

12

12

-

  

12

December, 2002

a) Appreciation Programme (Half Day duration)

b) - DO –

c) – DO –

d) Visit to Industrial Safety, Health & Welfare Centers

e) Mobile Safety Exhibition displays outside the Institute

3

2

2

4

-

16

14

8

37

-

12

3

9

17

-

  

PAPER PRESENTED

Sl.No.Topics/areaEvent/VenueDate
1.Medical Aspects of Major Hazard Control – Medical Emergency response PlanningSeminar on Emergency Planning and Preparedness in Hazardous Industries28-06=2002
2.Training Education for Emergency Planning and Preparedness- Do -28-06-2002
3.Guidelines for the Preparation of Emergency Plans- Do -28-06-2002
PAPER PUBLISHED
Sl.No.Topics/areaPeriodicalDate
1.Setting up your own Audit programmeINDOSHNEWSMay, 2002

Details of the Papers published in INDOSHNEWS to be given by MIS div only

CONSULTANCY STUDIES/SURVEYS/PROJECTS/SAFETY AUDIT
Report completed submitted during January, 2002 to December, 2002
  • Occupational Health Safety Audit at M/S Kolaghat Thermal Power Station, Kolaghat, Midnapore, West Bengal.
  • Illumination Audit at M/S Naga Arjuna Fertilizer Chemicals Ltd., Kankinada, A.P.
  • Safety Audit at M/S Nagaon Paper Mills (Hindustan Paper Corpn. Ltd.) Kagagnagar, Assam
  • Safety Audit at M/S Emami Paper Mills Limited , Unit Balasor, Balgopalpir, Orissa
  • Occupational Safety Health Survey at M/S Heavy Engineering Corpn. Ltd. Ranchi, Jharkhand
  • Work Environment Occupational Health Study at M/S Alcoa ACC Industries Chemicals Ltd., Falta, 24-Pgs.(S), West Bengal.
  • Safety Audit at M/S Koradi Thermal Power Station, Nagpur, Maharastra (in Collaboration with CLI, Mumbai)
CONSULTANCY STUDIES/SURVEYS/PROJECTS/SAFETY AUDIT
Report undertaken but not yet completed during
January, 2002 to December, 2002
  • Occupational Safety Health Survey at M/S Assam Gas Based Combined Cycle Power Projects, Dibrugar, Assam
  • Occupational Safety Health Survey at M/S Kopile Hydro Electric Power Projects, Umrongso, Assam
  • Occupational Safety Health Survey at M/S Bharat Wagon Engineering Co. Ltd., Mokammah Works, Patna Bihar
  • Safety Audit at M/S Cacher Paper Mills (Hindustan Paper Corpn. Ltd.) Cacher, Assam

Technical Advice Division : Regional Labour Institute, Kolkata (January, 2002 to December, 2002)

No. of units who sought advice: 11

State Labour Institute

The State Labour Institute located at Maniktola Main Road, Kankurgachi – 700 054 has been engaged in making qualified professionals in the Labour Welfare activities since 1967. It has been originally known as ‘Training Institute-Cum-Central Library’ but thereafter since 1990 it is known in the present name of ‘State Labour Institute’. In the year 1994, the State Labour Institute opened a branch at Siliguri. The Institute apart from the above aims at providing quality training in the key areas of Industrial Jurisprudence and Social Security placing due focus on Labour issues concerning labour and employment for both organized and unorganized sectors.

The State Labour Institute has a very rich library having a large stock of books on Labour Laws, Management and other Social Sciences including Journals on Labour matters, National/International Reports and ILO publications. The Computer terminals have also been upgraded with internet connectivity.

Central Board for Workers Education

Central Board for Workers Education was constituted on the 16-09-1957. It has been engaged in the task of imparting education to the workers of different sectors of economy. The domain of workers education is so vast that it has a significant role to play in the prosperity of nation. To ensure better adaptability with the technology and continuous improvement in productivity and efficiency safety education has been imbibed in their curriculum. The curriculum of the Board has also been modified according to the needs of industry and unorganized sector as well to make. It more pragmatic with the changes of time. The central Board of Workers Education consistent with its objective is trying to help workforce to make them participative in overcoming their problem through proper education.

Controller of Explosives Department

The Department of Explosives came into existence with the appointment of Chief Inspector of Explosives in India on 5/9/1898 after promulgation of Indian Explosives Act on 26.2.1884. This Act was called “The Indian Explosives Act, 1884 (Act No IV of 1884). Being the Nodal agency to look after safety at hazardous premises, mainly of explosives and petroleum, the Department always had a unique position in the industry and country for more than 103 years. The Department has today meritorious recount of unfailing endeavour towards enforcement of safety to safe guard and protect life as well as property. Apart from the normal work of enforcement of Acts and Rules, the Department has rendered voluntary services in examination and disposal of explosives, improvised explosives devices in the past.

During the initial stages, the activities of the Department of Explosives were confined to mostly inspection of few existing explosives storage magazines and investigation of accidents in such premises.

The Petroleum Act{VIII of 1899}came into force on 17.02.1899 and Carbide of Calcium Rules was brought under this Act by a notification dated 11.08.1899.

During the course of time there were several amendments in the Explosive Act and Rules. The earlier Explosives rules 1918 were replaced by Explosives Rules 1940 and Explosives Rules, 1940 were replaced by the existing Explosive Rules 1983. The Inflammable substance Act came into force during 1952. Gas Cylinders Rules were framed in 1940.

The new set of rules known as Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels (Unfired) Rules, 1981 was brought in force to cover the storage and handling of compressed gases in unfixed pressure vessels and the Gas Cylinder Rules, 1940 were replaced by new comprehensive Gas Cylinders Rules, 1981.

Off late, the Static and Mobile pressure vessels {Unfired} Rules 1981 were

amended vide G.S.R. 141[E]dated 14.02.2000 incorporating provisions for installation of Auto L.P.G. Dispensing Station (Auto LPG as Automotive Fuel).

With an overall objective of ensuring safety and security of public and property from fire and explosion, the Department of Explosives as a statutory authority is entrusted with the administration of Explosives Act, 1884, Petroleum Act, 1934; Inflammable Substances Act, 1952 and the following Rules framed under these Acts;

EXPLOSIVES ACT 1884:
  • Explosives Rules, 1983.
  • Gas Cylinders Rules, 1981.
  • Static Mobile Pressure Vessels (Unfired) Rules, 1981.
  • Notification No. GSR 625(E) dated 07.08.1983 regarding Acetylene.
PETROLEUM ACTS 1934:
  • Petroleum Rules, 1976.
  • Calcium Carbide Rules, 1987.

With the total expertise in technical and safety aspects related to Explosives, Petroleum, Carbide Calcium, Gas Cylinders, Pressure Vessels and other hazardous substances, the Department acts as a Advisory body not only to the industry but also to the Government and Semi-Government bodies like Ports, Railways, Surface Transport, Environment and Pollution Control and Defence establishments. The Department plays important role in formulation of Port by-laws, Indian Red Tariff and regulations pertaining to transportation of hazardous goods by rail, road, sea and air.

ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT IN BRIEF
  • Scrutiny and approval of site, layout and construction plans for Explosives manufacturing factories.
    Explosives storage premises.
    Manufacture of Explosives at site in Bulk Mixing and Delivery [BMD]
    Vehicles {BMD]
    Public display of fireworks
    Cylinder filling and testing stations
    Storage sheds for filled gas cylinders.
    Storage installations for compressed gases in pressure vessels.
    Petroleum Refineries and storage installations, tank lorries, cross country pipelines and service stations.
    Calcium carbide storage premises.
  • Scrutiny, approval of design and construction of Explosives vans, vehicles for transport of compressed gases in pressure vessels and petroleum tank lorries.
  • Licensing of the premises/units/vehicles referred to under {A} and {B} above.
  • Scrutiny and approval of layout etc. of petroleum refineries, petro-chemicals units calcium carbide factories and Acetylene Gas generating plants.
  • Scrutiny and approval of designs of unfired pressure vessels and their fittings.
  • Type approval of gas cylinders and valves fitted thereto, manufactured in India and imported from outside before authorizing their use in country.
  • Scrutiny and approval of flameproof, intrinsically safe and special electrical equipments suitable for use in hazardous areas.
  • Approval of factories fabricating pressure vessels and its fittings, gas cylinders valves and LPG regulators.
  • Approval of testing stations, for periodic examination and testing of cylinders.
  • Recognition of competent persons and inspectors under various rules.
  • Regular inspection of the units mentioned above.
  • Destruction of deteriorated and unclaimed/seized explosives.
  • Examination of petroleum tanks in sea going vessels for issuing gas free certificates before allowing hot work and entry of man in such tanks and entry of such vessels in docks.
  • Technical investigation of accidents coming under the purview of the Acts10 and Rules administered by the department.
  • Grant of licence to import, export and transport explosives.
  • Authorisation of new explosives after adequate tests and trials.
  • Grant of permission for filling/use of gas cylinders imported from abroad and manufactured in India.
  • Conducting examination of short-firers for issuance of permits.
  • Grant of licence for import of cylinders.
  • Scrutiny of returns under various rules.

Amendment of rules and grant of exemption relaxation wherever necessary in public interest

Training of police personnels, Security and other officers in detection/safe handling etc. of explosives and other dangerous substances.

Advising port, Airport and Railways authorities on;

  • Classification of hazardous substances;
  • Packing and determination of conditions for storage/transport of dangerous substances;
  • Sitting and layout of facilities for the loading/unloading and transit storage of explosives, flammable and other dangerous substances.

Examination/testing of explosives/hazardous substances for classification of hazard.

Advising the Central and State Governments, the Industry and various organizations on matters relating to the handling of explosives, flammable and other dangerous substances, and the requirements of the Acts and Rules referred to above.

Participation as Chairman or member in various committees appointed by the Ministry of Defence, Bureau of Indian Standards and other Ministries and Departments.

Participation in symposiums, seminars, workshops organized by various organizations relating to safety in handling of hazardous chemicals, petroleum products, explosives and compressed gases.

These multifaceted work through versatile experience, do not belong to one single Ministry but are connected to more than one Ministry and so this Department is required to maintain constant interaction with various Ministries, Government and Semi-Government Departments, Autonomous Bodies and other organizations.

DEPARTMENT OF FIRE SERVICES

Fire Service in West Bengal is the oldest Fire Service in the country. West Bengal Fire Service in its present form came into being in 1950 consequent upon amalgamation of Calcutta Fire Brigade and Bengal Fire Service. Fire Service Act was enacted in 1950 and amended in 1996 with inclusion of fire prevention and Fire Safety Rules.95 fire stations are in operation. About 7500 Fire Force with over 350 fire appliances including most sophisticated and state-of-the-art appliances are pressed in service to serve the people of the state.

Departmental Structure

Directorates :

Fire Service Directorate. This Directorate consists of the following wings.

  • Operational wing
  • Communication Wing
  • Training Wing
  • Maintenance Wing
  • Administrative Wing

Corporation: Nil

Others : Nil

Public Services
  • Extinguishing fires and performing rescue jobs to save lives and properties of public from fire and other calamities.
  • Recommendation in favour of fire and life safety measures in different types of high risk buildings/commercial establishments for achieving adequate fire precautions.
  • Increasing public awareness in terms of fire safety through public education, training, demonstration and other programmes.
  • Rendering services like dewatering jobs, in water logged areas, deployment of fire service on stand-by duty on different occasions like big exhibitions, fairs, VIP visits, etc.
Departmental Policies

Modernising the department through computerization of the control rooms of all the divisions including Fire Service Directorate with GIS incorporated therein for extending prompt and efficient service to fire affected people.

Introduction of Certificate Course in Professional Fire Fighting” in the Institute of Fire Service to make job opportunities available to outside educated young people in the field of Fire Fighting and Fire Prevention.

Upgradation of Service by induction of the followings:

  • Introducing sophisticated and modern equipments and tool like hydraulic platform of greater height, emergency tenders and better equipped Fire Tenders etc.
  • Overcoming the problem of water scarcity in the congested city areas by introducing water bousers of higher capacity.
  • Rendering prompt and efficient service to people by equipping the fleet with gears like modern and state of the art search cameras for rescue operations, chemical suits for Fire Personnel, gas detectors etc.

Extending service through out the entire State by opening more fire stations in remote areas to provide immediate help to the people whenever required.

ORGANISATIONAL CHART OF FIRE SERVICE DIRECTORATE
DIRECTOR GENERAL ADDITIONAL DIRECTOR GENERAL DIRECTOR
Operational WingCommunication WingTraining WingMaintenance WingAdministrative Wing
1. Dy. Director (HQ)-

 

ABCDD2 Divisions
2. Dy. Director-

 

EFGHH2 Divisions
1. Directorate
Control Room

 

2. Divisional
Control Rooms
Institute of Fire Services1. Central Divisional

 

Workshop
2. Hose Workshop
1.Accounts Officer
2. PA (Admn) to Director General
3. Division- al Wing
4. Administrative Officer

 

5. Fire Prevention Wing

 

6. License Section
 1. Chief Mobilizing

 

Officer

 

2. Mobilizing
Officer

 

3.Assistant
Mobilizing
Officer
1. Deputy Director
2. Chief Instructor
3. Fire Training

 

Officer
4. Instructor
1. Maintenance Supdt
2. Machine Sec
3. Electric Sec.
4. Filter Sec
5. Painter Sec

 

6. Cobbler Sec

 

7. Machine Shop,
Tyre Sec

 

8. Carpentry Sec
9. Welder Sec

 

 

HoseWorkshop

 

1. Hose Officer

 

2. Hose Repairing
Sec

 

3. Hose Binding Sec
4. Hose Testing Sec
1. Accounts Sec
2. Bill Sec
3. Cash Sec
4. Office of the Divisional

 

Officer
5. Establishment Section
6. Purchase Section
7. General Section
Other Issues

Creating awareness among public regarding imperative requirements and obligations relating to Fire Safety measures.

  • Fire service permission for erecting of temporary structure is mandatory.
  • Fire service license for storing, processing and handling petrol, petroleum products and inflammable articles, chemicals and hazardous materials is mandatory as per W.B.F.S Act, 1950 as amended in 1996.
  • Fire Service NOC for construction of high-rise building is mandatory.
  • Fire Service N.O.C is necessary for storing/processing/handling of inflammable, combustible and hazardous materials in all the area where Fire Service Act is not in force.
  • Elementary fire fighting training to the candidates sponsored by different companies, factories, offices and other establishments are conducted at the institute of Fire Service.
  • In favour of Fire Safety awareness services are extended towards practices of fire evacuation drill and other fire prevention activities.
List

Institute of Fire Services, Behala, Kolkata, West Bengal.

DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY

The Department of Science Technology was established in the year 1988 with the basic objective of Promoting scientific research with an eye to the economic upliftment of masses. Apart from this, transfer of technology from lab to land, development of appropriate technology for rural people particularly by way of introducing bio-technology remote sensing and non-conventional energy systems are also taken up as core area of operation of the deptt. Certain persuasive programme e.g. science popularization, disability management, school level survey, environmental awareness are executed by the department. Presently the department housed at Bikash Bhavan,4th floor, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700 091.Departmental StructureDirectorates: Nil
Corporation Nil
Others: **

West Bengal State Council of Science Technology, Bikash Bhavan, Salt Lake, Kolkata-91

Departmental Structure

Directorates: Nil

Corporation :Nil

Others : **

West Bengal State Council of Science & Technology, Bikash Bhavan, Salt Lake, Kolkata-91

Departmental Policies

West Bengal Science & Technology Policy.

West Bengal Bio-Technology policy

Training Facilities

No training is imparted by the Department.

Resources available and needed

RESOURCES AVAILABLE AND NEEDED FOR MANAGEMENT OF OSH

During the study, the team visited departments and organisations dealing with occupational safety and health in the manufacturing sector with a view to establish inventory of occupational safety and health information in the state of West Bengal. The activities of the departments, resources available at their disposal were examined to determine the problems faced by the organisations in the matters of occupational safety and health and further resources needed in order to effectively manage occupational safety and health at the state level.

The scope of the study was limited to cover the organisations connected with safety and health at the state level. Occupational safety and health management at the unit level in the factories covered under the Factories Act was limited only to the information available in the annual returns and accident forms. Detailed analysis in the areas related to functioning of Safety Committees, Site appraisal Committee, details of safety reports, crèches, etc. as per the provisions of the Factories Act in each of the units was not undertaken as it was outside the defined scope of this study. In order to identify these problems, the more elaborate in-depth study is required to be taken up to get a comprehensive information on management of occupational safety and health at unit level.

The findings and recommendations as brought out by the study are summarized below

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. In the State, there are 10,830 factories registered under Section 2(m) of the Factories Act. In addition 111 factories are notified under Section 85, which are essentially employing less than 10/20 workers. Nearly 70% of the factories have submitted annual returns, half yearly returns etc. as per section 110 of Factories Act and West Bengal Factories Rules. As the Annual Returns contains basic information such as employment, man hours employed, accidents, man-hours lost due to accidents, provision of welfare facilities, appointment of welfare officers and safety officers, occupational health facilities, etc. which are essential for compilation of state level data on occupational safety and health it is desirable that submission of Annual Returns should be insisted upon from all the factories.

It is recommended that efforts should be made to ensure compliance with the requirement of submission of annual returns in prescribed format by registered factories. It is also recommended that the occupier/manager of the factories should be made to submit complete details in the annual returns. Noncompliance with such provisions can be brought to the notice of the occupier by issuing notice by the inspecting officials.

57 Nos. of fatal accidents occurred during the year 2000. Of them 19 accidents occurred due to falling from height Therefore, during the inspection of such factories care should be taken by the Factory Inspector to ensure that the workers are provided with suitable

Almost nearly 61.60% of the total accidents (34,710) in the state occurred in Jute industry. Nearly 41% of these accidents were caused by jute machinery (Spinning machines, winding machines, looms and others). Use of old machineries, lack of sophistication, improper maintenance, in adequate guarding of moving parts, absence of safe operating procedure, low level of awareness, lack of education and training, production target, poor machine maintenance, employment of non-qualified personnel for the works are the root cause of such high percentage of accidents.

Occupiers should be asked to replace old machines which itself create hazards. All moving machineries should be adequately fenced and workers should be trained in safe operating procedure. Further, the occupiers may be directed to introduce some motivational scheme to promoting safety at work place. Specific hazards while working in the factories could be identified and the precautions to be taken could be disseminated through various modes such as training programmes, leaflets, booklets, lectures, etc.

Material handling; tools, implements, appliances used on the shop floor; machines and indoors, and unsafe work practices are the major agencies causing accidents.

It is therefore suggested that the occupiers/ managers of the factories should be advised on:

  • design, maintenance and proper use of material handling equipment
  • safe use of tools, appliances and equipment
  • adequate guarding of machinery, and
  • proper house keeping

The analysis of accidents with respect to the location of injuries reveal that head, hands and foot are the body parts which are frequently injured in accidents. This indicates that proper protection of these body parts is not ensured at workplace. Therefore the occupiers should be advised to give appropriate personal protective equipment to their workers and make sure that they are used by workers while working in factories.

Statistics on incidence rate in the state of West Bengal reveals that jute mills is the highest followed by cotton industry. On in depth study of various causes and agencies responsible for occurrence of accidents, it is revealed that the trend of accidents in jute mill is higher than those in other industries. It is also revealed from the analysis of accidents that fall from height

It is recommended to advise occupier to provide safe work place, sound construction of ladder, stairs and platform, above all to introduce safety permit system for working at height

Silicosis is the most prevalent occupational diseases detected among the workers employed in factories. Out of 14 cases reported to the ESIC Hospitals, 10 are Silicosis cases. Silicosis is caused due to prolonged exposure of worker to the silica dust. Therefore, workers employed for grinding operation and the process involving sand and free silica should be exposed to periodic medical examination.

As regards to preparation of safety policy, 207 factories were required to prepare safety policy. Of them 196 factories prepared safety policy. And 117 factories were required to constitute safety committees. Of them 87 factories constituted safety committee, the level of compliance with these provisions is satisfactory. It is recommended that on the basis of the provisions of the Factories Act and the criteria laid down in Factories Rules, all units requiring preparation of safety policy and constitution of safety committee should be clearly identified. Thereafter, the compliance with these provisions should be improved through strict enforcement and inspection.

9. 256 factories were required to appoint qualified safety officer, of hem 207 factories appointed qualified safety officer. Therefore, there is a satisfactory level of compliance as far as the appointment of safety officer in factories is concerned. However, the reports of accidents in Form 24, furnishing details of the accidents, causes of accidents and agencies involved therein, non use of personal protective equipment etc. indicate that the safety officers have not been effective in discharging their duties. It is therefore suggested that safety officers in all the factories should be trained and retrained through refresher courses on:

  • Technique of safety audit
  • Establishment of safety management system
  • Costing of accidents, and
  • Leadership for safety and health

This may lead to better status of safety and health management in factories. It is also recommended that there should be better interaction between Factory Inspectors and Safety Officers through discussions on the ways and means for improving the safety, health and working conditions in their factories.

The provisions under the Factories Act and Rules provides for medical examination of workers employed in certain categories of factories by certifying surgeon. It is practically impossible to cover these factories only by a Medical inspector of factories employed in the Directorate of Factories and Boilers.

Therefore, it is suggested that on the lines of what is being done in other states such as Maharashtra, private Medical Practitioner could be appointed as certifying surgeon for particular areas, in order to conduct medical examination of workers and issue certificate of fitness as required under the Factories Act and the Rules.

Statistics regarding number of visits to factories by the Inspectors during 2000 reveals that 3692 factories notified under section 2(m) and 238 factories notified under section 85 and 217 non-amenable factories were inspected by Inspector of Factories. Total no. of registered factories in West Bengal during 2000 was 11,949. Therefore, nearly 28.81% factories are only inspected by the officers of the Directorate of Factories. Therefore, need is felt to increase the no. of inspection visits by the inspectors. It is recommended that the Directorate of Factories may be strengthened by filling up the vacant posts.

Almost all the factories in the state are employing labour on contract. The contract worker is to be provided adequate safety and health in the factory premises. It is often observed that the occupier/manager of the factory tend to ignore this responsibility. The Contract Labour Act is enforced by the office of the Labour Commissioner in the State. It is also seen that many contract workers try to ignore the safety aspects/instructions issued to them by the managements. In order to ensure that adequate attention given to safety, health and welfare by workers & by the occupiers, a programme for enforcement of safety and health provisions for the benefit of contract labour employed in the factory can be jointly undertaken by Directorate of Factories & Boilers and Office of the Labour Commissioner and trade unions. This programme can also include awareness improvement and training and education in the area of safety and health.

Department of Environment among other things is responsible for clearing industrial projects from environmental angle. There is a provision for Site Appraisal Committee under the under Section 41-A of the Factories Act. These two committees are having similar objectives i.e., clearing the location of industry from safety, health and environment angle. It is therefore suggested that these two committees should work in close coordination with each other in order to avoid duplication of efforts to facilitate faster clearance of industrial projects and to reduce the inconvenience to the industries and promote economic growth. These committees shall also invite experts from organizations like RLI etc.

There are thousands of small-scale industrial units in the state. These units are registered with Department of Industries. The licensing, development, training, marketing and financial aspects in respect of these units are looked after by different govt., semi govt. & non-govt. agencies.. However, the safety, health and welfare of workers are not adequately covered by them. For this purpose, the training module developed by DGFASLI in collaboration with ILO could be used which is aimed not only to enhance productivity but also takes care of safety and health aspects like handling of hazardous chemicals, productive machine safety, material handling & storage lighting, ventilation. Layout, welfare measures etc. This module ensure the participation of both owners/managers and workers. Further, Institutions like IIT, lead banks, SFC, SIDBI ,SISI etc. are organisation/conducting short term training programme in which the DGFASLI-ILO module shall be included to practice safety & health at root level. Simultaneously, these industries who show/demonstrate safety & health conscious may be awarded (by Ministry of Labour through DGFASLI) non-financial rewards. This will go a long way in retaining safety and health culture in SSI on national level. An expert committee with DGFASLI as convenor/chairman may be constituted by the appropriate authority.

The Health Services in the State are provided through District general hospitals and taluk hospitals. These hospitals are mainly concentrating on diagnosis, prevention, control and treatment of the common diseases such as leprosy, tuberculosis, etc. In addition to this ,the basic health care support is also given through:-

  • Medical college hospitals (seven Nos.)
  • Primary Health Centers
  • Private hospitals
  • Private Practioners
  • Voluntary health organisation
  • C.G.H.S. dispensary etc.

None of the agencies has specialist knowledge on O. H. and the syllabus of MBBS course do not have basic module on O. H. Therefore, all doctors (both in govt. & Pvt.) MBBS students, nursing course students, nursing staff employed in industries are to be educated in a systematic and standard manner to install a root level mechanism to improve health aspects and to improve skill in early detection or diagnosis of occupational diseases and in recommending suitable This will surely lead into improving sick free mandays and thereby directly contributing to more industrial production. Thereby the status of occupational health of the workers employed in factories will have a positive jump. Preparation of uniforms syllabus, training module may be entrusted to DGFASLI/RLI, Kolkata.

The programme on control of major hazard could be strengthened further. This programme should include effective formulation and use of mutual aid scheme and establishments of emergency response centers in various industrial pockets of the states. These centers can also take care of transport accidents involving chemicals.

The non-governmental organizations, various employers association in the state should also take up the activities in the field of safety and health on a large scale to ensure basic training course on safety and health for the following target groups through DGFASLI (RLI/CLI) & TTTI, State Labour Department (Who look after vocational training) for the teaching members of polytechnics and ITI in the state. This will help the would be technical persons to be safety cultured leading to reduction of loss in the industrial economy.

In order to promote safety, health and welfare of workers employed in factories special training courses are organised for increasing the awareness level of union leaders in the field OSH through DGFASLI, RLI/CLI. The unit level union leaders should be able to function as faculty since safety measures/techniques by union leaders will be readily accepted by workers. Therefore, the existing 3 days training programme module by RLI/CLI, shall be revised and a updated model for 3-4 weeks with hands on training sessions in industries required to be arranged. This is another method of involving the workers/unions in the management of OHS systems this can be readily taken up by the CLI/RLI who have ready expertise at present.

Central Board for Workers Education in collaboration with DGFASLI, Directorate of Factories & Boilers shall review programmes on safety and health for the workers.

For collecting the statistics the information was not being compiled and sent to the Headquarters in time due to many reasons like shortage of time manpower etc. As a result the collected information could not be processed and the trends regarding various parameters on occupational safety and health could not be established. It is therefore suggested that all field level offices should be equipped with suitable Close co-ordination between various statutory, non-statutory, other organisation who are connected with OSH requires to be monitored through Ministry of Labour preferably through DGFASLI who has network of field offices as well as expertise. This arrangement will also improve the communication among the offices leading to effective implementation of the orders issued under the provisions of the Factories Act and various other acts.

All the occupiers may be directed to send a copy of these statistics to all RLI (where computer and communication facilities are available) for quick compilation and analysis to feed the Ministry of Labour to enable them to take decisions on national and international levels.